by T. W. Rhys Davids | 1881 | 137,074 words
The Cullavagga (part of the Vinaya collection) includes accounts of the First and Second Buddhist Councils as well as the establishment of the community of Buddhist nuns. The Cullavagga also elaborates on the etiquette and duties of Bhikkhus....
1. Now at that time the venerable Sudhamma was residing at Macchikāsaṇḍa in dependence upon Citta the householder, superintending the new buildings he erected, and being constantly supplied by him with food. And whenever Citta the householder wished to give an invitation to the Saṃgha, or to four or five Bhikkhus, or to a single one, he used not to invite them without making special mention of the venerable Sudhamma.
Now at that time a number of the Thera Bhikkhus, including the venerable Sāriputta, and the venerable Mahā Moggallāna, and the venerable Mahā Kaccāna, and the venerable Mahā Koṭṭhita, and the venerable Mahā Kappina, and the venerable Mahā Cunda, and the venerable Anuruddha, and the venerable Revata, and the venerable Upāli, and the venerable Ānanda, and the venerable Rāhula, as they were journeying through the country of Kāsi, arrived at Macchikāsaṇḍa. And Citta the householder heard the news that the Thera Bhikkhus had arrived at Macchikāsaṇḍa.
Then Citta the householder went up to the place where the Thera Bhikkhus were, and on arriving there, he saluted the Thera Bhikkhus, and took his seat on one side. And when he was so seated the venerable Sāriputta taught Citta the householder, and incited him, and roused him, and gladdened him with religious discourse. And Citta the householder, having been thus taught, and incited, and roused, and gladdened with religious discourse, said to the Thera Bhikkhus, 'May the venerable Theras consent to take their to-morrow's meal, as incoming Bhikkhus, at my house.' And the Thera Bhikkhus signified, by silence, their consent.
2. Then perceiving that the Thera Bhikkhus had given their consent, Citta the householder rose from his seat, and bowed down before the Thera Bhikkhus, and keeping them on his right hand as he passed them, went on to the place where the venerable Sudhamma was. And on arriving there, he saluted the venerable Sudhamma, and stood by on one side. And so standing, Citta the householder said to the venerable Sudhamma: 'May the venerable Sudhamma consent to take his to-morrow's meal at my house with the Theras.'
But the venerable Sudhamma, thinking, 'Formerly indeed this Citta the householder, whenever he wished to give an invitation to the Saṃgha, or to four or five Bhikkhus, or to a single one, used not to invite them without making special mention of me; but now he has invited the Thera Bhikkhus without regarding me. This Citta the householder is now incensed against me, unfavourable to me, takes pleasure in me no longer.' And so thinking he refused, saying, 'It is enough, O householder.'
And a second time Citta the householder said to the venerable Sudhamma (&c., as before, with the same result). And a third time (&c., as before, with the same result).
Then Citta the householder, thinking, 'What can the venerable Sudhamma do against me, whether he consents, or whether he does not consent,' saluted the venerable Sudhamma, and keeping him on his right hand as he passed him, departed thence.
3. And at the end of the night Citta the householder made ready sweet food, both hard and soft, for the Thera Bhikkhus. And the venerable Sudhamma, thinking, 'I may as well go and see what Citta the householder has made ready for the Thera Bhikkhus,' robed himself early in the morning, and went, duly bowled and robed, to the place where Citta the householder dwelt; and, on arriving there, he took his seat on a mat spread out for him.
Then Citta the householder went up to the place where the venerable Sudhamma was; and after he had come there, he saluted the venerable Sudhamma, and took his seat on one side. And when he was so seated the venerable Sudhamma addressed Citta the householder, and said: 'Though this great store of sweet food, both hard and soft, has been made ready by you, O householder, there is one thing yet wanting, that is to say, tila seed cake.
Though then, Sir, there is so much treasure in the ward of the Buddhas, yet there is but one thing of which the venerable Sudhamma makes mention, and that is tila seed cake. Long ago, Sir, certain merchants of Dakkhiṇāpatha went, for the sake of their traffic, to the country of the East, and thence they brought back a hen. Now, Sir, that hen made acquaintance with a crow, and gave birth to a chicken. And, Sir, whenever that chicken tried to utter the cry of a cock it gave vent to a "caw," and whenever it tried to utter the cry of a crow, it gave vent to a "cock-a-doodle-do." Just even so, Sir, though there is much treasure in the ward of the Buddhas, when-ever the venerable Sudhamma speaks, the sound is "tila seed cake."'
4. 'You are abusing me, householder. You are finding fault with me, householder. This place, householder, is yours. I must go away from it,' said the venerable Sudhamma.
'I do not intend, Sir, to abuse the venerable Sudhamma, nor to find fault with him. Let, Sir, the venerable Sudhamma still dwell at Macchikāsaṇḍa. Pleasant is this grove of plum trees, and I shall take good care to, provide the venerable Sudhamma with those things a recluse requires—to wit, with robes and food and lodging and medicine when he is sick.'
And a second time the venerable Sudhamma said: You are abusing me (&c., as before, with the same reply). And a third time the venerable Sudhamma said: 'You are abusing me (&c., as before, down to) I must go away from it.'
'Whither then, Sir, will the venerable Sudhamma go?'
'I shall go to Sāvatthi, O householder, to visit the Blessed One.'
'Then, Sir, let the Blessed One know all, both what you yourself have said, and what I have said. And I should not, Sir, be surprised if the venerable Sudhamma were to return again even to Macchikāsaṇḍa.'
5. So the venerable Sudhamma gathered together his sleeping mat, and set out, with his bowl and his robe, for Sāvatthi. And he journeyed straight on to Sāvatthi, to the Jetavana, Anāthapiṇḍika's Grove, to the place where the Blessed One was; and on arriving there he bowed down before the Blessed One, and took his seat on one side. And when he was thus seated the venerable Sudhamma informed the Blessed One of all, both that he himself had said, and that Citta the householder had said.
The Blessed Buddha rebuked him, saying, 'This was improper, O foolish one, not according to rule, unsuitable, unworthy of a Samaṇa, and ought not to have been. done. How is it that you, O foolish one, could put down and could lower by your censure Citta the householder, he being a man of faith, a believing disciple, and a donor, a provider, and a supporter of the Saṃgha?' This will not conduce, O foolish one, either to the conversion of the unconverted, or to the increase of the converted; but rather to the unconverted not being converted, and to the turning back of those who have been converted.' And after he had rebuked him, and had delivered a religious discourse, he addressed the Bhikkhus, and said: 'Let therefore the Saṃgha, O Bhikkhus, carry out the Paṭisāraṇiya-kamma (Act of Reconciliation) against the Bhikkhu Sudhamma, saying, "You are to ask and obtain pardon of Citta the householder."'
6. 'Now thus, O Bhikkhus, should it be carried out. In the first place the Bhikkhu Sudhamma ought to be warned: when he has been warned, he ought to be reminded (of the Rule in the Pātimokkha against which he has offended); when he has been reminded, he ought to be charged with the offence; when he has been charged with the offence, some discreet and able Bhikkhu ought to lay the matter before the Saṃgha, saying,
'"Let the venerable Saṃgha hear me. This Bhikkhu Sudhamma has put down, and has lowered by censure Citta the householder, a man of faith, a believing disciple, a donor, provider and supporter of the Saṃgha. If the time is fit for the Saṃgha to do so, let the Saṃgha carry out the Paṭisāraṇiya-kamma against the Bhikkhu Sudhamma.
'"This is the motion (ñatti).
'"Let the venerable Saṃgha hear me. This Bhikkhu (&c., as before, down to) supporter of the Saṃgha. The Saṃgha hereby carries out the Paṭisāraṇiya-kamma against the Bhikkhu Sudhamma with the words, 'You are to ask and obtain pardon of Citta the householder.' Whosoever of the venerable ones approves of the carrying out of the Paṭisāraṇiya-kamma against Sudhamma the Bhikkhu, let him remain silent. Whosoever approves not thereof, let him speak.
'"A second time I say the same thing. Let the venerable. Saṃgha (&c., as before). A third time I say the same thing. Let the venerable Saṃgha (&c:, as before).
'"The Paṭisāraṇiya-kamma has been carried out against the Bhikkhu Sudhamma with the words, 'You are to ask and obtain pardon of Citta the householder.' The Saṃgha approves the motion. Therefore is it silent. Thus do I understand."'
Footnotes and references:
The whole of this story of Citta and Sudhamma recurs in the Dhammapada commentary, pp. 262-264. There is no Rule in the Pātimokkha by which giving offence to a layman, the cause of the proceeding described in the following chapters, is considered worthy of censure.
Navakammiko, not 'newly appointed to an office,' as Dr. Rudolf Hoernle translates in the Indian Antiquary, XI, 29, in dealing with one of the Bharhut Inscriptions. See Jātaka I, 92, and below, V, 13, 3, VI, 5, 2, VI, 17, 1, X, 24, This duty of superintending a new building was even filled by Bhikkhunīs; see the Bhikkhunī-vibhaṅga, Pārājika I, where the details of the duty are incidentally mentioned.
Compare below, Cullavagga VI, 5, 2, and Jātaka I, 92, 22.
This clause, both here and below, is omitted in the Sinhalese MS.
Compare Jātaka I, 432; II, 307.
Compare Dhammapada, p. 263, and Jātaka I, 191.
Compare Jātaka I, 191, 356, 359, and Sutta Nipāta, verse 905.
Childers proposes doubtingly to derive the word Paṭisāraṇiya from the root smar; but that that is impossible is probably sufficiently evident from the meaning of the word, which is quite clear from the context of this, and from the following chapters. Now at p. 530 of the Lalita Vistara the common Pāli phrase sammodanīyaṃ kathaṃ sārāṇīyaṃ vītisāretvā is represented by the Sanskrit sammodanīḥ saṃrañg.anīḥ kathāḥ kṛtvā. It is by no means impossible that this parallel may offer the true solution of the etymology of the Pāli words in question; (compare Sārāga as equal to saṃrāga, sāratta to saṃrakta, &c. &c.) Paṭisāraṇiya would then be equal to pratisaṃrañjanīya. See Senart, Mahāvagga, p. 599.