Pratisamvid, aka: Pratisaṃvid; 6 Definition(s)
Pratisamvid means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
1) Pratisaṃvid (प्रतिसंविद्) refers to the “four infallible knowledges” according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII). Accordingly, “The infallible knowledge of teaching (dharma-pratisaṃvid) and that of the voice (nirukti-pratisaṃvid) are of two levels, kāmadhātu and the first dhyāna; the other two pratisaṃvids, [of things (artha) and of eloquence (pratibhāna)] are of nine levels: kāmadhātu, four dhyānas and four ārūpya-samāpattis”.
2) Pratisaṃvid (प्रतिसंविद्) refers to the “four unhindered knowledges”, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XL. The pratisaṃvids, literally ‘special knowledges’, in Pāli, paṭisambhidā, “explanations, knowledges or unhindered speech” are the unimpeded, unfailing knowledges that make a good preacher.
The pratisaṃvids are four in number:
- artha-pratisaṃvid: knowledge of the thing designated.
- dharma-pratisaṃvid: knowledge of the designation.
- nirukti-pratisaṃvid: knowledge of vocal expression.
- pratibhāna-pratisaṃvid: knowledge of elocution or, more simply, eloquence.
The pratisaṃvids are inseparable: the person who possesses one possesses all of them. On the other hand, they are the same in all, although realized to varying degrees. Thus, there is no way to make distinctions between the pratisaṃvid of the Śrāvaka, the Bodhisattva or the Buddha if this is not in the mind or intention governing their practice.Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)
Pratisaṃvid (प्रतिसंविद्) refers to the “four analytical knowledges” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 51):
- dharma-pratisaṃvid (analytical knowledge of the way things are),
- artha-pratisaṃvid (analytical knowledge of meaning),
- nirukti-pratisaṃvid (analytical knowledge of language),
- pratibhāna-pratisaṃvid (the analytical knowledge of inspired speech).
The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., pratisaṃvid). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
Pratisaṃvid (प्रतिसंविद्) pratisaṃvidā [paṭisambhidā] analytical knowledge. The analytical knowledge is fourfold, namely, analytical knowledge with regard to meaning (artha) [attha]; with regard to the doctrine, to reasons, conditions or causal relations (dharma) [dhamma]; with regard to etymology (nirukti) [nirutti]; and intellect that perceives the things in the above mentioned triple context (pratibhāna) [paṭibhāna].
Reference: Aṭṭhasālinī. Nidāna. 48; IV. 567. Mahāyāna-Sūtrālaṅkāra. IV. 18.
Source: DLMBS: Buddhānusmṛti
Languages of India and abroad
Pratisaṃvid (प्रतिसंविद्).—f. (also °vidā and app. °vida; see following items; = Pali paṭisaṃbhidā, which is often, but questionably, assumed to be the orig. form), special knowledge, of which there are four (the same in Pali), dharma, artha (or in reverse order), nirukti, pratibhāna; on their mgs. see LaV-P. AbhidhK. vii.89 ff.; Lévi, Sūtrāl. xviii.34; Burnouf, Lotus, App. XVII; and for Pali, Chil- ders, and Kvu. transl. 377—382; lists of the four: Mvy 196—200; Dharmas 51; SP 393.11—12 (here without the term pratisaṃvid); listed with more or less detailed de- finitions of each, Dbh 77.3 ff.; Bbh 214.11 ff.; 258.4 ff.; °vid-avatāra, LV 8.13; 35.16; °vid-gatiṃgata, SP 202.10; LV 2.8 (so read with v.l:, confirmed by Tibetan, for text pratisamyag-gati°); °vidāṃ lābhy (lābhī) SP 200.11; °vit-prāpta Divy 97.26; 180.27; 240.25; Av i.96.8 etc.; anāvaraṇa-°vit-prāpta LV 426.5; others, LV 343.4; Bbh 207.22; Gv 4.21.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Search found 14 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:
Niruktipratisaṃvid (निरुक्तिप्रतिसंविद्) refers to the “knowledge of vocal expression” and repr...
Dharmapratisaṃvid (धर्मप्रतिसंविद्) refers to the “knowledge of the designation” and represents...
Pratibhānapratisaṃvid (प्रतिभानप्रतिसंविद्) refers to the “knowledge of elocution or, more simp...
Arthapratisaṃvid (अर्थप्रतिसंविद्) refers to the “knowledge of the thing designated” and repres...
Dharma.—(SII 1), the sacred law; religious merit; a meri- torious gift, a pious work, a charity...
Artha.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘five’, (CII 1), a cause or matter. (CII 1), business. Note: artha is define...
Pratibhāna (प्रतिभान).—n. (-naṃ) 1. Boldness, audacity. 2. Brilliancy, light. 3. Intellect, und...
Nirukti (निरुक्ति).—f. = Sanskrit id., Pali nirutti, explanation, not necessarily etymological,...
Paṭisambhidā, (f.) (paṭi+saṃ+bhid; the BSk. pratisaṃvid is a new formation resting on confusio...
Avatāra (अवतार).—n. (-raṃ) 1. Descent, especially of a deity from heaven; the appearance of any...
Araṇa (अरण).—a. (-ṇī f.) Ved.1) Departed, gone away; belonging to others, strange, unusual, for...
Anāvaraṇa (अनावरण).—(1) nt., non-obstruction (neg. of āvaraṇa, q.v.): °ṇa-gatiṃgata Mvy 356, o...
Pratisaṃvidita (प्रतिसंविदित).—adj. -ppp. (Pali, in neg. a-ppaṭi°, in meaning 1), (1) experienc...
|Four Analytical Knowledges|
Four Analytical Knowledges:—A technical term in Buddhism corresponding to the Sanskri...
Search found 3 books and stories containing Pratisamvid or Pratisaṃvid. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Preliminary note on the four unhindered knowledges (pratisaṃvid) < [Part 3 - The four unhindered knowledges]
I. The pratisaṃvids according to the Abhidharma < [Part 3 - The four unhindered knowledges]
7. Praṇidhijñāna, Pratisaṃvid and Araṇāsamādhi < [Part 4 - Questions relating to the dhyānas]
Buddhacarita (by Charles Willemen)
A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms (by William Edward Soothill)