Pratisamvid, Pratisaṃvid: 7 definitions

Introduction

Pratisamvid means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous (P) next»] — Pratisamvid in Mahayana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Pratisaṃvid (प्रतिसंविद्) refers to the “four infallible knowledges” according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII). Accordingly, “The infallible knowledge of teaching (dharma-pratisaṃvid) and that of the voice (nirukti-pratisaṃvid) are of two levels, kāmadhātu and the first dhyāna; the other two pratisaṃvids, [of things (artha) and of eloquence (pratibhāna)] are of nine levels: kāmadhātu, four dhyānas and four ārūpya-samāpattis”.

2) Pratisaṃvid (प्रतिसंविद्) refers to the “four unhindered knowledges”, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XL. The pratisaṃvids, literally ‘special knowledges’, in Pāli, paṭisambhidā, “explanations, knowledges or unhindered speech” are the unimpeded, unfailing knowledges that make a good preacher.

The pratisaṃvids are four in number:

  1. artha-pratisaṃvid: knowledge of the thing designated.
  2. dharma-pratisaṃvid: knowledge of the designation.
  3. nirukti-pratisaṃvid: knowledge of vocal expression.
  4. pratibhāna-pratisaṃvid: knowledge of elocution or, more simply, eloquence.

The pratisaṃvids are inseparable: the person who possesses one possesses all of them. On the other hand, they are the same in all, although realized to varying degrees. Thus, there is no way to make distinctions between the pratisaṃvid of the Śrāvaka, the Bodhisattva or the Buddha if this is not in the mind or intention governing their practice.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

[«previous (P) next»] — Pratisamvid in Buddhism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Pratisaṃvid (प्रतिसंविद्) refers to the “four analytical knowledges” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 51):

  1. dharma-pratisaṃvid (analytical knowledge of the way things are),
  2. artha-pratisaṃvid (analytical knowledge of meaning),
  3. nirukti-pratisaṃvid (analytical knowledge of language),
  4. pratibhāna-pratisaṃvid (the analytical knowledge of inspired speech).

The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., pratisaṃvid). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: DLMBS: Buddhānusmṛti

Pratisaṃvid (प्रतिसंविद्) pratisaṃvidā [paṭisambhidā] analytical knowledge. The analytical knowledge is fourfold, namely, analytical knowledge with regard to meaning (artha) [attha]; with regard to the doctrine, to reasons, conditions or causal relations (dharma) [dhamma]; with regard to etymology (nirukti) [nirutti]; and intellect that perceives the things in the above mentioned triple context (pratibhāna) [paṭibhāna].

Reference: Aṭṭhasālinī. Nidāna. 48; IV. 567. Mahāyāna-Sūtrālaṅkāra. IV. 18.

 

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (P) next»] — Pratisamvid in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pratisaṃvid (प्रतिसंविद्).—f. An accurate knowledge of the particulars of anything.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pratisaṃvid (प्रतिसंविद्).—f. (also °vidā and app. °vida; see following items; = Pali paṭisaṃbhidā, which is often, but questionably, assumed to be the orig. form), special knowledge, of which there are four (the same in Pali), dharma, artha (or in reverse order), nirukti, pratibhāna; on their mgs. see LaV-P. Abhidharmakośa vii.89 ff.; Lévi, Asaṅga (Mahāyāna-sūtrālaṃkāra) xviii.34; Burnouf, Lotus, App. XVII; and for Pali, Chil- ders, and Kvu. translation(s) 377—382; lists of the four: Mahāvyutpatti 196—200; Dharmasaṃgraha 51; Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 393.11—12 (here without the term pratisaṃvid); listed with more or less detailed de- finitions of each, Daśabhūmikasūtra 77.3 ff.; Bodhisattvabhūmi 214.11 ff.; 258.4 ff.; °vid-avatāra, Lalitavistara 8.13; 35.16; °vid-gatiṃgata, Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 202.10; Lalitavistara 2.8 (so read with v.l:, confirmed by Tibetan, for text pratisamyag-gati°); °vidāṃ lābhy (lābhī) Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 200.11; °vit-prāpta Divyāvadāna 97.26; 180.27; 240.25; Avadāna-śataka i.96.8 etc.; anāvaraṇa-°vit-prāpta Lalitavistara 426.5; others, Lalitavistara 343.4; Bodhisattvabhūmi 207.22; Gaṇḍavyūha 4.21.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pratisaṃvid (प्रतिसंविद्).—f. (-vit) An accurate knowledge of anything.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pratisaṃvid (प्रतिसंविद्):—[=prati-saṃ-√vid] a [Causal] -vedayati, to recognize (?), [Divyāvadāna] ([Ātmanepada] p. -vedayamāna, feeling, [ib.])

2) [=prati-saṃvid] [from pratisaṃ-vid] b f. analytical science (4 with Buddhists), [Dharmasaṃgraha 51; Lalita-vistara]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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