Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Forfeiture (Nissaggiya) 30

Bu-NP.30.1.1 BD.2.160 … at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery.[1] Now at that time at Sāvatthī robes and food were prepared for[2] the Order by a certain guild,[3] saying: “Having offered them food,[4] we will present them with robe-material.” Then the group of six monks approached that guild, and having approached they said to that guild: “Sirs, give these robes to us.”

“Honoured sirs, we will not give; alms-food with robes are got ready by us every year for the Order.”

“Sirs, many are the Order’s benefactors, many are the Order’s devotees.[5] We are here, depending on you, looking to you, but if you will not give to us, then who is there[6] who will give to us? Sirs, give these robes to us.”

Then that guild, being pressed by the group of six monks, giving the group of six monks as much robe-material as was prepared, served the Order with a meal. Those monks who knew that robe-material and a meal were prepared for the Order, and did not know that (it) was given to the group of six monks, spoke thus:

“Sirs, dedicate[7] robe-material to the Order.”

BD.2.161 “Honoured sirs, there is none; the masters, the group of six monks, appropriated[8] to themselves as much robe-material as was prepared.”

Those who were modest monks … spread it about, saying:

“How can the group of six monks knowingly[9] appropriate to themselves an apportioned[10] benefit belonging to the Order?” Then these monks told this matter to the lord. He said:

“Is it true, as is said, that you, monks, knowingly appropriated to yourselves an apportioned benefit belonging to the Order?”

“It is true, lord,” they said.

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked them, saying:

“How can you, foolish men, knowingly appropriate to yourselves an apportioned benefit belonging to the Order? It is not, foolish men, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased … And thus, monks, this rule of training should be set forth:

Whatever monk should knowingly appropriate to himself an apportioned benefit belonging to the Order, there is an offence of expiation involving forfeiture.”


Bu-NP.30.2.1 Whatever means: … is monk to be understood in this case.

He knows[11] means: either he knows by himself or others tell him or (someone) tells (him). Vin.3.266

Belonging to the Order means: it comes to be given to the Order, handed over to (it).[12]

A benefit means: the requisites of robes, alms-food, lodgings, medicine for the sick, and even a lump of chunam and a toothpick and unwoven thread.[13]

BD.2.162 Apportioned means: it has been expressly said,[14] “we will give, we will make.”

If he appropriates to himself, in the action there is an offence of wrong-doing; it is to be forfeited on acquisition. It should be forfeited to … an individual. And thus, monks, should it be forfeited: ‘Honoured sirs, this apportioned benefit belonging to the Order, knowingly appropriated by me to myself, is to be forfeited. I forfeit it to the Order.’ … ‘… the Order should give back … let the venerable ones give back … I will give back this benefit to the venerable one.’

If he thinks that it was apportioned when it was apportioned (and) appropriates it to himself, there is an offence of expiation involving forfeiture. If he is in doubt as to whether it was apportioned (and) appropriates it to himself, there is an offence of expiation involving forfeiture. If he thinks that it was not apportioned when it was apportioned (and) appropriates it to himself, there is an offence of expiation involving forfeiture. If he appropriates what was apportioned to the Order for another (part of the) Order[15] or for a shrine, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he appropriates what was apportioned to a shrine for another shrine or for an Order or for an individual, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he appropriates what was apportioned to an individual for another individual or for an Order or for a shrine, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he thinks that it was apportioned when it was not apportioned, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he is in doubt as to whether it was not apportioned, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If he thinks that it was not apportioned when it was not apportioned, there is no offence.

There is no offence if he himself being asked, ‘Where BD.2.163 do we give?’ says, ‘Give wherever your gift would be used[16] or could be mended[17] or should be for a long time or when for you the mind is peaceful’[18]; if he is mad, if he is the first wrong-doer.


The third Division: that on Bowls

This is its key:

Two on bowls, and on medicine,
for the rains, the fifth on a gift, Oneself, causing to be woven, a special robe,
dangerous, and for the Order.

Venerable ones, recited are the thirty rules for offences of expiation involving forfeiture. Concerning them, I ask the venerable ones: I hope that you are quite pure in this matter? And a second time I ask: I hope that you are quite pure in this matter? And a third time I ask: I hope that you are quite pure in this matter? The venerable ones are quite pure in this matter, therefore they are silent, thus do I understand this.

Told are the Offences of Expiation involving Forfeiture[19] Vin.3.267

Footnotes and references:

1.

= Bu-Pc.82, Vin.4.155, except that there the offence is procuring something for another person, and not, as here, for oneself. Cf. Bu-Pc.81.

2.

paṭiyattaṃ.

3.

pūja, or group.

4.

bhojetvā.

5.

bhattā, with variant reading kattā (see Vin.3.279), and Sinhalese edition bhaddā. Vin-a.732 reads bhadrā, taking it = bhadrāni = lābhamukhāni (with variant readings bhaddā, bhattā … bhattāni). It therefore looks more as if a “devotee” were meant than a “meal,” especially in conjunction with dāyakā, benefactors.

6.

ko carahi.

7.

oṇojethā ti detha, Vin-a.732; cf. Vin.1.39, AN.iv.210, Mil.236, where oṇojeti seems to imply a rite of cleansing by water (udakaṃ oṇojetvā) and also a ceremonial giving, implied by the presence of bhiṅkāra, a ceremonial vessel used in donations.

8.

pariṇāmesuṃ, causative of pariṇamati.

9.

jānaṃ.

10.

pariṇata. This is derived from the same root as pariṇāmeti; its indicative is pariṇamati. Vin-a.733 says ninna poṇa pabbhāra, bending to, leading to, sloping to.

11.

jānāti, indicative, instead of the jānaṃ, participle, of the Rule.

12.

Cf. Vin.4.43.

13.

Cf. above, BD.2.111, BD.2.149, and Vin.4.154.

14.

vācā bhinnā hoti; cf. vācaṃ bhindeyya at Vin.1.157, “uttering a word,” Vinaya Texts i.326.

15.

Vin-a.733, for the Order in one vihāra. Saṅgha means, not the whole Order, but five or more monks (see above, BD.2.7, n.5) staying in various districts and vihāras.

16.

paribhogaṃ labheyya, literally might receive use.

17.

patisamkhāram labheyya.

18.

tumhākaṃ cittaṃ pasīdati.

19.

Here ends Oldenberg’s Vinayapiṭaka, vol.iii.

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