A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 15 - Fifteen Strokes

Stiff, rigid; prostrate.

僵娑洛 saṃsāra, course, transmigration, v. 散 and 生死.

A number varying from the Chinese 100,000 to a Buddhist 1,000,000, 10,000,000, and 100,000,000.

Manner, mode, style; ceremony, etiquette.

儀式 儀軌 Mode, style, manner.

Perverse, base, depraved; partial, prejudiced; rustic, secluded.

僻見 Perverse, incorrect, or depraved views.

A sword, two-edged sword.

劍山 劍樹地獄 Asipattra. The hill of swords, or sword-leaf trees hell, one of the sixteen hells; also called 刀刃路.

To split, rend, tear.

劈箭急 Rapid as an arrow cleaving (the air).

A kitchen; also a cabinet for an image.

M004304M084293 bhūrom, an exclamation frequently occurring at the beginning of mantras, probably in imitation of Brahmanic mantras, which begin by invoking bhūr earth, bhuvaḥ air, and svar heaven; or it may be a combination of bhūr earth, and oṃ, the mystic interjection.

To neigh; a crashing noise.

嘶夜那 śyena, a hawk, falcon.

Bite, eat, feed on; a bite, morsel; to lure.

噉月 To gnaw the moon.

A grave 墳墓.

Ink; black; dyed black, e.g. 墨衣 black clothes, at one time said to have been the garb of the monk to distinguish him from the ordinary people who wore white.

墨竭提 Magadha, v. 摩.

To fall, sink, settle, slide.

墜芥 To drop a mustard seed from the Tuṣita heaven on to the point of a needle on the earth, most difficult, rare.

To fall; dilapidated; to fall from a higher to a lower place or condition; a tr. of prāyaścitta, expiation, a section in the Vinaya of ninety offences for which atonement is required.

墮羅鉢底 Dvārapati or Dvāravatī, 'an ancient kingdom on the upper Irawaddy.' Eitel.

To increase, add, augment, more.

增一阿含經 Ekottara-āgama The āgama in which the sections each increase by one, e.g. the Anguttara Nikāya of the Hīnayāna; a branch of literature classifying subjects numerically, cf. 阿 āgama.

增上 Additional, increase, superior, strengthened.

增上心 Advancing or improving mind, superior mind.

增上心學 The study of increased powers of mind (through meditation).

增上慢 Arrogance, pride (of superior knowledge); e.g. the 5,000 disciples who, in their Hīnayāna superiority, thought they had gained all wisdom and refused to hear the Lotus gospel.

增上果 adhipatiphala, v. 異熟果, dominant effect; increased or superior effect, e. g. eye-sight as an advance on the eye-organ.

增上緣 The cause, condition, or organ of advance to a higher stage, e.g. the eye as able to produce sight.

增劫 The kalpa of increment, during which human life increases by one year every century, from an initial life of ten years, till it reaches 84,000 (and the body from 1 foot to 8,400 feet in height), in the 滅劫 similarly diminishing.

增息 Increasing (power of prayer for) cessation of calamity.

增悲 Augmented pity of a bodhisattva, who remains to save, though his 增智 advanced knowledge would justify his withdrawal to nirvāṇa.

增戒學 Advanced or increasing study of the moral law; the study of the higher moral law.

增益 Increasing, improving.

增進 Advance, progress.

增道損生 A bodhisattva's progress in the doctrine with concurrent reduction in reincarnation.

增長 Increasing both broad and long, 增 referring to breadth and 長 to height, or length.

增長天 Virūḍhaka, the Mahārāja of the southern quarter.

增長廣目 Virūḍhaka and Śiva.

Play, pleasure.

嬉戲 To play, perform.

To write.

寫經 To copy the scriptures.

A hut, study, monastery; fellow-student.

寮主 寮元; 寮長 The head, or manager of a monastery.

To try, judge, examine.

審慮思 Discriminating thought.

dhvaja; ketu. A pennant, streamer, flag, sign.

幢幡 A flag, banner.

幢相 A sign, symbol, i.e. the monk's robe.

patākā, a flag, banner.

To fall in ruins; come to nought; cast aside, do away with, discard; spoil, waste.

廢前教 The discarding of previous rules in the Nirvāṇa Sūtra, e.g. previously monks were allowed the three kinds of clean meat; in this sūtra all are forbidden.

廢惡修善 To cast aside evil and perform the good.

廢權立實 To set aside the temporary and establish the real and permanent.

廢迹顯本 To set aside the temporal life (of the Buddha) and reveal the fundamental eternal life.

A fane, temple, palace; an intp. of caitya, cf. 支.

vipula. Broad, wide, extensive, spacious; extended, enlarged, expanded; for vaipulya v. 方廣, for which 廣 is also used alone to indicate vaipulya sūtras, etc.

廣博 Wide and spacious, extensively read, very learned.

廣博身 The one whose body fills space, Vairocana.

廣嚴城 Vaiśālī, broad ornate city, cf. 毘.

廣大 Broad and great.

廣大智 The vast wisdom of Buddha beyond measure.

廣大會 The centre where vast virtues meet, a term for Amitābha.

廣慧 vipulaprajñā, or vipulamati, vast wisdom, an epithet of a Buddha, one able to transform all beings.

廣教 Full or detailed teaching by the Buddha about the duties of the order, in contrast with 略教 general or summarized teaching; the detailed teaching resulting from errors which had crept in among his disciples.

廣果天 Bṛhatphala, the twelfth brahmaloka, the third of the eight heavens of the fourth dhyāna realm of form.

廣狹 Broad and narrow.

廣目天 The wide-eyed deva, Virūpākṣa, diversely-eyed, having deformed eyes, an epithet of Śiva, as represented with three eyes; name of one of the four Mahārājas, he who guards the west.

廣長舌 A broad and long tongue, one of the thirty-two marks of a Buddha, big enough to cover his face; it is also one of the 'marvels' in the Lotus Sūtra.

Worn out, reduced to extremities, corrupt, deceptive; my, mine.

弊欲 Corrupt, or base desires.

A bullet, shot; to strum, snap; repress, impeach; translit. dan.

彈多 danta, a tooth.

彈多抳瑟搋 dantakāṣṭa, a tooth stick, v. 憚.

彈多落迦 Dantalokagiri, a mountain (the montes Daedali of Justinian) near Varuṣa with its cavern (now called Kashmiri-Ghār), where Sudāna lived.

彈宅迦 Daṇḍaka, name of a king.

彈宅迦林 The forest of Daṇḍaka, destroyed by a ṛṣi because the king had carried off the ṛṣi's wife, saying a ṛṣi had no need for one.

彈指 To snap the fingers—in assent, in joy, in warning; a measure of time equal to twenty winks.

Shadow, picture, image, reflection, hint; one of the twelve 'colours'.

影事 Shadow things, i.e. all things are mere shadows.

影供 Image worship.

影像 pratibimba. Shadows, reflections, with no real existence or nature of their own.

影向 The coming of a deity, responding, responsive.

影堂 A hall where are the images, or pictures, of objects of worship.

影現 The epiphany of the shadow, i.e. the temporal Buddha.

影護 Like a shadow-guardian, always following like a shadow the substance.

影響衆 影向衆 The responsive group in the Lotus Sūtra, who came in response to a call, e.g. Mañjuśrī, Guanyin, etc.

Penetrate, pervious, perspicacious; throughout; communal.

徹心 To penetrate or reach the heart or mind.

Virtue, moral excellence, moral power, power; also translates guṇa; translit. ta.

德尸羅 (德叉尸羅) Taksaśīla, an ancient kingdom and city, the Taxila of the Greeks. Lat. 35°8' N., Long. 72° 44' E.

德叉迦 Takṣaka, one of the four dragon-kings.

德士 Virtuous scholar, a term for a monk in the Tang dynasty.

德字 The svastika.

德本 The root of the moral life, or of religious power; also a name for Amitābha as the root of all virtue.

德母 The mother of virtue. i.e. faith which is the root of the religious life.

德海 The ocean-like character and influence of virtue.

德甁 The vase or talisman of power, cf. 賢德.

德田 Field of virtue, or of religious power, i.e. the cult of arhats and Buddhas.

德行 Moral conduct and religious exercises, or discipline; moral conduct.

德風 The wind of virtue, or of religious power.

德香 The fragrance of virtue.

Felicity, felicitous, felicitate.

慶懺 慶讚 A service of felicitation, e.g. on the dedication of an image, temple, etc.

Commiserate, pity, sympathize, charitable.

憐念 Sympathetic thoughts.

憐愛 To pity, love, care for.

憐愍 To pity, commiserate.

To long for, hanker after, love; translit. mo, mu.

慕何 moha, v. 謨 Unenlightened, stupid.

慕捺囉 mudrā, a seal, sign, token, hand or finger signs.

慕攞 慕羅 mūla, root, fundamental, hence mūlagrantha, fundamental works, original texts; Mūla-sarvāstivādaḥ, the Hīnayāna school of that name.

Dread; dislike; translit. dan.

憚哆 danta tooth, teeth; cf. 彈 and 娜.

憚啄家瑟多 dantakāṣṭha, tooth stick, said to be chewed as a dentifrice; also, to be the name of a tree grown from a toothpick of the Buddha.

Hate, dislike.

憎愛 Hate and love.

Passion, inordinate desire, lust, v. 欲.

慾愛 To hanker after, desire.

Boastful, bragging; self-indulgent; indulgent; translit. ko, kau, go, gau; cf. 瞿, 倶, 拘, 巨.

憍坑 The pit of pride and arrogance.

憍奢耶 kauśeya, also 憍舍耶; 高世耶 cloth made of wild silk.

憍尸迦 Idem. 憍尸 (or 憍支迦) Kauśika, of the family of Kuśika, family name of Indra; one account says Amitābha was of the same family name.

憍慢 Arrogance and pride.

憍曇彌 憍答彌; 倶答彌 Gautamī, feminine of the patronymic Gautama, the family name of Śākyamuni. Gautamī is a name for Mahāprājapatī, his aunt and nurse, who in the Lotus Sūtra is predicted to become Buddha.

憍梵 (憍梵波提) Gavāṃpati, also 憍梵鉢提; 迦梵波提; 笈房鉢底 intp. as chewing the cud; lord of cattle, etc. A man who became a monk, born with a mouth always ruminating like a cow because of former oral sin.

憍薩羅 Kosala, Kośala; also 居薩羅 (or 拘薩羅); 拘婆羅, i.e. Northern Kosala, or Uttarakosala, an ancient kingdom, the modern Oude; also Southern Kosala, or Dakṣiṇa-kosala, an ancient kingdom, part of the present Central Provinces.

憍賞彌 Kauśāmbī, also 憍閃彌 (or 憍睒彌); 倶睒彌; 'an ancient city on the Ganges in the lower part of the Doab.' M.W. It has been identified by some with Kusia near Kurrah; but is the village of Koṣam on the Jumna, 30 miles above Allahabad. Cf. 巨.

憍陳如 (or 憍陳那) Kauṇḍinya; also 阿若拘鄰; 阿若憍陳那 Ājñātakauṇḍinya. (1) A prince of Magadha, uncle and first disciple of Śākyamuni. (2) A grammarian mentioned in the Prātiśākhya sūtras. (3) Vyākaraṇa-Kauṇḍinya, who was told by the Buddha that a Buddha is too spiritual to leave any relics behind. Eitel.

Sorrow, grief, melancholy, anxiety; to mourn, grieve; translit. u, yu; cf. 優, 烏.

憂世 The world of trouble and sorrow.

憂受 Sorrow, one of the five emotions.

憂婆提舍 Upatiṣya, perhaps a name of Śāriputra.

憂火 The fires of sorrow or distress.

憂畢叉 upekṣā, cf. 優 indifference attained in abstraction, i.e. 'indifference to pain or pleasure, equanimity, resignation, stoicism'. Childers. 'Looking on, hedonic neutrality or indifference, zero point between joy and sorrow, disinterestedness, neutral feeling, equanimity.' Pali Text Society's Dictionary.

憂陀伽 udaka, water.

憂陀那 udāna, cf. 優, 烏, etc. Breathing upwards from the throat into the head; guttural sounds; the navel, umbilical; the middle; volunteered remarks or addresses by the Buddha, sermons that came from within him without external request; voluntarily to testify.

prajñā ; sometimes jñāna. Wisdom, discernment, understanding; the power to discern things and their underlying principles and to decide the doubtful. It is often interchanged with 智, though not correctly, for zhi means knowledge, the science of the phenomenal, while hui refers more generally to principles or morals. It is part of the name of many monks, e.g. 慧可 Huike; 慧思Huisi.

慧劍 The sword of wisdom which cuts away illusion.

慧力 prajñābala, one of the five powers, that of wisdom.

慧印 Wisdom-sign, or seal; also 智印.

慧可 Huike, the successor of Bodhidharma, v. 達; he previously cut off his arm in appeal to be received as disciple, and finally inherited his mantle and alms-bowl.

慧命 Wisdom-life, or wisdom as life, wisdom being the basis of spiritual character. A term of address to a monk, also 慧壽, and to a monk by a superior.

慧學 The study of wisdom, e.g. the Abhidharma.

慧幻 Wisdom-illusion, wisdom-conjuring; the kaleidoscope of wisdom.

慧忍 Wisdom-patience, one of the 十忍.

慧思 Huisi, the second patriarch of the Tiantai school 南嶽大師.

慧愷 Huikai, a monk and author, also known as 智愷 Zhikai of the sixth century A.D.

慧數 Mental conditions in contrast to mind itself.

慧日 Wisdom-sun, Buddha-wisdom. Huiri, a celebrated Tang monk and author (disciple of Yijing) who also went on pilgrimage to India and spent thirteen years there, died A.D. 748; entitled 慈愍三藏.

慧月 Jñānacandra, author of the non-Buddhist 勝宗十句義論, Vaiśeṣika-nikāya-daśapadārtha-śāstra, tr. by Xuanzang; perhaps the same as 智月.

慧根 The root, i.e. the organ, of wisdom.

慧業 Undertaking and doing; practical goodness resulting from wisdom.

慧流 The living stream of wisdom able to cleanse all impurity.

慧淨 Huijing, a noted Tang monk, translator and author, who was commanded to assist Xuanzang in his translations but was unable through failing health.

慧炬 The torch of wisdom.

慧燈 The lamp of wisdom.

慧燈王 A king who gave his flesh and blood to save the lives of others.

慧琳 Huilin, a disciple of the Indian monk Amogha 不空; he made the 慧琳音義 dictionary of sounds and meanings of Buddhist words and phrases, based upon the works of 玄應 Xuanying, 慧苑 Huiyuan, 窺基 Kueji, and 雲公 Yungong, in 100 juan, beginning the work in A. D. 788 and ending it in 810. He is also called 大藏音義; died 820.

慧目 The eye of wisdom.

慧眼 The wisdom-eye that sees all things as unreal.

慧縛 The bond of ignorance and stupidity which fetters wisdom.

慧義 The apprehension of the meaning of reality through wisdom.

慧能 The power of wisdom. Huineng, name of a noted monk, sixth patriarch of the Intuitional or Meditation sect; died 713.

慧苑 Huiyuan, a noted Tang monk and lexicographer, author of the 慧苑音義 dictionary of sounds and meanings, cf. 慧苑琳.

慧藏 Wisdom-store, the Abhidharma Piṭaka, which embodies the science of ascertaining the meaning of the sūtras. Also, the whole of the Tripiṭaka.

慧見 Wise views, or insight into wisdom, the views of wisdom.

慧觀 Huiguan, one of Kumārajīva's chief assistants in translation, died 424.

慧解 The function of wisdom—to explain all things.

慧解脫 The escape by, or into wisdom, i.e. of the arhat who overcomes the hindrances to wisdom, or insight, but not the practical side of abstraction, etc.; better able to understand than to do.

慧超 Huichao, a monk who travelled in India.

慧足 The leg of wisdom, the other being 福足 q.v.

慧身 Wisdom body, one of the five division of the dharmakāya, which is the embodiment inter alia of inherent wisdom.

慧鏡 The mirror of wisdom.

慧雲 The clouds of wisdom with which the Tathāgata covers all beings.

To compose, compile.

撰號 Compiler's name, author's title.

To sow, publish: reject; to winnow; to stir up, cheat; translit. pa, .

播尼 pāṇi, the palm of the hand.

播捨 pāśa, a noose, snare.

播磨 upama, a resemblance, simile.

播輸鉢多 pāśupata, followers of the lord of cattle, Śiva, who smeared themselves with ashes, also 波輸鉢多.

To spread, open out, scatter, disseminate, detach, uproot.

撥無因果 To dispense with, or deny the law of karma, one of the five heresies.

撥草瞻風 (or 撥草參玄) To uproot the weeds (of ignorance) and look for the mystic Buddha-breeze.

To scatter, set loose, sow.

撒馬兒罕 Samakan, Samarkand, v. 颯.

To feel, handle, rub; translit. m, ma, mu, ba; cf. 末, 磨.

摩休勒 mahoraga, cf. 摩睺羅.

摩伽 Maghā, an asterism 'containing five stars figured like a house, apparently α, γ, ζ, η, ν Leonis' (M.W.); intp. as governing the eleventh month; for which 摩佉; 摩袪 are also used.

摩伽羅 makara, cf. 摩竭 a sea monster.

摩伽陀 Magadha, cf. 摩竭陀 also used for Māgha, the month January-February.

摩偷 [偸] madhu, sweet, an intoxicating liquor.

摩偷羅 Mathurā; Madhurā. Ancient kingdom and city, the modern Muttra on the bank of the Jumna; the reputed birthplace of Kṛṣṇa, one of the seven sacred cities, called Peacock City 孔雀城 Kṛṣṇapura, famous for its stūpas. The ancient name Madhu is given in 摩度. Other forms are摩突羅 (or摩度羅, or 摩頭羅); 秼菟羅.

摩利 mallikā, a fragrant flower variously described as jasmine, aloes, musk, etc. Name of the wife of king Prasenajit, also called 摩利室羅 Mālyaśrī .

摩利伽羅耶 Malaya in Malabar, cf. 摩羅.

摩利支 (or 摩梨支, or 摩里支); 末利支 Marīci. Rays of light, the sun's rays, said to go before the sun; mirage; also intp. as a wreath. A goddess, independent and sovereign, protectress against all violence and peril. 'In Brahmanic mythology, the personification of light, offspring of Brahmā, parent of Sūrya.' 'Among Chinese Buddhists Maritchi is represented as a female with eight arms, two of which are holding aloft emblems of sun and moon, and worshipped as goddess of light and as the guardian of all nations, whom she protects from the fury of war. She is addressed as 天后 queen of heaven, or as 斗姥 lit. mother of the Southern measure (μλρστζ Sagittarī), and identified with Tchundi' and 'with Mahēśvarī, the wife of Maheśvara, and has therefore the attribute Mātrikā', mother of Buddhas. Eitel. Taoists address her as Queen of Heaven.

摩哂陀 Mahendra, younger brother of Aśoka, reputed as founder of Buddhism in Ceylon.

摩呼洛迦 mahoraga, described as large-bellied; a class of demons shaped like the boa; a spirit in the retinue of Śākyamuni; a form taken by Vairocana; also 莫呼洛迦 (摩); 摩睺羅伽; 摩護囉誐.

摩多 mātṛ, a measurer, maker, former, mother.

摩多羅迦 mātṛkā, cf. 摩怛.

摩夷 mātṛkā, cf. 摩怛.

摩娑 māṃsa, flesh.

摩娑羅 musāra-galva, agate, cf. 牟.

摩奴沙 (or 摩奴闍), v. 末奴沙 manuṣya, mānuṣa, man, any rational being.

摩奴是若 manojña, agreeable to the mind, attractive, at will.

摩奴末耶 (or 摩?末耶) manomaya, 'consisting of spirit or mind, spiritual, mental.' M.W. Intp. as mind-produced body, or form, any appearance produced at will.

? 沙 manuṣya,摩 ?奢; 摩 ?賖 man, any rational being, v. 末? 沙, 摩奴沙.

摩尼 maṇi; 'a jewel, gem, precious stone (especially a pearl, bead, or other globular ornament).' M.W. A bright luminous pearl, symbol of Buddha and his doctrines. Tr. 'as wished', or at wish, whoever possesses the pearl receives whatever he desires. One of the seven treasures. With Shivaites a symbol of the Liṅga. Also 末尼.

摩尼跋陀 (摩尼跋陀羅) Maṇibhadra, one of the eight generals; 'a king of the yakṣas (the tutelary deity of travellers and merchants, probably another name for Kuvera).' M. W.

摩尼犍大龍王 Maṇiskandhanāga. The nāga king in whose hand is the talismanic pearl.

摩度羅 Mathurā, modern Mutra, v. 摩偸.

摩怛里 mātṛ, a mother.

摩怛里迦 mātṛkā, also 摩呾里迦; 摩怛履迦; 摩得勒伽 (or 摩德勒伽); 摩多羅迦; 摩侄梨迦; 摩室里迦; 摩夷; the Abhidharma-piṭaka, as the mother of Buddhist philosophy.

摩愉羅伽藍 Masūra Saṅghārāma. An ancient vihāra about 200 li south-east of Mongali. Eitel. Cf. 豆.

摩揭 v. 摩竭.

摩提 mati, understanding; v. 末底.

摩拏 v. 摩奴沙.

摩拏羅 Manorhita, or Manorhata, an Indian prince who became disciple and successor to Vasubandhu as 22nd Patriarch. Author of the Vibhāṣā śāstra. 'He laboured in Western India and in Ferghana where he died in A.D. 165.' Eitel. Also摩奴羅; 未笯曷利他.

摩賴耶 v. 摩羅耶.

摩沙羅 musāra-galva, v. 牟.

摩沓媻 Mathāva; Mādhava; Madhu. 'The Mathai of Megasthenes, a tribe of Indian aborigines who lived north of Kośala in Rohilcund and along the southern frontier of Nepaul. They gave the name to Mathurā and Matipura.' Eitel. The last statement at least is doubtful.

摩由羅 mayūra, 孔雀 a peacock; also 摩裕羅; 摩廋囉.

摩登伽阿蘭若 mātaṅga-āraṇyakāḥ. The second class of hermits (probably called after the lowest caste), living in cemeteries, at a distance of 500 bow-lengths (circa 3,000 feet) from a village.

摩登伽經 A sūtra on Mātaṅgī, and on the stars. cf. 摩鄧.

摩睺羅 muhūrta, a moment. mahoraga, also 摩睺勒 v. 摩呼.

摩祇 A medicine that can eradicate poison, and so overpowering that serpents avoid it; also 摩蛇; 摩蚳; 摩醯; 莫耆.

摩竭 (摩竭羅) makara. A sea monster, either in the form of a great fish, e.g. a whale, or a great turtle. Also 摩伽羅 (or 摩迦羅).

摩竭陀 Magadha, also 摩竭提; 摩揭陀; 摩伽陀; 摩訶陀 'A kingdom in Central India, the headquarters of ancient Buddhism up to A.D. 400; the holy land of all Buddhists, covered with vihāras and therefore called Bahar, the southern portion of which corresponds to ancient Magadha.' Eitel. A ṛṣi after whom the country of Southern Behar is said to be called. Name of a previous incarnation of Indra; and of the asterism Maghā 摩伽.

摩納 (摩納婆迦) Māṇavaka, a Brahman youth, a youth, a man; also 摩納縛 (摩納縛迦); 摩那槃; 那羅摩那 (naramana).

摩納仙 Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation.

摩羅 māla, a wreath, garland, chaplet, headdress; also tr. as Māra, a huge fish, cf. 摩竭羅 makara.

摩羅伽陀 (or摩羅迦陀) marakata, the emerald.

摩羅提 摩羅耶提數 (or 摩羅耶底數); 摩離 Malayadeśa, Malaya country.

摩羅耶 Malaya, the Malabar hills, noted for their sandalwood, cf. 末; also 摩羅延; 摩梨; 摩利伽羅耶; 摩賴耶.

摩耶 Māyā, v. Mahāmāya, infra.

摩臘婆 Mālava, or Lāra (Lāṭa). An ancient state in Central India, in the present Gujarat.

摩裕羅 v. 摩由羅.

摩訶 mahā, great, large, very; also摩醯; 莫訶.

摩訶僧祇部 Mahāsāṅghikāḥ, or Mahāsaṅghanikāya; 大衆部 one of the four branches of the Vaibhāṣika, said to have been formed after the second synod in opposition to the Sthavirās, marking the first division in the Buddhist church. Followers of Mahākāśyapa. After the third synod this school split into five sects: Pūrvaśāila, Avaraśāila, Haimavatā, Lokottaravādinas, Prajñāptivādinas.

摩訶僧祇律 The great canon of monastic rules, tr. by Buddhabhadra and Faxian in 40 juan.

摩訶剌佗 Mahārāṣṭra. 'The Mahratta country, an ancient kingdom in the north-west corner of the Deccan, near the upper course of the Godavery.' Eitel.

摩訶因陀羅 Mahendra, v. 摩哂.

摩訶婆羅 (or 摩訶娑羅) Mahāsāra. 'An ancient city in Central India, the present Masar, about 30 miles west of Patna.' Eitel.

摩訶尼羅 (or 摩訶泥羅) mahānīla, dark-blue, a sapphire; described as the large blue pearl of Indra, perhaps the Indranīla.

摩訶憍曇彌 Mahāgautamī, aunt and nurse of Śākyamuni. Cf. 憍.

摩訶曼殊沙華 mahāmañjūṣaka, a red flower yielding the madder (munjeeth of Bengal).

摩訶曼陀羅華 mahāmandārava, a large white lotus; cf. 曼.

摩訶拘絺羅 Mahākauṣṭhila, a disciple of the Buddha; also 摩訶倶瑟耻羅; v. 拘.

摩訶摩耶 mahāmāyā, intp. by M.W. as 'great deceit or illusion worldly illusion, the divine power of illusion (which makes the material universe appear as if really existing and renders it cognizable by the senses), the Great Illusion (the illusory nature of worldly objects personified and identified with Durgā)'. Mahāmāyā was the wife of Śuddhodana, and mother of Śākyamuni. He, Siddhārtha, was born 'from her right side', and she died seven days later, her sister Mahāprajāpati becoming his foster mother. Also called 摩訶第脾 Mahādevī; 摩訶夫人 Lady Māyā, etc.

摩訶毘盧遮那 v. 毘. Mahāvairocana.

摩訶毘訶羅 Mahāvihāra. A monastery near Anurādhāpura, Ceylon, where Faxian (A.D. 400) found 3,000 inmates.

摩訶毘訶羅住部 Mahā-vihāravāsināḥ. 'A subdivision of the Mahāsthavirāḥ school, which combated the Mahāyāna system.' Eitel.

摩訶提婆 Mahādeva, the great deva, Maheśvara, i.e. Śiva; also a former incarnation of Śākyamuni; and name of an arhat.

摩訶波闍波提 Mahāprajāpatī, title of aunt and nurse of Śākyamuni; reputed as the first abbess; according to the Lotus she is to become a Buddha, under the title of Sarvasattva-priya-darśana. Also摩訶鉢剌闍鉢底; cf. 憍 Gautamī.

摩訶慮瑟拏 Mahāroṣaṇa, the angry deva.

摩訶目犍連 Mahāmaudgalyāyana, v. 目, one of the chief disciples of Śākyamuni, at whose left his image is placed, Śāriputra being on the right. Mahāsthāmaprāpta is said to be a form of Maudgalyāyana.

摩訶目脂鄰陀 (or 摩訶目眞鄰陀) Mahāmucilinda, name of a nāga-king, etc., v. 目.

摩訶袒特 Mahātantra (dhāraṇī), great spell power for overcoming the evil and cleaving to the good.

摩訶羅 mahallakas, old, stupid, ignorant; also 摩迦羅; 莫訶洛迦 (or 莫喝洛迦).

摩訶羅闍 mahārāja, a great or superior king; a king.

摩訶耶彌提婆 Mahāyānadeva, a title given to Xuanzang in India; cf. 玄.

摩訶般湼槃那 mahāparinirvāṇa, v. 涅, the great complete nirvāṇa, final release, perfect rest.

摩訶般若 mahāprajñā, v. 般, great wisdom, great insight into all truth.

摩訶般若波羅蜜 mahāprajñāpāramitā, v. 般, the great wisdom method of crossing the stream to nirvāṇa, i.e. Buddha-truth.

摩訶菩提寺 Mahābodhi-saṅghārāma. The monastery of the great enlightenment, a vihāra near the Bodhidruma at Gayā; cf. 西域記 8 and Faxian.

摩訶薩埵 (摩訶薩) Mahāsattva, 'great being,' one with great compassion and energy, who brings salvation to all living beings; a Bodhisattva; also 摩訶刹頭.

摩訶薩埵王子 Mahāsattva-kumāra-rāja, the noble and royal prince, Śākyamuni.

摩訶衍 (摩訶衍那) Mahāyāna, 大乘 q.v. the real Vehicle, in contrast with Hīnayāna 小乘. Also 摩訶夜那 (or 摩訶夜泥).

摩訶諾伽那 mahānagna, 'quite naked' (M.W.); great naked powerful spirits, cf. 諾.

摩訶質帝薩埵 mahācittasattva. A great-mind being, a bodhisattva. Also 摩訶菩堤質帝薩埵.

摩訶迦葉 (摩訶迦葉波) Mahākāśyapa, or Kāśyapadhātu 迦葉 (迦葉頭陀), a Brahman of Magadha, disciple of Śākyamuni; accredited with presiding over the first synod, hence known as 上座; also with supervising the first compilation of the Buddha's sermons; is reckoned as the first Patriarch, v. 二十八祖 and 迦.

摩訶迦旃延 Mahākātyāyana, one of the principal disciples of Śākyamuni; v. 大 and 迦.

摩訶迦羅 Mahākāla, the great black deva, v. 大黑.

摩訶那伽 Mahānāga, the great nāga, 'one of the elephants that support the world.' M.W. A title of a Buddha, or of an arhat.

摩訶那摩 摩訶男 Mahānāman, one of the first five of Śākyamuni's converts.

摩訶那鉢 Mahāsthāmaprāpta, the bodhisattva 大勢至 q. v.

摩訶鉢特摩 mahāpadma, defined by M.W. as a great 'white' lotus; but intp. in China as the great red lotus, after which the eighth cold hell is named. As the great white lotus it is a Buddha-throne, of purity and fragrance.

摩迦吒 markata, a monkey; also 摩斯吒.

摩那埵 mānatta, joy to the penitent and his fellow monks caused by confession and absolution; also a term for penance, or punishment; and for offences involving reprimand (Pali).

摩那婆 v. 摩納 māṇava.

摩那斯 摩那蘇婆帝 Mānasa; Manasvatī. A lake in the Himālayas, one of the four lakes formed when the ocean fell from heaven upon Mount Meru. The dragon who is the tutelary deity of this lake.

摩鄧伽 Mātaṇga, also 摩登伽 (or 摩燈伽) Elephant, greatest, utmost, lowest caste, outcast, barbarian. 摩鄧祇 Mātaṅgī. Both words bear a low meaning in Chinese, e.g. low caste. Mātaṅgī is the name of the low-caste woman who inveigled Ānanda. The 摩鄧祇咒 spell is performed with blood, etc.

摩醯因陀羅 (or 摩訶因陀羅) Mahendra, younger brother of Aśoka, who, on repenting of his dissolute life, became an arhat and is said to have founded Buddhism in Ceylon.

摩醯奢娑迦 Mahīśāsakāḥ, cf. 彌, one of the subdivisions of the Sarvāstivādāḥ school.

摩醯徑伐羅 魔醯首羅; 魔醯 Maheśvara. Explained by 大自在天 great sovereign deva, 天王 king of devas. Śiva, lord of one great chiliocosm, a deity with eight arms, three eyes, riding on a white bull. Xuanzang says specially worshipped in the Panjab. It is a term also for certain bodhisattvas and certain heavens.

摩頂 To lay the hand on the top of the head, a custom of Buddha in teaching his disciples, from which the burning of the spots on the head of a monk is said to have originated.

摩騰 Kāśyapa Mātaṇga who, according to tradition, accompanied the first envoys back to China. A. D. 64; cf. 迦.

Diffuse, spread, promulgate, announce.

敷具 The displayed, or promulgating article, i.e. the monk's robe.

敷曼荼羅 To spread a magic cloth, or maṇḍala, on the ground.

To oppose, compete; an enemy.

敵證 Opposition and affirmation, negative and positive.

To number, count, enumerate, figure out, calculate, reason, reprimand; numbers, an account, fate, destiny; flurried. It is also used for 智 knowledge, and for mental content or conditions as in 心數.

數人 數法人 Those of the Sarvāstivādāḥ school, cf. 薩, who held that all things are real.

數取趣 A definition of pudgala, i.e. all beings subject to transmigration.

數息 To count the breathing in order to calm mind and body for meditation, e.g. 數息觀; 數門 (數息門); cf. 阿 ānāpāna.

數珠 A rosary; to tell beads, which consist of various numbers, generally 108.

數緣盡 數滅無爲 idem 擇滅.

數行煩惱 The common passions and their consequences.

數論 The śāstras of the Sarvāstivādins; also Kaplila, called數論外道; 數論師 founder of the Sāṅkhyā philosophy; v. 僧伽, 劫, and 迦. It is an attempt to place all concepts in twenty-five categories, with puruṣa at the head and the others in ordered progress. Inter alia it also teaches 'the eternity and multiplicity of souls' (Eitel). Vasubandhu wrote in criticism of the system.

Temporarily, briefly, meanwhile, suddenly.

暫暇 A brief relief, or leave of absence.

A pivot, axis.

樞要 The pivot; principles.

A cage, fence.

樊籠 A cage, the cage of karma, or the world with its suffering, etc.

A species of Sapindus, or soap-berry tree, whose seeds 槵子 are used for rosaries.

An upper storey, stored building, tower; one of the eighteen hells.

樓夷亙羅 Lokeśvararāja, an ancient Buddha, successor to 定光 Buddha.

樓衆 A tower or pile of charcoal, e.g. the world for conflagration.

樓毘 cf. 嵐Lumbini.

樓由 樓至 Rucika, also 廬至 (or 廬遮), the last of the 1,000 Buddhas of the present kalpa.

樓陀羅 (樓陀) Rudra, the howler, or god of tempests.

樓黎 vaiḍūrya, lapis lazuli, cf. 璢.

Signal, flag, banner; the troops under a particular banner; a notice, list, signboard, ticket; to publish.

標幟 Signals, symbols, especially those used by the Yoga sect.

標月 To indicate the moon.

標領 The leader, chief.

A trough, manger, channel.

槽廠 A stable.

Music, that which causes joy, hence joy, joyful, glad, rejoice; also to find joy in, enjoy.

樂乾闥婆 The gandharvas, Indra's musicians.

樂受 The sensation, or perception of pleasure.

樂土 A happy land.

樂天 deva musicians, see above.

樂施 Joyful giver, tr. of Sudatta, i.e. Anāthapindika, v. 阿.

樂果 Joyful fruit, i.e. nirvāṇa.

樂根 The organs of pleasure—eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and body.

樂欲 Desire for the pleasant, or pleasure.

樂法 Delight in Buddha-truth, or the religion.

樂波羅蜜 The pāramitā of joy, one of the 四德波羅蜜 four transcendent pāramitās q.v., i.e. 常, 樂, 我 and 淨.

樂神 deva musicians, v. 樂乾闥婆, 樂天.

樂著 The bond of pleasure binding to the phenomenal life.

樂說 Joy in preaching, or telling the way of salvation; joy in that which is preached. It is also called pratibhāna, bold and illuminating discourse, or freedom in expounding the truth with correct meaning and appropriate words, one of the 無礙智 four pratisaṃvids.

樂說辯才 similar to樂說.

樂變化天 Sunirmita, the fifth of the six desire-heavens, where every form of joy is attainable at will; also 化樂天 (化自樂天); 妙樂化天.

樂邦 The joyful country, the paradise of the West.

樂音 The sound of music.

樂音樹 The trees in Amitābha's paradise which give forth music to the breeze.

To praise; to sigh.

歎波那 Broken rice, v. 麨.

The tide; tidal; damp.

乘潮 To take advantage of the tide.

Clear, limpid.

澄觀 Chengguan, a famous monk and author, a follower of 賢首 Xianshou and supporter of the Huayan school, died A.D. 806.

Clean, pure.

潔齋 To purify a monastery, cleanse away all immorality and impropriety; a pure establishment.

To sprinkle, to water: perfidious, infamous.

澆季 The evil period of the world's existence leading to its end.

Acrid, astringent, rough.

澁觸 One of the eight sensations of touch.

A deep, a pool.

潭恩 Profound grace, or favour.

Name of several streams, etc.

潙山 Guishan, a noted mountain, monastery, and Tang monk in Fujian, by whom the 潙仰 Guiyang branch of the Chan school was founded.

Moisten, soak, enrich, fertilize, sleek, smooth, profit.

潤業 Fertilized karma, the original karma fertilized by the passions and distresses of life.

潤生 The fertilization of the natural conditions which produce rebirth, especially those of the three kinds of attachment in the hour of death, love of body, of home, and of life.


熟酥經 The sūtras of ripe curds or cheese, the prajñā group.

tap, tapana, tapas. Hot; to heat.

熱惱 Perturbed, feverish, troubled, distressed.

熱時炎 Mirage, idem 陽炎.

熱病 Fever.

熱鐡地獄 The hell of red-hot iron (pills).

A yak 犛牛.

A sore, ulcer.

瘡門 Ulcerating orifices, i.e. the nine orifices in the body which discharge.

To bury, offer in sacrifice.

瘞錢 Offerings of paper money at the grave.

Fever, ague.

瘧加持 瘧病法 Treatment of feverish ailments by tantric measures.

瘧鬼 Apasmāra, a demon supposed to cause 瘧 fever, ague.

A dish, plate; round, to coil, wind up; to go about, travel, convey; to inquire about, interrogate. Translit. pa, ba, bha, va; cf. 般, 半, etc.

盤坐 To sit with folded legs.

盤荼昧 vandanī, praise, adore, v. 和.


瞎屢生 A blind, stupid man.

瞎驢 A blind or blind-folded donkey, stupid.

krodha; pratigha; dveṣa; one of the six fundamental kleśas, anger, ire, wrath, resentment, one of the three poisons; also called 瞋恚.

瞋恚使 The messenger, or lictor of anger.

瞋心 瞋恚心 A heart of anger.

瞋火 The fire of anger.

瞋煩惱 The passion or defilement of anger.

To polish; translit. cha; cf. 車, etc.

A rock.

磐石劫 The rock kalpa. Let a rock 40 li in extent be brushed once in a hundred years by a deva garment; when brushed away the kalpa is ended.

Porcelain crockery, chinaware.

磁石 A lodestone, magnet.

Investigate; delay; to prostrate oneself.

稽首 vandana; vandi. To make obeisance by prostration.

稽薑那 Kikana. 'A people in Afghanistan (east of Kandahar, south of Ghazna) ruled A.D. 630 by independent chieftains, perhaps identical with the Kykānān of Arabic chroniclers.' Eitel.

Grain; rice unhulled.

穀頭 The monk in charge of the grain.

Growing rice.

稻稈 Rice straw.

Poor, impoverished, exhausted; to exhaust, investigate thoroughly.

窮子 The poor son, or prodigal son, of the Lotus Sūtra.

窮生死蘊 To exhaust the concomitants of reincarnation, be free from transmigration.

A round grain bin.

篅衣 A nun's skirt.

An arrow, dart.

箭道 An arrow-shot, or bow-shot, in distance.

Pattern, rule, method.

範衞 Rule and restraint; to guard by proper means.

A slip of bamboo, a slip, leaf, page, books.

篇目 A subject or text exposed on a slip; the publication, e.g., of the name of a wrong-doer.

篇聚 Two divisions of wrong-doing, one called the 五篇 five pian, the other the six and seven ju. The five pian are: (1) pārājika, v. 波, sins demanding expulsion from the order; (2) saṅghāvaśeṣa, v. 僧, sins verging on expulsion, which demand confession before and absolution by the assembly; (3) ? prāyaścitta, v. 波逸, sins deserving hell which may be forgiven; (4) pratideśanīya, v. 波羅 and 提舍, sins which must be confessed; (5) duṣkṛta, v. 突, light sins, errors, or faults. The six ju are the five above with sthūlātyaya, v. 偸, associated with the third, implying thought not developed in action. The seven ju are the above with the division of the fifth into two, action and speech. There are further divisions of eight and nine.

A thread, wire, clue, spy, lead, connection.

線香 Thread or string incense, slow-burning and prolonged.

To train, practise, drill, exercise.

練磨 To drill and grind, three bodhisattava conditions for maintaining progress: the fixing of attention on those who have attained enlightenment; the examination of one's purpose; and the realization of the power at work in others; v. 三退屈.

練若 araṇya, hermitage, etc., cf. 阿.

練行 Religious training or discipline.

To plait; enroll; compile.

編髮 To plait the hair, or roll it into conch-shape.

pratyaya means conviction, reliance, but with Buddhists especially it means 'a co-operating cause, the concurrent occasion of an event as distinguished from its proximate cause'. M.W. It is the circumstantial, conditioning, or secondary cause, in contrast with 因 hetu, the direct or fundamental cause. hetu is as the seed, pratyaya the soil, rain, sunshine, etc. To reason, conclude. To climb, lay hold of. The mind 能緣can reason, the objective is 所緣, the two in contact constitute the reasoning process. The four kinds of causes are 因緣; 次第緣; 緣緣, and 增上緣 q.v.

緣中 The place or idea on which the mind is centralized.

緣事 To lay hold of, or study things or phenomena, in contrast to principles or noumena, cf. 緣理; meditation on the Buddha's nirmāṇakāya and saṃbhogakāya, in contrast with the dharmakāya.

緣佛 A deceased relative or friend, i.e. a Buddha connected with me.

緣力 pratyaya-bala; the power of the conditioning cause, circumstance, or contributing environment, in contrast with the 因力 direct cause.

緣化 To convert or instruct those under influence.

緣因 Developing cause, i.e. development of the fundamental Buddha-nature, cf. 緣正.

緣塵 The guṇas, qualities, or sense-data which cause the six sensations of form, sound, odour, taste, touch, and thought.

緣心 The conditioned mind, the mind held by the phenomenal.

緣念 緣想 Thoughts arising from environment, similar to the last entry.

緣成 The phenomenal, whatever is by causal conditions.

緣日 The day of the month on which a particular Buddha or bodhisattva is worshipped, he being in special charge of mundane affairs on that day, e.g. the 5th is Maitreya, 15th Amitābha, 25th Mañjuśrī, 30th Śākyamuni.

緣機 Conditions opportune; favourable circumstances; cause and conditions co-operating for achieving Buddhahood.

緣正 Conditioned and fundamental; 正 refers to the Buddha-nature, the bhūtatathatā 正因佛性; 緣 to the Buddha-nature in all undergoing development 緣因佛性.

緣理 To study, or reason on fundamental principles; to contemplate ultimate reality, cf. 緣事.

緣理斷九 By the consideration of the tenth realm only, i.e. the Buddha-realm, to cut off the illusion of the nine other realms of time and sense.

緣生 Produced by causal conditions. The twelve nidānas are also called 十二緣生. Cf. 緣起.

緣慮心 The rational cogitating mind; also 慮知心 the cogitating perceiving mind.

緣相 Reasoning, mentality, the mind.

緣緣 The reasoning mind, or the mind reasoning, intelligence in contact with its object; later termed 所緣緣, i.e. 所緣 being the object and 緣 the mind; the relationship being like that of form or colour to the eye.

緣覺 pratyekabuddha 辟支佛; 辟支迦佛; 鉢剌翳伽陀 (鉢剌翳伽佛陀) In the early translations it was rendered 緣覺, i.e. enlightened through reasoning on the riddle of life, especially as defined in the twelve nidānas. Later it was rendered 獨覺 or individual enlightenment, i.e. one who lives apart from others and attains enlightenment alone, or for himself, in contrast with the altruism of the bodhisattva principle. The term pratyekabuddha is not limited to Buddhists, but is also general for recluses pondering alone over the meaning of life, an illustration being the rhinoceros, which lives in isolation. The non-Buddhist enlightenment is illusion, e.g. from observing the 'flying flowers and falling leaves'; the Buddhist enlightenment arises from pondering over the twelve nidānas. As a degree of saintship it is undefined by early Buddhism, receiving its definition at a later period.

緣覺乘 The 'middle conveyance' period, characterized as that of the pratyekabuddha, who is enlightened by the twelve nidānas; it is considered as an advance on the Hīnayāna, cf. śrāvaka, but not yet the standard of the altruistic bodhisattva-vehicle, the Mahāyāna.

緣覺法界 The pratyekabuddha realm, one of the ten Tiantai categories of intelligent beings.

緣覺菩提 The pratyekabuddha form of enlightenment, for self.

緣覺身 The pratyekabuddha or personal appearing of the Buddha.

緣觀 The phenomenal and noumenal, i.e. the observed and the observing, the object and subject.

緣起 Arising from conditional causation; everything arises from conditions, and not being spontaneous and self-contained has no separate and independent nature; cf. 緣生. It is a fundamental doctrine of the Huayan school, which defines four principal uses of the term: (1) 業感緣起 that of the Hīnayāna, i.e. under the influence of karma the conditions of reincarnation arise; (2) 賴耶緣起 that of the primitive Mahāyāna school, i.e. that all things arise from the ālaya, or 藏 fundamental store; (3) 如來藏緣起 that of the advancing Mahāyāna, that all things arise from the tathāgatagarbha, or bhūtatathatā; (4) 法界緣起 that of complete Mahāyāna, in which one is all and all are one, each being a universal cause.

緣起法 pratītya-samutpāda; idem 十二緣起, i.e. the twelve nidānas, cf. 十二因緣, 緣起偈; 緣起頌 (緣起法頌) The gāthā of three of the four fundamental dogmas of Buddhism; than all is suffering, that suffering is intensified by desire, and that extinction of desire is practicable. This is found in 智度論. It is also called 緣起法頌. It is placed in the foundations of pagodas and inside of images of Buddha and so is called 法身偈 dharmakāyagāthā.

To curse, scold.

呪罵 To curse.

Cease, stop; mark of finality.

罷參 To dismiss the assembly.

To castrate; deer-skin; translit. ka, gha. Cf. 迦, 拘, 軻, 朅, 竭, etc.

羯利王 Kalirāja, a former incarnation of Kauṇḍinya, when as king he cut off the hands and feet of Kṣānti-ṛṣi because his concubines had strayed to the hermit's hut. Converted by the hermit's indifference, it was predicted that he would become a disciple of Buddha.

羯利沙鉢 kārṣāpana, a coin weighing ca. 176 grains.

羯吒布怛那 Kaṭapūtana, a kind of ill-smelling demon, a preta in the lower regions. M.W.'

羯地洛迦 Khadiraka, the third of the seven circles around Meru. Cf. 佉.

羯尼 (羯尼迦) kanaka, gold; name of several yellow plants, e.g. thorn apple; Butea frondosa; a species of sandalwood, etc.

羯布羅 karpūra, dragon-brain scent, camphor.

羯拏僕 Kaṇabhuj; Kaṇāda 蹇尼陀, founder of the Vaiśeṣika school of Indian philosophy.

羯摩 Karma, v. 業 and cf. 羯磨.

羯毘 (羯毘迦羅) kalaviṅka, v. 迦.

羯洛迦孫馱 Krakucchanda, v. 迦.

羯磨 karma; action, work, deed, performance, service, 'duty'; religious action, moral duty; especially a meeting of the monks for the purpose of ordination, or for the confession of sins and absolution, or for expulsion of the unrepentant. There are numerous kinds of karma, or assemblies for such business, ordinarily requiring the presence of four monks, but others five, ten, or twenty. Cf. 業 for definition of karma, deeds or character as the cause of future conditions; also 五蘊 for karma as the fourth skandha.

羯磨僧 A monastic assembly; also a monk on duty, e.g. in meditation.

羯磨印 An image showing the symbol of a bodhisattva's activity.

羯磨會 An assembly for monastic duty; also the central group of the Vajradhātu maṇḍala.

羯磨身 An image, a term used by the esoterics.

羯磨陀那 karmadāna, i.e. the 維那 or director of duties.

羯羅拏蘇伐剌那 Karṇasuvarṇa. 'An ancient kingdom in Gundwana, the region about Gangpoor, Lat. 21゜ 54 N., Long. 84゜ 30 E.' Eitel.

羯羅舍 kalaṣa, a water-pot, pitcher, jar, dish, also 迦羅舍; 羯攞賖.

羯羅頻迦 cf. 羯陵. For Krakucchanda, v. 迦.

羯耻那 khaṭṭika. Lictors in hades; possibly from the root khād, to devour; also 羯耻羅; 伽絺那; it is also defined as 'dog-cookers', butchers, hunters, those who live by killing and selling animals, persons of very low caste.

羯臘婆 or 羯臘縛 karaphu, or kalahu, 'a particularly high number' (M.W.), 10 quintillions; 大羯臘婆 100 quintillions; cf. 洛叉.

羯若鞠闍 Kanyakubja, 'hump-backed maidens.' An ancient city and kingdom of Central India. In antiquity this city ranks next to Ayodhyā in Oudh. It is known to classical geography as Canogyza. The etymology refers to the legend of the hundred daughters of Kuśanābha its king, who refused the licentious desires of Vāyu (Mahāvṛkṣa 大樹仙) and were turned by him into hunchbacks. M.W. Eitel says 'the modem Canouge'.

羯蘭鐸迦 kalandaka, 'a species of bird' (M.W.); cf. 迦.

羯蠅揭羅 Kajiṅghara, Kajangala, or Kajūghira; a kingdom whose ruling family was extinct in A.D. 400.' The ruins of the capital are situated at the village of Kadjéri near Farakhabad (Lat. 27゜ 24 N., Long. 79゜27 E.) in the province of Agra.' Eitel. Also 羯殊温祗羅.

羯達羅 Khadrira 羯陀羅; v. 竭.

羯邏藍 kalala, the human embryo during the first seven days; the womb; also 羯羅藍, 歌羅邏, etc.

羯陵伽 Kaliṅga, also 羯M044209伽. An ancient kingdom south-east of Kośala, a nursery of heretical sects, the present Kalingapatnam. Eitel. Also with 羯羅頻迦 used for kalaviṅka, v. 迦.

羯霜那 Kaśanna. 'An ancient kingdom 300 li south-west of Kharismiga on the Oxus, the present Koorshee' Karshi. Eitel.

Glue, gum.

膠盆子 A glue-pot, referring to running handwriting.

膠香 Incense of the liquid-ambar tree.

A membrane.

膜拜 To raise the hands to the head in making obeisance.

chāyā, a shadow, reflection; gnomon, dial.

蔡華 A lotus.

Without, not; minute, small.

蔑戾車 mleccha, barbarians, non-Aryan, heathen, frontier tribes. Also 篾, 彌, 畢.

puṇḍarīka, the lotus, especially the white lotus, Numphoea alba; padma, especially the Nelumbium speciosum; utpala, the Nymphoea coerulea, the blue lotus; kumuda, Nymphoea esculenta, white lotus, or N. rubra, red lotus; nīlotpala, N. cyanea, a blue lotus. The first four are called white, red, blue, and yellow lotuses; but the white lotus is generally meant unless otherwise specified.

蓮刹 Lotus-kṣetra, or Lotus-land, the paradise of Amitābha.

蓮子 Lotus seeds.

蓮宗 The Lotus sect founded by 慧遠 Huiyuan circa A.D. 390 at his monastery, in which was a 自蓮池 white lotus pond. It has no connection with the White Lily Secret Society which arose during the Mongol or Yuan dynasty. The Lotus sect is traced to the awakening of Huiyuan by the reading of the Prajñāpāramitā sūtra. He then turned his attention to calling on the name of Buddha to obtain salvation direct to his Pure Land. The school became that of the Amitābha or Pure-land sect, which in later years developed into the principal Buddhist cult in the Far East.

蓮宮 padmavimāna. Lotus-palace, the Pure Land of the saṃbhogakāya; also the eight-leaved lotus of the heart.

蓮座 The lotus throne on which are seated the images; Buddha-throne.

蓮理 The mystic doctrine of the Lotus faith.

蓮眼 The eye of the blue lotus, i.e. the wonderful eye of Buddha.

蓮社 The White Lotus sect, idem 蓮宗.

蓮祐 Mutual protectors, or helpers of the Lotus sect, i.e. members.

蓮經 The Lotus Sūtra; v. 法華.

蓮胎 The Lotus-womb in which the believers of Amitābha are born into his paradise; it is also described as the believer's heart in embryo.

蓮華 or 蓮花 The lotus flower.

蓮華國 The pure land of every Buddha, the land of his enjoyment.

蓮華坐 padmāsana; to sit with crossed legs; also a lotus throne.

蓮華子 Disciples, or followers, shown in the 蓮華部 of the maṇḍalas.

蓮華手菩薩 Padmapāṇi , Guanyin holding a lotus flower.

蓮華智 The lotus or mystic wisdom of Amitābha, one of the five 智.

蓮華眼 The blue-lotus eyes of Guanyin.

蓮華臺 Lotus throne for images of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

蓮華藏世界 The lotus world or universe of each Buddha for his saṃbhogakāya.

蓮華衣 or 蓮華服 The lotus-garment, or robe of purity, the robe of the monk or nun.

蓮邦 The Lotus land, the Pure Land, of Amitābha.

蓮門 The Lotus sect, idem 蓮宗.

A shrimp, prawn; a frog.

蝦蟆禪 Frog samādhi, which causes one to leap with joy at half-truths.

The bat.

蝙蝠僧 A bat monk, v. 鳥.

Guard, defend, restrain, an outpost, garrison; to escort.

衞世師 Vaiśeṣika; derived from viśeṣa, characteristic, individuality, particularity or individual essence. M.W. Also 鞞世師 (or 鞞思迦); 吠世史迦; 勝論宗 An atomistic school founded by Kaṇāda. Like the Saṅkhya philosophy it taught a dualism and an endless number of souls, also by its doctrine of particularity or individual essence maintained 'the eternally distinct or sui generis nature of the nine substances' (see below), 'of which the first five including mind are held to be atomic.' M.W. The interaction of these with the six mentioned below produces cosmic evolution. It chiefly occupied itself, like the orthodox Nyāya philosophy, with the theory of knowledge, but it differed by distinguishing only six categories of cognition 六諦, viz. substance, quality, activity, species, distinction, and correlation, also a seventh of non-existence, and nine substances possessed of qualities, these 九陰 being: the five elements, air, fire, water, earth, ether, together with time, space, spirit (manas), and soul (ātman). Cf. Keith, Indian Logic and Atomism, and Dasgupta, History of Indian Philosophy.

Double garments, wadded, lined; double; repeated.

To praise; salutation. poṣadha, v. 布.

Coarse serge, hence poverty.

褐剌縭 (or褐賴縭, 褐剌褵, 褐賴褵) harali, cloth woven of fine hair.

褐麗 (褐麗伐多) Revata, name of several persons, v. 利, 離.

To flatter, fawn, cajole, sycophancy.

諂曲 Flattery and fawning.

Remonstrate with; debate, dispute.

諍論 Debate, dispute, disputation.

Request, ask, invite; please; engage; acknowledge, announce.

請佛 To invite a Buddha.

請假 暫假 To ask for leave of absence, or permission to go out.

請折 To ask for, or reject.

請益 To ask for an increase, for more, for advancement, etc.

請雨 To pray for rain.

諄那 curna, powder, flower, dust, sand, etc.


誹謗 apavāda. Slander, refute, deny.

誹謗正法 To slander, or deny, the truth, i.e. Buddhism.

To talk, chat, discuss.

談林 A monastic school room.

談空說有 To discuss non-existence and talk of existence; i.e. to discuss the meaning of reality; in discussing non-existence to talk of the existing; it is a phrase expressing confusion of ideas or argument.

談義 To discuss the meaning.

談議 To discuss and consult, or deliberate.

To discourse upon, discuss, reason over; tr. for śāstra, abhidharma, and upadeśa, i.e. discourses, discussions, or treatises on dogma, philosophy, discipline, etc.

論宗 The Madhyamaka school of the 三論 Sanlun (Sanron); also the Abhidharma, or Śāstra school; also the same as論家; 論師 śāstra-writers, or interpreters, or philosophers.

論民 v. 嵐 Lumbinī.

論疏 śāstras with commentary.

論藏 Thesaurus of discussions or discourses, the Abhidharma Piṭaka, one of the three divisions of the Tripiṭaka. It comprises the philosophical works. The first compilation is accredited to Mahā-Kāśyapa, disciple of Buddha, but the work is of a later period. The Chinese version is in three sections: 大乘論 the Mahāyāna philosophy; 小乘論 the Hīnayāna philosophy; 宋元續入藏諸論 The Song and Yuan Addenda, A.D. 960-1368.

論議 upadeśa, dogmatic treatises, the twelfth and last section of the Canon.

調 To harmonize, blend; regulate, control; to change about, exchange; a song, tune.

調伏 To discipline bring under control, e.g. bring into submission the body, mouth, and will; control, or subjugate evil spirits, etc.; it is one of the intp. of Vinaya.

調達 (調婆達) (調多, 調婆多) v. 提 Devadatta.

調度 To arrange, calculate, manage, especially relating to provision for material needs.

調御 To tame and control as a master does a wild elephant or horse, or as the Buddha brings the passions of men under control, hence he is termed 調御丈夫 and 調御師 Puruṣa-damya-sārathi.

調意 To control the will, to subdue its evil.

調直定 To harmonize the discords of the mind, to straighten its irregularities, and quiet its distractions, an explanation of samādhi given by Tiantai.

調頌 Hymns and chants, an intp. of gāthā.

To sell.

賣弄 To show off, boast.

Substance, matter; to substantiate, to confront; substantial honest, sound; translit. ci, ce.

質多 (質多耶); 質帝 citta (cittam), the heart considered as the seat of intellect; the thinking, reflecting mind.

質多羅 citra, variegated, of mixed colours, not of a primary colour. Citra, the name of a star, Spica in Virgo.

質底 ci, to assemble, pile up; caitya, a funeral pile, or mound.

質直 Substantial and straight; honestly, firmly, straight without dissemblance. Cf. 火辨.

Wise and virtuous, sage, second rank to a 聖 saint; good, excellent in character, virtuous.

賢人 A wise and virtuous man.

賢劫 Bhadrakalpa, the present period; the last was 莊嚴劫 the next is to be 星宿劫 A Bhadrakalpa has 1,000 Buddhas, hence its name 'the good kalpa', also called 善劫. There are varied statements in regard to the thousand Buddhas, and variety as to their names. Śākyamuni is the fourth of the present kalpa, Maitreya is to follow and 995 to succeed him.' It is to last 236 million years, but over 151 millions have already elapsed.' Eitel. Cf. 賢劫經; 現在賢劫千佛經 and 颰跋 bhadra.

賢甁 bhadra-kumbha; auspicious jar, magic bottle, from which all good things may be wished.

賢者 A good and wise man, not yet free from illusion or fully comprehending reality; also anyone occupying a superior position, or a good man in general.

賢聖 Those who are noted for goodness, and those who are also noted for wisdom, or insight; the xian are still of ordinary human standard, the sheng transcend them in wisdom and character; the attainments from 見道 upwards are those of the sheng; the xian is on the moral plane, and has not eliminated illusion; the sheng has cut of illusion and has insight into absolute reality. The Mahāyāna has three stages for the xian and ten for the sheng; the Hīnayāna has seven for each.

賢護 Bhadrapāla, a disciple who kept the faith at home at the time of the Buddha. Also, a bodhisattva who with 500 others slighted Śākyamuni in a previous existence, was converted and became a Buddha. An image of Bhadrapāla is kept in the monastic bathroom; cf. 楞嚴經5.

賢豆 Hindu, India, cf. 印.

賢首 Sage head or loader, a term of address to a monk. A bodhisattva in the Huayan sūtra. A queen mentioned in the same sūtra, and in the 賢首經. The third patriarch 法藏Fazang, of the Huayan sect, which is also known by his title 賢首宗 Xianshou-zong.

Destination, destiny (especially on rebirth): v. 五趣, i.e. the hells, pretas, animals, man, devas.

趣寂 The destiny of nirvāṇa, as understood by the Hīnayāna.

To squat.

踞地獅子 A crouching lion.

Tread, trample.

踏床 A footstool.

To kick.

踢倒 To kick over.

cakra; wheel, disc, rotation, to revolve; v. 研. The three wheels are 惑業苦illusion, karma, suffering, in constant revolution. The five are earth, water, fire, wind, and space; the earth rests on revolving spheres of water, fire, wind, and space. The nine are seen on the tops of pagodas, cf. 九輪.

輪圍山 Cakravāla, the double concentric circles of mountains forming the periphery of a world.

輪圓 (輪圓具足) A complete maṇḍala showing the Buddhas and others, symbolizing their works; a magic circle.

輪埵 Ears round and full, a mark of a Buddha.

輪華 (輪多梨華) A precious pearl that purifies; also a specially fragrant flower.

輪寶 A cakravartin's wheel, i.e. either gold, silver, copper, or iron, manifesting his rank and power.

輪差 輪番 To take turns, used to indicate a rota or rotation of duties.

輪座 The throne of a cakravartin, or Buddha.

輪廻 輪轉 saṃsāra, the turning of the wheel, to revolve, i.e. transmigration in the six ways, the wheel of transmigration; the round of existence.

火輪 alātacakra, a wheel of fire, produced by rapidly whirling a fire-brand, a symbol of the unreality of the visible, since such a wheel does not exist.

輪王 A cakravartin, 'a ruler the wheels of whose chariot roll everywhere without obstruction; an emperor, a sovereign of the world, a supreme ruler.' M.W. A Buddha, whose truth and realm are universal. There are four kinds of cakravartin, symbolized by wheels of gold, silver, copper, and iron; each possesses the seven precious things, 七寶 q.v.

輪相 The wheel sign, on the top of a pagoda, or on the feet of a cakravartin, or Buddha.

輪臍 The navel, or hub of a wheel.

輪藏 Revolving scriptures, a revolving stand with eight faces, representing the eight directions, each containing a portion of the sacred canon; a praying-wheel, the revolving of which brings as much merit to the operator as if he had read the whole.

輪輻 Wheel-spokes.

輪輞 輪緣 A felly, or tire.

To go to, reach; happen; follow, accord with; suddenly, now, then.

適化 To adapt teaching to circumstances.

適莫 Pro and con, according or contrary (to wishes).

To cover, screen, veil, hide, hinder; translit. ca, cha, tya.

遮制 遮戒 A secondary commandment, deriving from the mandate of Buddha, e.g. against drinking wine, as opposed to 性戒 a commandment based on the primary laws of human nature, e.g. against murder, etc.; cf 二戒.

遮吒迦 cāṭaka, a sparrow; the bird Cuculus melanoleucus, which is supposed only to drink falling rain.

遮性 The two kinds of commandment, 遮制.

遮惡 遮罪 The second kind of sin as in 遮制, e.g. drinking.

遮文荼 ? cāmuṇḍā, a jealous woman; angry spirit; evil demon, one used to call up the dead to slay an enemy.

遮斷 To prevent, suppress, cut off.

遮末邏 遮摩羅 Cāmara, name of one of the central parts of the southern continent, Jambudvīpa.

遮棃夜 遮唎耶 caryā, actions, doings, proceedings, course.

遮照 To suppress or to reveal (or illuminate); destructive or constructive; to negate or to affirm.

遮遣 To negate, disprove, dispose of.

遮那 毘盧遮那 Vairocana, v. 毘.

遮難 Tests for applicants for full orders; there are sixteen (or ten) 遮 and thirteen 難, the former relating to general character and fitness, the latter referring to moral conduct.

Drunk, intoxicated.

醉象 A mad elephant, like evil hard to subdue.

The point of a sword, or weapon; points, bristling; a knife edge.

To melt metal, dissolve, dispel, dissipate, spend, cancel, end.

銷釋 To solve, explain.

鋪多 Bhūtāḥ, a sect of ascetics who smeared themselves with ashes.

Examine, inspect, look over.

閱藏 To examine (and dust) the scriptures, or library.

閱叉 yakṣa, v. 夜.

閱頭檀 Śuddhodana, v. 首.

Neighbouring, adjacent, near.

隣單 One's neighbouring monks, i.e. in the right and left seats.

隣圓 Near to perfect enlightenment, the stage before it.

隣智 Similar to 隣圓.

隣珍 A neighbour's pearls—no aid to me.

隣虛 Next to nothing, the minutest particle, an atom.

隣近 Near to, approaching, adjoining, approximate.

To shake, thunder, tremble, awe, quicken; translit. cin, ci.

震動 To shake, agitate.

震多末尼 cintāmaṇi, the philosopher's stone, granting all one's wishes.

震旦 Cīna, name of China in ancient India; also 振旦; 眞旦; 神旦 intp. as the place where the sun rises, but a translit. of Cīnaṣṭhāna.

震嶺 China.

震越 civara, a garment; an article for sleeping on, or in.

The root of the nose, the brow; a saddle; translit. a, an, ar, cf. 阿.

頞哳吒 Ataṭa, one of the cold hells.

頞悉多 Asta, the western hill behind which the sun sets, sunset, death, home.

頞杜迦 Andūka, v. 阿梨.

頞沙荼 Āṣādha, the first month of summer, 16th of 4th Chinese moon to 15th of 5th.

頞浮陀 頞部陀 (or 頞部曇) Arbuda, cf. 阿, the first of the eight cold hells, where the cold raises tumours on the skin; also a foetus of twenty-seven days.

頞濕縛羯拏 Aśvakarṇa, the fifth of the seven circles round Meru.

頞濕縛庾闍 Aśvayuja (or 頞濕婆庾闍) , the first month of autumn (September-October).

頞瑟吒 aṣṭan, eight, the eight divisions of the 24-hours day.

頞那 Anna, food, but intp. as the name of a mountain.

頞鞞 Upasena, v. 阿濕 one of the first five converts, idem Aśvajit.

頞順那 v. 阿 Arjuna.

頞飯底 v. 阿 Avantī.

A gale; translit. pha, bha; cf. 跋 and 婆.

颰陀 颰陀和 (颰陀羅); 颰陀波羅 bhadra, 颰陀羅波梨 Bhadrapāla, v. 跋.

颰陀劫 Bhadrakalpa, v. 跋.

poṣa. Nourish, rear, support.

Rations, food; revenue.

餉供 Offerings of food.

Hair (of the head), locks.

髮塔 A pagoda over a hair of Buddha's head.

髮論 The śāstra of the non-Buddhist Kapila, the 勝論 q.v.

An ogre, evil spirit.

魅女 A young woman used as a medium for such a spirit to injure others.

Stupid, vulgar, honest.

魯達羅 Rudra, roaring, awful, terrible, intp. terribly evil, a name for Śiva; also 澇達羅; 嚕捺羅.

A wild goose.

鴈王 King or leader of the flight, or flock; Buddha, hence 鴈門 Buddhism.

Broken dry rice, grits, crumbled grain.

Black, black-haired; cf. 離, 利, 梨, etc.

黎耶 ālaya, v. 阿.

The teeth, especially the front and upper teeth; toothed, serrated; age, class.

齒印 A serrated seal, or serrations as evidence.

齒木 dantakāṣṭha. A stick for cleaning the teeth.

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