Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 3.20.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अग्ने॒ त्री ते॒ वाजि॑ना॒ त्री ष॒धस्था॑ ति॒स्रस्ते॑ जि॒ह्वा ऋ॑तजात पू॒र्वीः । ति॒स्र उ॑ ते त॒न्वो॑ दे॒ववा॑ता॒स्ताभि॑र्नः पाहि॒ गिरो॒ अप्र॑युच्छन् ॥
अग्ने त्री ते वाजिना त्री षधस्था तिस्रस्ते जिह्वा ऋतजात पूर्वीः । तिस्र उ ते तन्वो देववातास्ताभिर्नः पाहि गिरो अप्रयुच्छन् ॥
agne trī te vājinā trī ṣadhasthā tisras te jihvā ṛtajāta pūrvīḥ | tisra u te tanvo devavātās tābhir naḥ pāhi giro aprayucchan ||

English translation:

Agni, born of sacrifice, three are your viands; three your abiding plural ces, three the tongue satisfying (thegods); three verily are your forms acceptable to the deities, and with them never heedless (of our wishes), bepropitious to our praises.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Three viands: butter, fuel and the Soma; three abiding plural ces: three altars, or the three daily sacrifices, or the three worlds; three tongues: three fires, gārhapatya, āhavanīya and dakṣiṇā; three forms: three fires termed pāvaka, pavamāna and śuci


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gāthī kauśikaḥ [gāthī kauśika];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): viśvedevā:;
Chandas (meter): nicṛttriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अग्ने॑ । त्री । ते॒ । वा॒जि॑ना॑ । त्री । ष॒धऽस्था॑ । ति॒स्रः । ते॒ । जि॒ह्वाः । ऋ॒त॒ऽजा॒त॒ । पू॒र्वीः । ति॒स्रः । ऊँ॒ इति॑ । ते॒ । त॒न्वः॑ । दे॒वऽवा॑ताः । ताभिः॑ । नः॒ । पा॒हि॒ । गिरः॑ । अप्र॑ऽयुच्छन् ॥
अग्ने । त्री । ते । वाजिना । त्री । षधस्था । तिस्रः । ते । जिह्वाः । ऋतजात । पूर्वीः । तिस्रः । ऊँ इति । ते । तन्वः । देववाताः । ताभिः । नः । पाहि । गिरः । अप्रयुच्छन् ॥
agne | trī | te | vājinā | trī | ṣadha-sthā | tisraḥ | te | jihvāḥ | ṛta-jāta | pūrvīḥ | ti sraḥ | oṃ iti | te | tanvaḥ | deva-vātāḥ | tābhiḥ | naḥ | pāhi | giraḥ | apra-yucchan

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 3.20.2 English analysis of grammar]

agne < agni

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

trī < tri

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“three; tri/tisṛ [word].”

te < tvad

[noun], genitive, singular


vājinā < vājina

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“race; emulation.”

trī < tri

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“three; tri/tisṛ [word].”

ṣadhasthā < sadhastha

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“dwelling; location; home.”

tisras < tisraḥ < tri

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“three; tri/tisṛ [word].”

te < tvad

[noun], genitive, singular


jihvā < jihvāḥ < jihvā

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“tongue; tongue; jihvā [word]; fire.”

ṛtajāta < ṛta

[noun], neuter

“truth; order; fixed order; ṛta [word]; law; custom; custom.”

ṛtajāta < jāta < jan

[verb noun], vocative, singular

“become; originate; be born; transform; happen; result; grow; beget; produce; create; conceive; separate; cause; give birth; grow; produce; generate; be; become; arise; come on.”

pūrvīḥ < puru

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“many; much(a); very.”

tisra < tisraḥ < tri

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“three; tri/tisṛ [word].”



“ukāra; besides; now; indeed; u.”

te < tvad

[noun], genitive, singular


tanvo < tanvaḥ < tanū

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“body; self; own(a); person; form.”

devavātās < deva

[noun], masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

devavātās < vātāḥ < van

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“obtain; gain; desire; get; like; love; overcome.”

tābhir < tābhiḥ < tad

[noun], instrumental, plural, feminine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); respective(a); that; nominative; then; particular(a); genitive; instrumental; accusative; there; tad [word]; dative; once; same.”

naḥ < mad

[noun], genitive, plural

“I; mine.”

pāhi <

[verb], singular, Present imperative

“protect; govern.”

giro < giraḥ < gir

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“hymn; praise; voice; words; invocation; command; statement; cry; language.”

aprayucchan < aprayucchat

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“ceaseless; attentive.”

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