Upadana, Upādāna, Upadāna: 26 definitions
Upadana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Updan.
Samkhya (school of philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Sāṃkhya philosophy
Upādāna (उपादान, “withdrawing”) is a type tuṣṭi (complacence), classified internal (ādhyātmika) according to the Sāṃkhya theory of evolution. Tuṣṭi refers to a category of pratyayasarga (intellectual products), which represents the first of two types of sarga (products) that come into being during tattvapariṇāma (elemental manifestations), which in turn, evolve out of the two types of pariṇāma (change, modification).
Samkhya (सांख्य, Sāṃkhya) is a dualistic school of Hindu philosophy (astika) and is closeley related to the Yoga school. Samkhya philosophy accepts three pramanas (‘proofs’) only as valid means of gaining knowledge. Another important concept is their theory of evolution, revolving around prakriti (matter) and purusha (consciousness).
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Upādāna (उपादान).—Hypothesis, presumption, acceptance.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition
Upādāna (उपादान) refers to “picking flowers” and represents one of the five limbs of Arcana (“deity worship”), according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship).—Upādāna refers to picking flowers and tulasī leaves and gathering incense and other various items required for worship.
Generally, there are five limbs of Arcana [viz., upādāna]. This is also known as pañcāṅga-viṣṇu-yajña (fivefold sacrifice performed for the pleasure of Śrī Viṣṇu). [...] These five limbs of Arcana (pañcāṅga-arcana) are not temporary and mundane but eternal, supremely pure limbs of bhakti that help one attain the lotus feet of Śrī Bhagavān.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: academia.edu: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual (Shaivism)
1) Upādāna (उपादान) refers to the “material cause of the world”.—One major concern for Appaya, and for Śrīkaṇṭha as well, is to avoid any conflict between Śaiva and Vedic/Vedāntic positions. The pāśupatādhikaraṇa deals with such a conflict. One of the central tenets of Vedānta is that Brahman is both the efficient (nimitta) and material (upādāna) cause of the world; that is, Brahman is both the creator and the material out of which the world is fashioned. In the pāśupatādhikaraṇa, the author of the Brahmasūtra refutes the Śaiva(/Pāśupata) position precisely on the grounds that it does not accept Śiva as the material cause of the world; it is on this basis that Śaṅkara, for instance, rejects the Śaiva-Pāśupata view in his bhāṣya.
In Brahmamīmāṃsābhāṣya 2.2.38, Śrīkaṇṭha summarizes this view as follows: “In some Śaivāgamas, it is taught that Śiva, the supreme Brahman, is only the efficient cause of the world. Previous teachers have [then] come up with the following interpretation: ‘This adhikaraṇa aims to refute this [namely, the view that Śiva is only the efficient cause of the world].’ However, we do not see any difference between the Veda and Śaivāgamas”.
2) Upādāna (उपादान) (Cf. Kāraṇa) refers to “cause” (e.g., śivatattva being the cause of all other tattvas), according to the Pauṣkara-āgama, quoted in Aghoraśivācārya’s (12th century) vṛtti (commentary) on Bhojadeva’s Tattvaprakāśa kārikā 25, which concerns the origination of [Śaiva] ontological principles (tattva) out of the Śiva-principle (śivatattva).—Aghora quotes the Pauṣkara verse while commenting on the meaning of śivatattva in the present kārikā. In his view, śivatattva cannot refer, at least in this context, to Śiva or His Śakti because both are beyond tattvas (tattvātīta). If it were the cause (kāraṇa=upādāna) of all other tattvas, as stated in the verse, then it would result that it is non-sentient (acetana) and subject to change (pariṇāmin) (admitting, of course, that the material cause really transforms into the world). For Aghora, who aligns on this point with Kashmirian Saiddhāntikas, the material cause of the world must be insentient in order to explain its transformation into an insentient world. [...]
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist TermsClinging; attachment; sustenance for becoming and birth - attachment to sensuality, to views, to precepts and practices, and to theories of the self.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary
T/N (Fact to stick (to something), to grasp (something)). Covetousness, greed. Attachment.Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
'clinging', according to Vis.M. XVII, is an intensified degree of craving (tanhā).
The 4 kinds of clinging are:
- sensuous clinging (kāmupādāna),
- clinging to views (ditthupādāna),
- clinging to mere rules and ritual (sīlabbatupādāna),
- clinging to the personality-belief (atta-vādupādāna).
(1) "What now is the sensuous clinging? Whatever with regard to sensuous objects there exists of sensuous lust, sensuous desire, sensuous attachment, sensuous passion, sensuous deluded ness, sensuous fetters: this is called sensuous clinging.
(2) ''What is the clinging to views? 'Alms and offerings are useless; there is no fruit and result for good and bad deeds: all such view and wrong conceptions are called the clinging to views.
(3) "What is the clinging to mere rules and ritual? The holding firmly to the view that through mere rules and ritual one may reach purification: this is called the clinging to mere rules and ritual.
(4) "What is the clinging to the personality-belief? The 20 kinds of ego-views with regard to the groups of existence (s. sakkāya-ditthi): these are called the clinging to the personality-belief" (Dhs.1214-17).
This traditional fourfold division of clinging is not quite satisfactory. Besides kamupādāna we should expect either rūpupādāna and arūpupādāna, or simply bhavupādāna. Though the Anāgāmī is entirely free from the traditional 4 kinds of upādāna, he is not freed from rebirth, as he still possesses bhavupādāna. The Com. to Vis.M. XVII, in trying to get out of this dilemma, explains kāmupādāna as including here all the remaining kinds of clinging.
"Clinging' is the common rendering for u., though 'grasping' would come closer to the literal meaning of it, which is 'uptake'; s. Three Cardinal Discourses (WHEEL 17), p.19.Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas
Another group of defilements is the ways of clinging or upadana.
There are four ways of clinging:
- sensuous clinging (kamupadana )
- clinging to wrong view (ditthupadana)
- clinging to "rules and rituals" (silabbatupadana)
- clinging to personality belief (attavadupadana)
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Upādāna (उपादान, “grasping”) refers to the ninth of twelve pratītyasamutpāda (dependent origination) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter X. The tendency caused by tṛṣṇā is called upādāna, grasping, attachment. From this upādāna comes action (karman) which brings about the new existence which is called bhava, the act of existence.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
Upādāna (उपादान, “attachment”) refers to the ninth of the “twelve factors of conditional origination” (pratītyasamutpāda) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 42). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., upādāna). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
upādāna : (nt.) grasping; attachment; fuel.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Upādāna, (nt.) (fr. upa + ā + dā) — (lit. that (material) substratum by means of which an active process is kept alive or going), fuel, supply, provision; adj. (-°) supported by, drawing one’s existence from S. I, 69; II 85 (aggikkhandho °assa pariyādānā by means of taking up fuel); V, 284 (vāt°); J. III, 342 sa-upādāna (adj.) provided with fuel S. IV, 399; anupādāna without fuel DhA. II, 163. ‹-› 2. (appld. ) “drawing upon”, grasping, holding on, grip, attachment; adj. (-°) finding one’s support by or in, clinging to, taking up, nourished by. See on term Dhs. trsln. 323 & Cpd. 171. They are classified as 4 upādānāni or four Graspings viz. kām°, diṭṭh°, sīlabbat°, attavād° or the graspings arising from sense-desires, speculation, belief in rites, belief in the soul-theory D. II, 58; III, 230; M. I, 51, 66; S. II, 3; V 59; Dhs. 1213; Ps. I, 129; II, 46, 47; Vbh. 375; Nett 48; Vism. 569.—For upādāna in var. connections see the foll. passages: D. I, 25; II, 31, 33, 56; III, 278; M. I, 66, 136 (attavād°) 266; S. II, 14, 17, 30, 85; III, 10, 13 sq. , 101, 135, 167, 191; IV, 32, 87 sq. , 102 (tannissitaṃ viññāṇaṃ tadupādānaṃ), 390, 400 (= taṇhā); A. IV, 69; V, 111 (upāy°); Sn. 170, 358, 546; Ps. I, 51 sq. , 193; II, 45 sq, 113; Vbh. 18, 30, 67, 79, 119, 132; Dhs. 1059, 1136, 1213, 1536 sq.; Nett 28 sq. , 41 sq. , 114 sq.; DhA. IV, 194.—sa° full of attachment (to life) M. I, 65; Vin. III, 111; S. IV, 102; an° unattached, not showing attachment to existence S. IV, 399; Vin. III, 111; Th. 1, 840; Miln. 32; DA. I, 98.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
upādāna (उपादान).—n S Taking or accepting; admitting, allowing, granting. 2 The immediate or proximate cause.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
upādāna (उपादान).—n Taking or accepting; the immediate cause.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) An oblation, a present (in general).
2) A gift made for procuring favour or protection, such as a bribe.
Derivable forms: upadānam (उपदानम्).
See also (synonyms): upadānaka.
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Upādāna (उपादान).—1 Taking, receiving, acquisition, obtaining; विश्रब्धं ब्राह्मणः शूद्राद् द्रव्योपादानमाचरेत् (viśrabdhaṃ brāhmaṇaḥ śūdrād dravyopādānamācaret) Ms.8.417; 12.7; विद्या° (vidyā°) K.75.
2) Taking away, appropriating to oneself.
3) Employment, using; becoming familiar with.
4) Mention, enumeration; किमास्योपादाने प्रयोजनम् (kimāsyopādāne prayojanam) Mahābhārata I.1.9.
5) Saying, speaking.
6) Including, containing.
7) Withdrawing the organs of sense and perception from the external world and its objects.
8) A cause; motive, natural or immediate cause; पाटवोपादानः भ्रमः (pāṭavopādānaḥ bhramaḥ) U.3. v. l.; प्रकृष्टपुण्य- परिपाकोपादानो महिमा स्यात् (prakṛṣṭapuṇya- paripākopādāno mahimā syāt) U.6.
9) The material out of which anything is made, the material cause; निमित्तमेव ब्रह्म स्यादुपादानं च वेक्षणात् (nimittameva brahma syādupādānaṃ ca vekṣaṇāt) adhikaraṇamālā.
1) A mode of expression in which a word used elliptically, besides retaining its own primary sense, conveys another (in addition to that which is actually expressed); स्वसिद्धये पराक्षेपः (svasiddhaye parākṣepaḥ) ... उपादानम् (upādānam) K. P.2.
11) (With Buddhists) conception; grasping at or clinging to existence (caused by tṛṣṇā and causing bhava). (With Rāmānujas) preparation (of perfumes, flowers &c. as one of the five elements of worship).
12) Effort of body or speech.
13) Name of the four contentments mentioned in सांख्यकारिका (sāṃkhyakārikā) as प्रकृत्युपादानकालभागाख्याः (prakṛtyupādānakālabhāgākhyāḥ) Sāṅ. K.5.
Derivable forms: upādānam (उपादानम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Upādāna (उपादान).—nt. (compare upādāya, °diyati; = Pali id., in all senses except 4; in Sanskrit hardly used in these mgs.), and in Bhvr cpds. (various mgs.) sopādāna (sa-up°) adj., [Page145-a+ 71] having, characterized by up°, and neg. an-up°, nir-up°, without up°: (1) fuel (app. as the substratum or material cause) of fire: Mahāvastu ii.270.14 analo upādānaṃ (sc. bhasmī- karoti); Gaṇḍavyūha 502.10—11 agnir yāvad upādānaṃ labhate; Śikṣāsamuccaya 226.1 yathāgnir upādānavaikalyān na jvalati; (2) grasping, clinging, addiction: Śikṣāsamuccaya 104.14 parṣad-anupādāna- tayā, (by) having no addiction to company (Bendall and Rouse); in most passages not clearly distinguishable from (3); Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 23.7 (verse) te bhonti nirupādānā ihāmutra nirañ- janāḥ; Mahāvyutpatti 2144 upādānam, followed by granthaḥ, nīvaraṇam; 7066 upādāna-hetuḥ; Lalitavistara 180.12 sarvopādānaparigrahair anarthiko (of the Bodhisattva); 244.(2—)3 (nāpi saṃskṛtā- nāṃ sāśravānāṃ) sopādānānāṃ dhyānasamādhisamā- pattīnāṃ doṣo datto bhavet; 358.20 (verse) yāsyanti niru- pādānāḥ phalaprāptivaraṃ śubhaṃ; 392.13 anādāno 'nupādāno 'vijñapto…(of Buddha's dharma); Avadāna-śataka ii.188.10 abhinandanāyopādānāya adhyavasānāya (em.) saṃvartate (of a heretical opinion); Daśabhūmikasūtra 48.9 (saṃskārair avaropitaṃ cittabījaṃ) sāsravaṃ sopādānam…bhavati; (3) clinging to existence, specifically (undoubtedly this is meant in some passages cited under 2); especially as one of the links in the chain of the pratītyasamutpāda; it is produced by tṛṣṇā, and produces bhava (as in Pali, taṇhāpaccayā upā- dānaṃ, upādānapaccayā bhavo): Mahāvastu ii.285.10—11 tṛṣṇā- pratyayam upādānaṃ, upādānapratyayo bhavo; Mahāvyutpatti 2250; Dharmasaṃgraha 42; modulations of the same formula Lalitavistara 346.12, 15; Rāṣṭrapālaparipṛcchā 48.6; Daśabhūmikasūtra 48.16; a peculiar one Lalitavistara 420.4—5 (verse) tṛṣṇāta sarva upajāyati duḥkhaskandhaḥ, (5) upādā- nato (read upa° m.c.) bhavati sarva bhavapravṛttiḥ, where obviously duḥkhaskandha = upādāna, see below, 4; also pañcopādāna-skandhāḥ (= Pali pañc’ upādānak- khandhā), the five skandha which are the basis of clinging to existence (otherwise called simply the 5 skandha, q.v.) Mahāvyutpatti 1831; Avadāna-śataka ii.168.1; pañcasu upādānaskandheṣu Mahāvastu iii.53.3; Divyāvadāna 294.4; (listed as rūpa, vedanā, saṃjñā, saṃskāra, pl., vijñāna, Mahāvyutpatti 1832—6; Mahāvastu iii.53.4—7; Divyāvadāna 294.5—7;) skandhā sopādānā jñānena mayā parijñātā Lalitavistara 371.20 (verse); in the first of the 4 noble truths, saṃkṣepeṇa (Lalitavistara °pāt, Mahāvastu saṃkṣiptena) pañcopādānaskandhā (Mahāvyutpatti °dha-) duḥkham (Mahāvastu duḥkhā) Mahāvyutpatti 2240; Mahāvastu iii.332.4; Lalitavistara 417.7; (4) in Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 75.2 sorrow, misery (compare Lalitavistara 420.4—5, cited under 3 above), prītīprāmodyajāto nir-upādāno (free from sorrow) vigata-nivaraṇo (see s.v. nivaraṇa), said of the man whose sons have been brought out of a burning house. Burnouf cites Tibetan as rendering upādāna here by mya ṅan, which regularly renders Sanskrit śoka, grief; and no other interpretation seems possible. It is an outgrowth of (3) as used in religious language.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-naṃ) 1. Taking away, abduction, taking. 2. Abstraction, restraining the organs of sense and perception. 3. Cause, motive. 4. Immediate or proximate cause. 5. The formal or distinct form, the material cause. 6. A double meaning, an expression conveying a sense besides that which appears intended. 7. Saying, speaking. E. upa near, ādā to take, lyuṭ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Upādāna (उपादान).—i. e. upa-ā-dā + ana, n. 1. Seizure, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 417. 2. Learning, [Hitopadeśa] 4, 13, v. r. 3. Material cause, Bhāṣāp. 149.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Upādāna (उपादान).—[neuter] taking, acquiring, appropiating; non-exclusion, addition; enumeration, mention; the material cause (ph.).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Upadāna (उपदान):—[=upa-dāna] [from upa-dā] 1. upa-dāna (for 2. See [column]2) n. a present, offering. = 2. upa-dā above, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
2) [=upa-dāna] [from upa-dī] 2. upa-dāna n., [ib.]
3) Upādāna (उपादान):—[=upā-dāna] [from upā-dā] n. the act of taking for one’s self, appropriating to one’s self, [Mahābhārata; Manu-smṛti] etc.
4) [v.s. ...] perceiving, noticing, learning, acquiring (knowledge), [Hitopadeśa; Vopadeva]
5) [v.s. ...] accepting, allowing, including
6) [v.s. ...] employment, use, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha; Kapila]
7) [v.s. ...] saying, speaking, mentioning, enumeration, [Vedāntasāra; Kāśikā-vṛtti; Siddhānta-kaumudī]
8) [v.s. ...] abstraction, withdrawing (the organs of sense from the outer world), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) [v.s. ...] (with, [Buddhist literature]) grasping at or clinging to existence (caused by tṛṣṇā, desire, and causing bhava, new births)
10) [v.s. ...] (with Rāmānujas) preparation (of perfumes, flowers etc. as one of the five elements of worship), [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]
11) [v.s. ...] cause, motive, material cause
12) [v.s. ...] material of any kind, [Sāṃkhyakārikā; Vedāntasāra; Kapila] etc.
13) [v.s. ...] offering, present, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Upādāna (उपादान):—[upā+dāna] (naṃ) 1. n. Taking away; abstraction; cause, double meaning; speaking.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Upadāna (उपदान) [Also spelled updan]:—(nm) a subsidy.
2) Upādāna (उपादान) [Also spelled upadan]:—(nm) material (cause); ingredient;—[kāraṇa] the material cause.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Upadana Paritassana Sutta, Upadana Parivatta Sutta, Upadana Sutta, Upadanaka, Upadanakarana, Upadanakkhandha, Upadanakkhaya, Upadanalakshana, Upadananidana, Upadananirodha, Upadanapaccaya, Upadanata, Upadanatva, Upadanatvasamarthana, Upadanavi.
Ends with: Anupadana, Attavadupadana, Balopadana, Caupadana, Cupadana, Dhupadana, Ditth Upadana, Ditthupadana, Ishadupadana, Kamupadana, Nirupadana, Prithagupadana, Saupadana, Savupadana, Silabbatupadana.
Full-text (+69): Upadanakarana, Anupadana, Kamupadana, Upadanalakshana, Aupadanika, Attavadupadana, Upadanata, Nirupadana, Upadanaka, Upadanakkhandha, Uvadana, Upadanatva, Ditthupadana, Silabbatupadana, Savupadana, Upadana Sutta, Sensuous Clinging, Four Clingings, Sopadana, Upadi.
Search found 69 books and stories containing Upadana, Upādāna, Upadāna, Upa-dana, Upa-dāna, Upā-dāna; (plurals include: Upadanas, Upādānas, Upadānas, danas, dānas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
A Discourse on Paticcasamuppada (by Venerable Mahasi Sayadaw)
Chapter 10 - Attavadupadana < [Part 7]
Chapter 19 - Silabbatupadana < [Part 8]
Chapter 1 - Vipassana Practice And Upadana < [Part 9]
Chapter XII - The Group On Grasping < [Part I]
Chapter I - The Group Of Triplets < [Part I]
A Manual of Abhidhamma (by Nārada Thera)
Introductory Verse < [Chapter VII - Abhidhamma Categories]
The Law of Dependent Arising < [Chapter VIII - The Compendium Of Relations]
The Path of Purification < [Chapter IX - Mental Culture]
A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas (by Sujin Boriharnwanaket)
Chapter 6 - Different Aspects of the Four Paramattha Dhammas < [Part 1 - General Introduction]
Chapter 2 - The Characteristic Of Dukkha < [Part 6 - Dialogue on Vipassanā]
The Catusacca Dipani (by Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw)