Sanskrit quote nr. 7 (Maha-subhashita-samgraha)

Sanskrit text:

अंशो दण्डसमः पूर्वः प्रयाससम उत्तमः ।
विलोपो वा यथालाभं प्रक्षेपसम एव वा ॥

aṃśo daṇḍasamaḥ pūrvaḥ prayāsasama uttamaḥ |
vilopo vā yathālābhaṃ prakṣepasama eva vā ||

⏒⏒⏒⏒¦⏑⎼⎼⏒¦¦⏒⏒⏒⏒¦⏑⎼⏑⏒¦¦
⏒⏒⏒⏒¦⏑⎼⎼⏒¦¦⏒⏒⏒⏒¦⏑⎼⏑⏒¦¦

Meter name: Śloka; Type: pathyā (‘normal’); 8 syllables per quarter (pāda).

Primary English translation:

“A share in conformity with troops is of the first type, in conformity with efforts is best; or plunder, as abstained (by each), (should be the share), or a share in conformity with the amount lent.”

(translation by R. P. Kangle)

Secondary translations:

“Share of profit proportional to the strength of the army is of the first kind; that which is equal to the effort made is the best; shares may be allotted in proportion to the profit earned or to the capital invested.”

(translation by R. Shamasastry)

Index

  1. Introduction
  2. Glossary of terms
  3. Analysis of Sanskrit grammar
  4. Sources
  5. Authorship
  6. About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

Presented above is a Sanskrit aphorism, also known as a subhāṣita, which is at the very least, a literary piece of art. This page provides critical research material such as an anlaysis on the poetic meter used, an English translation, a glossary explaining technical terms, and a list of resources including print editions and digital links.

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: Consider this as an approximate extraction of glossary words based on an experimental segmentation of the Sanskrit verse. Some could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned.

Amsha (amsa, aṃśa, अंश): defined in 10 categories.
Danda (daṇḍa, दण्ड): defined in 16 categories.
Sama (सम): defined in 14 categories.
Purva (pūrva, पूर्व): defined in 5 categories.
Prayasa (prayāsa, प्रयास): defined in 2 categories.
Uttama (उत्तम): defined in 10 categories.
Vilopa (विलोप): defined in 3 categories.
Va (व, vā, वा): defined in 3 categories.
Var (vār, वार्): defined in 2 categories.
Alabha (alābha, अलाभ): defined in 5 categories.
Prakshepa (praksepa, prakṣepa, प्रक्षेप): defined in 3 categories.
Eva (एव): defined in 3 categories.

Defined according to the following glossaries/dictionaries: Hinduism, Sanskrit, Pali, Vastushastra (architecture), Shilpashastra (iconography), Purana, Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy), Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology), Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism), Marathi, Jainism, Arthashastra (politics and welfare), Itihasa (narrative history), Ayurveda (science of life), Dharmashastra (religious law), Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa), Dhanurveda (science of warfare), Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar), Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy), Theravada (major branch of Buddhism), Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy), India history, Buddhism

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit verse. If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “aṃśo daṇḍasamaḥ pūrvaḥ prayāsasama uttamaḥ”
  • aṃśo* -
  • aṃśa (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    aṃśaḥ (nominative single)
  • daṇḍa -
  • daṇḍa (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    daṇḍa (vocative single)
  • samaḥ -
  • sama (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    samaḥ (nominative single)
  • pūrvaḥ -
  • pūrva (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    pūrvaḥ (nominative single)
  • prayāsa -
  • prayāsa (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    prayāsa (vocative single)
  • sama* -
  • sama (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    samaḥ (nominative single)
  • uttamaḥ -
  • uttama (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    uttamaḥ (nominative single)
  • Line 2: “vilopo vā yathālābhaṃ prakṣepasama eva vā”
  • vilopo* -
  • vilopa (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    vilopaḥ (nominative single)
  • vā* -
  • vār (noun, masculine); (3 der.)
    vāḥ (adverb)
    vāḥ (nominative single)
    vāḥ (vocative single)
    vār (noun, neuter); (4 der.)
    vāḥ (adverb)
    vāḥ (nominative single)
    vāḥ (vocative single)
    vāḥ (accusative single)
    va (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    vāḥ (nominative plural)
    vāḥ (vocative plural)
    (noun, feminine); (3 der.)
    vāḥ (nominative plural)
    vāḥ (vocative plural)
    vāḥ (accusative plural)
  • yathā -
  • yathā (indeclinable adverb); (2 der.)
    (indeclinable adverb)
    (indeclinable adverb)
    yathā (indeclinable relative); (2 der.)
    (indeclinable relative)
    (indeclinable relative)
    yathā (indeclinable); (2 der.)
    (indeclinable)
    (indeclinable)
  • alābham -
  • alābha (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    alābham (adverb)
    alābham (accusative single)
  • prakṣepa -
  • prakṣepa (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    prakṣepa (vocative single)
  • sama* -
  • sama (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    samaḥ (nominative single)
  • eva -
  • eva (indeclinable particle); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable particle)
    eva (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    eva (vocative single)
    eva (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    eva (vocative single)
  • -
  • (indeclinable conjunction); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable conjunction)
    (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    (nominative single)
    (verb class 1); (1 der.)
    (imperative active second single)

Sources

This quote is contained within the following Sanskrit literary sources:

Arthaśāstra (R. P. Kangle: 7.4, 22; R. Shama Sastry: 274.10-1; J. Jolly: 162.15-6; N. P. Unni: 259.6-7): The Arthaśāstra is a foundational Sanskrit treatise dealing with subjects such as statecraft, economics politics and military tactics. Arthaśāstra as a general term also denotes a category of scientific literature, including such works as the Arthaśāstra by Kauṭilya itself. The book was written by Kauṭilya in the 6th century.
More info

Authorship

Kauṭilya is the author of the Arthaśāstra. A well-known Indian polymath from the 4th century. His best known work is the Arthaśāstra, which became an important foundation of Indian economics and political sciences. He was also known as Cāṇakya or Viṣṇugupta.

About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

This quote is included within the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha (महासुभाषितसंग्रह, maha-subhashita-samgraha / subhasita-sangraha), which is a compendium of Sanskrit aphorisms (subhāṣita), collected from various sources. Subhāṣita is a genre of Sanskrit literature, exposing the vast and rich cultural heritage of ancient India.

It has serial number 7 and can be found on page 2. (read on archive.org)

Sanskrit is the oldest living language and bears testimony to the intellectual past of ancient India. Three major religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism) share this language, which is used for many of their holy books. Besides religious manuscripts, much of India’s ancient culture has been preserved in Sanskrit, covering topics such as Architecture, Music, Botany, Surgery, Ethics, Philosophy, Dance and much more.

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