Pratipaksha, Pratipakṣa, Prātipakṣa, Prati-paksha: 20 definitions


Pratipaksha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Pratipakṣa and Prātipakṣa can be transliterated into English as Pratipaksa or Pratipaksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Pratipaksh.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Pratipaksha in Purana glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष).—A son of Kṣatradharma and father of*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 68. 7; Vāyu-purāṇa 93. 7.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Pratipaksha in Shaivism glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष) refers to the “antithesis”, according to Svacchandatantroddyota, vol. VI, 98 (alluding to Nyāyasūtra 1.2.1).—Accordingly, “Debate, which comprehends both the thesis (pakṣa) and the antithesis (pratipakṣa), [and] which is a discourse of [people] who are free of bias [...]”

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Pratipaksha in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष) refers to “(that which is) contrary” (to the aim of Samādhi), according to the Bhojadeva’s Rājamārtaṇḍa (commentary on Yogasūtra of Patañjali) Sūtra 2.29.—Accordingly, while discussing Prāṇāyāma and Samādhi: “In this system, some [of the auxiliaries] such as concentration directly assist Samādhi; some [others] such as Yamas and the like, assist Samādhi [indirectly] by destroying hindrances such as violence to living beings [which is] contrary (pratipakṣa) [to the aim of Samādhi]. Among these, posture and the like help the higher [auxiliaries]. For example, when posture is mastered, steadiness [of the body is achieved] for Prāṇāyāma. Thus, it also applies to the higher [auxiliaries]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Pratipaksha in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष) refers to “refutation”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[Digression on a case brought against the Buddha; B. The defense].—[7. Silence on the Fourteen Difficult Questions].—The Buddha did not answer fourteen difficult questions.— Furthermore, being based (āśritya) on the eternalist view (śāśvatadṛṣṭi) or the nihilist view (ucchedadṛṣṭi), the heretics asked the questions of eternalism or nihilism, but since any real nature (satyalakṣaṇa) is absent in them, the Buddha did not reply. The eternal nature (nityalakṣaṇa) and the non-eternal nature (anityalakṣaṇa) seen by these heretics have no reality. Why? The heretics grasp (udgṛhṇanti) these natures and become attached to them, saying: ‘This is eternal, that is nothingness’. As for the Buddha, he too speaks of eternal nature and non-eternal nature, but merely by way of refutation (pratipakṣa). [...]”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष) refers to the “contrary”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] Son of good family, how does the recollection of morality (śīlānusmṛti) of Bodhisattva becomes like open space? [...] Since there is no visual form, it is praised by the wise. Since it appeases vices, there is no essential characteristic of recognition. Since it is in accordance with all happiness and is not generated by the contrary (pratipakṣa-prabhāvita), while recollecting this morality, there is no impurity in the recollection. Son of good family, this is what is called the recollection of morality which is authorized by the Lord”.

Source: WikiPedia: Mahayana Buddhism

Pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष) refers to the “antidotes” (to overcome the five faults),connected with śamatha (“access concentration”), according to Kamalaśīla and the Śrāvakabhūmi section of the Yogācārabhūmi-śāstra.

The following eight antidotes (pratipakṣa, Tibetan: gnyen-po) or applications (abhisaṃskāra, Tibetan: ’du-byed pa) can be applied to overcome the five faults:

  1. faith (śraddhā, dad-pa),
  2. aspiration (chanda, ’dun-pa),
  3. exertion (vyāyāma, rtsol-ba),
  4. pliancy (praśrabdhi, shin-sbyangs),
  5. mindfulness (smṛti, dran-pa),
  6. awareness (samprajaña, shes-bzhin),
  7. application (abhisaṃskāra, ’du byed-pa),
  8. non-application (anabhisaṃskāra, ’du mi-byed-pa),

The textual tradition of Tibetan Buddhism identifies five faults (ādīnava) and eight antidotes (pratipakṣa or abhisamskāra) within the practice of śamatha meditation. The five faults identify obstacles to meditation practice, and the eight antidotes are applied to overcome the five faults. This formulation originates with Maitreyanātha's Madhyānta-vibhāga and is elaborated upon in further texts, such as the Stages of Meditation (Bhāvanākrama) by Kamalaśīla

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Pratipaksha in Jainism glossary
Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष) refers to the “opposite”, according to the Yogaśāstra vol. 2, p. 871, l. 3.—Accordingly, “Now he praises the means consisting of the opposite (pratipakṣa-bhūta) of the causes of bad karma that have been spoken about beginning with ‘the passions, sense-objects, activities’”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pratipaksha in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष).—m S In law, disputation &c. The opposite side, cause, party. 2 or pratipakṣī m (S) In disputation, law &c. An opponent, an antagonist: a respondent, a defendant. 3 An opposite, a contrary, a thing contradictory to and destructive of another.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष).—m The opposite side, cause, party.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pratipaksha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Prātipakṣa (प्रातिपक्ष).—a. (-kṣī f.)

1) Contrary, adverse.

2) Hostile, inimical.

--- OR ---

Pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष).—a. like, similar. (-kṣaḥ) 1 the opposite side, party or faction, hostility; विमृश्य पक्षप्रतिपक्षाभ्यामवधारणं नियमः (vimṛśya pakṣapratipakṣābhyāmavadhāraṇaṃ niyamaḥ) Gaut. S,

2) an adversary, enemy, foe, rival; प्रति- पक्षकामिनी, -लक्ष्मी (prati- pakṣakāminī, -lakṣmī) 'a rival wife'; Bv.2.64; दासीकृतायाः प्रति- पक्षलक्ष्याः (dāsīkṛtāyāḥ prati- pakṣalakṣyāḥ) Vikr.1.73; प्रतिपक्षमशक्तेन प्रतिकर्तुम् (pratipakṣamaśaktena pratikartum) K. P.1; Vikr.1.7; often used in comp. in the sense of 'equal' or 'similar'.

3) remedy, expiation; यादवस्य पापस्य प्रतिपक्षमुपदिशामि (yādavasya pāpasya pratipakṣamupadiśāmi) Nāg.5.

4) a defendant or respondent (in law). °ता ()

1) hostility, opposition.

2) obstacle.

Pratipakṣa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms prati and pakṣa (पक्ष).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष).—nt.? (in Sanskrit only m., rival, enemy; according to [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary], Pali paṭipakkha also adj., opposed, opposite; perhaps obstacle in Vimānavatthu (Pali) commentary 20.24 [puññakiriyā…] paṭi- pakkha-chedana-samatthā), obstacle (? so Index): (vatsa yadi kevalaṃ) cittaṃ parijñātuṃ na śakyasi, pratipakṣaṃ mocayitum Divyāvadāna 352.18, there is an obstacle to setting you free (? it interferes with…).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष).—m.

(-kṣaḥ) 1. An enemy, (figuratively used in the sense of “equal” “similar.”) 2. A respondent, an opponent. 3. A defendant. E. prati against, and pakṣa a part, a party.

--- OR ---

Prātipakṣa (प्रातिपक्ष).—mfn.

(-kṣaḥ-kṣī-kṣaṃ) 1. Hostile, belonging to an enemy. 2. Adverse, contrary. E. pratipakṣa, and aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष).—[prati-pakṣa], m. 1. Opposite part, Mahābhārata 8, 4409. 2. Opposition. 3. An opponent, an adversary, [Pañcatantra] ed. orn. 56, 10.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष).—[masculine] opposite side or party, rivality; also = seq. + equal to, a match in (—°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष):—[=prati-pakṣa] m. the opposite side, hostile party, opposition, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] an obstacle, [Divyāvadāna]

3) [v.s. ...] an adversary, opponent, foe, [ib.] (ifc. = a rival in, match for, equal, similar, [Kāvyādarśa])

4) [v.s. ...] a respondent, defendant (in law), [Horace H. Wilson]

5) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a king, [Vāyu-purāṇa]

6) Prātipakṣa (प्रातिपक्ष):—[=prāti-pakṣa] [from prāti] mf(ī)n. belonging to the enemy, hostile, adverse, contrary, [Śiśupāla-vadha]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष):—[prati-pakṣa] (kṣaḥ) 1. m. An enemy, opponent; defendant.

2) Prātipakṣa (प्रातिपक्ष):—[prāti-pakṣa] (kṣaḥ-kṣī-kṣaṃ) a. Hostile.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pratipaksha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pratipaksha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Pratipakṣa (प्रतिपक्ष) [Also spelled pratipaksh]:—(nm) opposition, rival side, hostile camp, contesting party; ~[] opposition, rivalry, contest, hostility.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pratipaksha in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Pratipakṣa (ಪ್ರತಿಪಕ್ಷ):—

1) [noun] the party or army of one’s enemy.

2) [noun] an enemy; an advesary.

3) [noun] a political party opposing, and serving as a check on, the party in power; the Opposition.

4) [noun] (log.) a man or members of a group who oppose, try to dispprove or refute a proposition in a debate.

5) [noun] (log.) opposition to a proposition putforward by a person or persons in a debate.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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