Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 3.20.3

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अग्ने॒ भूरी॑णि॒ तव॑ जातवेदो॒ देव॑ स्वधावो॒ऽमृत॑स्य॒ नाम॑ । याश्च॑ मा॒या मा॒यिनां॑ विश्वमिन्व॒ त्वे पू॒र्वीः सं॑द॒धुः पृ॑ष्टबन्धो ॥
अग्ने भूरीणि तव जातवेदो देव स्वधावोऽमृतस्य नाम । याश्च माया मायिनां विश्वमिन्व त्वे पूर्वीः संदधुः पृष्टबन्धो ॥
agne bhūrīṇi tava jātavedo deva svadhāvo 'mṛtasya nāma | yāś ca māyā māyināṃ viśvaminva tve pūrvīḥ saṃdadhuḥ pṛṣṭabandho ||

English translation:

“Divine Agni, knowing all that exists and distributor of food, many are the names of you who are immortal satisffier of all men, friend of the suppliant, the gods have deposited in you whatever are the delusions of the deluding (rākṣasas).”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Many are the names of you: bhūrīṇi nāma, for nāmāni; the substantive is explained by tejāṃsi, splendours; the gods have deposited: therefore agni is able to counteract their devices for disturbing sacrifices.


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gāthī kauśikaḥ [gāthī kauśika];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): viśvedevā:;
Chandas (meter): bhuriktriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अग्ने॑ । भूरी॑णि । तव॑ । जा॒त॒ऽवे॒दः॒ । देव॑ । स्व॒धा॒ऽवः॒ । अ॒मृत॑स्य । नाम॑ । याः । च॒ । मा॒या । मा॒यिना॑म् । वि॒श्व॒म्ऽइ॒न्व॒ । त्वे इति॑ । पू॒र्वीः । स॒म्ऽद॒धुः । पृ॒ष्ट॒ब॒न्धो॒ इति॑ पृष्टऽबन्धो ॥
अग्ने । भूरीणि । तव । जातवेदः । देव । स्वधावः । अमृतस्य । नाम । याः । च । माया । मायिनाम् । विश्वम्इन्व । त्वे इति । पूर्वीः । सम्दधुः । पृष्टबन्धो इति पृष्टबन्धो ॥
agne | bhūrīṇi | tava | jāta-vedaḥ | deva | svadhāvaḥ | amṛtasya | nāma | yāḥ | ca | māyā | māyinām | viśvam-inva | tve iti | pūrvīḥ | sam-dadhuḥ | pṛṣṭabandho itipṛṣṭa-bandho

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 3.20.3 English analysis of grammar]

agne < agni

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

bhūrīṇi < bhūri

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“much; many; much(a); abundant; rich; mighty; distinguished.”

tava < tvad

[noun], genitive, singular


jātavedo < jātavedaḥ < jātavedas

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Agni; fire.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

svadhāvo < svadhāvas < svadhāvat

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“autonomous; independent.”

'mṛtasya < amṛtasya < amṛta

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“immortal; amṛta; imperishable.”

nāma < nāman

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“name; appellation; nāman [word]; nāmakaraṇa; surname; noun; word.”

yāś < yāḥ < yad

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“who; which; yat [pronoun].”



“and; besides; then; now; even.”

māyā < māyāḥ < māyā

[noun], nominative, plural, feminine

“magic trick; Māyā; deception; illusion; māyā [word]; disguise; trick.”

māyināṃ < māyinām < māyin

[noun], genitive, plural, masculine

“artful; charming; crafty; deceptive.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

tve < tvad

[noun], locative, singular


pūrvīḥ < puru

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“many; much(a); very.”

saṃdadhuḥ < saṃdhā < √dhā

[verb], plural, Perfect indicative

“connect; refer; aim; grow together; compress; ally; unite; operate on.”

pṛṣṭabandho < pṛṣṭa < pracch

[verb noun]

“ask; ask; ask; consult; interrogate.”

pṛṣṭabandho < bandho < bandhu

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“relative; bandhu [word]; association; friend; kin.”

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