Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 3.20.1

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒ग्निमु॒षस॑म॒श्विना॑ दधि॒क्रां व्यु॑ष्टिषु हवते॒ वह्नि॑रु॒क्थैः । सु॒ज्योति॑षो नः शृण्वन्तु दे॒वाः स॒जोष॑सो अध्व॒रं वा॑वशा॒नाः ॥
अग्निमुषसमश्विना दधिक्रां व्युष्टिषु हवते वह्निरुक्थैः । सुज्योतिषो नः शृण्वन्तु देवाः सजोषसो अध्वरं वावशानाः ॥
agnim uṣasam aśvinā dadhikrāṃ vyuṣṭiṣu havate vahnir ukthaiḥ | sujyotiṣo naḥ śṛṇvantu devāḥ sajoṣaso adhvaraṃ vāvaśānāḥ ||

English translation:

“The bearer (of the oblation) invokes with praises at the break of day, Agni, the dawn, the Aśvins, and Dadhikra); may the resplendent divinities, desirous of our sacrifice, hear in unison (the invocation).”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Dadhikrā = ordinarily means a horse; here, it  implies a divinity: dadhikrāva nāma kaścidevaḥ tam dadhikāvaṇam


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): gāthī kauśikaḥ [gāthī kauśika];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): viśvedevā:;
Chandas (meter): virāṭtrisṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

अ॒ग्निम् । उ॒षस॑म् । अ॒श्विना॑ । द॒धि॒ऽक्राम् । विऽउ॑ष्टिषु । ह॒व॒ते॒ । वह्निः॑ । उ॒क्थैः । सु॒ऽज्योति॑षः । नः॒ । शृ॒ण्व॒न्तु॒ । दे॒वाः । स॒ऽजोष॑सः । अ॒ध्व॒रम् । वा॒व॒शा॒नाः ॥
अग्निम् । उषसम् । अश्विना । दधिक्राम् । विउष्टिषु । हवते । वह्निः । उक्थैः । सुज्योतिषः । नः । शृण्वन्तु । देवाः । सजोषसः । अध्वरम् । वावशानाः ॥
agnim | uṣasam | aśvinā | dadhi-krām | vi-uṣṭiṣu | havate | vahniḥ | ukthaiḥ | su-jyotiṣaḥ | naḥ | śṛṇvantu | devāḥ | sa-joṣasaḥ | adhvaram | vāvaśānāḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 3.20.1 English analysis of grammar]

agnim < agni

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“fire; Agni; sacrificial fire; digestion; cautery; Plumbago zeylanica; fire; vahni; agni [word]; agnikarman; gold; three; jāraṇa; pyre; fireplace; heating.”

uṣasam < uṣas

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“Ushas; dawn; uṣas [word]; morning.”

aśvinā < aśvin

[noun], accusative, dual, masculine

“Asvins; two.”

dadhikrāṃ < dadhikrām < dadhikrā

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine


vyuṣṭiṣu < vyuṣṭi

[noun], locative, plural, feminine

“dawn; happiness; consequence.”

havate < hvā

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“raise; call on; call; summon.”

vahnir < vahniḥ < vahni

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“fire; digestion; Plumbago zeylanica; Agni; vahni; draft horse; three; sacrificial fire; Vahni; gold; southeast; citron; charioteer; leader.”

ukthaiḥ < uktha

[noun], instrumental, plural, neuter

“hymn; praise; uktha [word]; encomium.”

sujyotiṣo < su


“very; well; good; nicely; beautiful; su; early; quite.”

sujyotiṣo < jyotiṣaḥ < jyotis

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“light; star; luminosity; fire; jyotis [word]; digestion; planet; light; sunlight.”

naḥ < mad

[noun], accusative, plural

“I; mine.”

śṛṇvantu < śru

[verb], plural, Present imperative

“listen; come to know; hear; hear; listen; study; heed; learn.”

devāḥ < deva

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

sajoṣaso < sajoṣasaḥ < sajoṣas

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“consentaneous; combined; associated; united.”

adhvaraṃ < adhvaram < adhvara

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“yajña; ceremony; adhvara [word].”

vāvaśānāḥ < vaś

[verb noun], nominative, plural

“desire; agree; call; care; like; love.”

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