A Dictionary Of Chinese Buddhist Terms

With Sanskrit And English Equivalents And A Sanskrit-pali Index

by William Edward Soothill | 1937 | 324,264 words

For about a thousand years, Buddhism dominated the thought of China and her thinkers were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. This dictionary serves as a resource to the interpretation of Chinese culture, as well as an important reference for the comparative study of Sanskrit and Pali originals. The author provides a key for the students which to u...

Part 5 - Five Strokes

Fire, heat, south; the third of the ten stems.

丙丁 A junior, or so-and-so.

丙丁童子 the boy who attends to the lamps (which are associated with 'fire').

Moreover, yet, meanwhile.

且喜 So be it, granted, a qualified assent.

A mound, a plot; personal name of Confucius.

丘井 A (dry) well on a hill top, symbolical of old age.

丘慈 屈支; 龜兹 q. v. Kuche, Karashahr.

yuga. An age, 1, 000th part of a kalpa. loka, the world. 世 originally meant a human generation, a period of thirty years; it is used in Buddhism both for yuga, a period of time ever flowing, and loka, the world, worldly, earthly. The world is that which is to be destroyed; it is sunk in the round of mortality, or transmigration; and conceals, or is a veil over reality.

世世生生 Transmigration after transmigration in the six states of mortal existence.

世主 (世主天) The Lord of the world, Brahmā; Maheśvara; also the four mahārājas 四天王; v. 梵天; 大自在天.

世代 A generation, a lifetime; the world.

世依 He on whom the world relies— Buddha.

世俗 laukika; common or ordinary things, custom, experiences, common or worldly ways or views).

世典 Non-Buddhist classical works.

世友 Vasumitra; v. 筏蘇蜜呾羅.

世善 The pleasures of the world, v. 世福.

世尊 lokajyeṣṭha, world's most Venerable, or lokanātha, lord of worlds. 盧迦委斯諦; 路迦那他 World-honoured, an epithet of every Buddha. Also a tr. of Bhagavat, v. 婆.

世智 (世俗智) ordinary or worldly knowledge or wisdom.

世法 Common or ordinary dharmas, i. e. truths, laws, things, etc.

世界 Loka 世間; the finite world, the world, a world, which is of two kinds: (1) 衆生世界 that of the living, who are receiving their 正報 correct recompense or karma; (2) 器世界 that of the material, or that on which karma depends for expression. By the living is meant 有情 the sentient.

世界主 The lord, or ruler over a world or dhyāna heaven, one for each of the four dhyāna heavens.

世界悉檀 One of the four siddhāntas: the Buddha's line of reasoning in earthly or common terms to draw men to the higher truth.

世相 World-state, or condition; appearances, phenomena.

世眼 idem 世間眼.

世福 Earthly happiness, arising from the ordinary good living of those unenlightened by Buddhism, one of the 三福; also, the blessings of this world.

世第一法 The highest of the 四加行位 q. v.

世羅 śaila 勢羅; 施羅; a crag, a mountain.

世耶那薩喃 śayanāsana, lying and sitting, couch and seat.

世自在王 Lokeśvararāja, 世饒王 a Buddha under whom Amitābha, in a previous existence, entered into the ascetic life and made his forty-eight vows.

世英 World hero, i. e. a Buddha; also 世雄.

世親 Vasubandhu, idem 天親 q. v.

世論 worldly discussions; ordinary unenlightened ways of description or definition; also styled 惡論 evil discussions, especially when applied to the hedonistic lokāyatika teachings, v. 路迦.

世諦 ordinary or worldly truth, opposite of 眞諦 truth in reality; also 俗諦; 世俗諦; 覆俗諦.

世諦不生滅 Ordinary worldly postulates that things are permanent, as contrasted with the doctrine of impermanence advocated by Hīnayāna; both positions are controverted by Tiantai, which holds that the phenomenal world is neither becoming nor passing, but is an aspect of- eternal reality.

世路 The ways, or procedure, of the world: the phenomenal.

世間 The world; in the world; the finite impermanent world, idem 世界.

世間乘 The vehicle, or teaching for the attainment of good fruit in the present life, in contrast with 出世間乘 that for attainment in lives outside this world.

世間天 World-devas, i. e. earthly kings.

世間天院 The third court in the Garbhadhātu.

世間智 Worldly knowledge, i. e. that of ordinary men and those unenlightened by Buddhism.

世間檀 Worldly dāna, or giving, i. e. with thoughts of possession, meum, tūm, and the thing given, v. 三礙.

世間法 The world law, or law of this world, especially of birth-and-death; in this respect it is associated with the first two of the four dogmas, i, e. 苦 suffering, and 集 its accumulated consequences in karma.

世間相常住 World-forms, systems, or states are eternal (as existing in the Absolute, the 眞如).

世間相違 Lokaviruddha; one of the thirty-three logical errors, to set up a premise contrary to human experience.

世間眼 The Eye of the world, the eye that sees for all men, i. e. the Buddha, who is also the one that opens the eyes of men. Worldly, or ordinary eyes. Also 世眼.

世間經 A sutra discussing causality in regard to the first three of the Four Dogmas 苦諦, 集諦 and 滅諦 in the 阿含經 34.

世間解 lokavid, 路迦憊 tr. as 知世間 Knower of the world, one of the ten titles of a Buddha.

世間難信捷徑 The speedy and straight way to Buddhahood (for all) which the world finds it hard to believe.

世雄兩足尊 The World-hero and two legged (or human) honoured one, Buddha, or the honoured among human bipeds.

Chief, lord, master; to control.

主事 viharāsvāmin; controller, director, the four heads of affairs in a monastery 監寺, 維那, 典坐, and 直歳.

主伴 Chief and attendant, principal and secondary.

主宰 Lord, master; to dominate, control; the lord within, the soul; the lord of the universe, God.

主方神 The spirits controlling the eight directions.

主首 The 監寺 or abbot of a monastery.


乏道 lacking in the right way, shortcoming, poor, —an expression of humility.

Instead of, in place of, acting for, for; e. g. 代香 to offer incense in place of another; a generation, v. 世代.

To deliver, hand over to, hand down.

付屬 付囑 To deliver, entrust to.

付法藏 (因緣傳); 付法藏傳 or 付法藏經. The work explaining the handing down of Śākyamuni's teaching by Mahākāśyapa and the elders, twenty-four in number; tr. in the Yuan dynasty in six juan; cf. 釋門正統 4.

Another, other, the other, his, her, it, etc.

他力 Another's strength, especially that of a Buddha, or bodhisattva, obtained through faith in Mahāyāna salvation.

他力宗 Those who trust to salvation by faith, contrasted with 自力宗 those who seek salvation by works, or by their own strength.

他力念佛 Trusting to and calling on the Buddha, especially Amitābha.

他勝罪 Overcome by specific sin; i. e. any of the four pārājikas, or sins of excommunication.

他化天 (他化自在天) Paranirmita-vaśavartin, 婆羅尼蜜婆舍跋提天; 婆那和提; 波舍跋提 the sixth of the six heavens of desire, or passion heavens, the last of the six devalokas, the abode of Maheśvara (i. e. Śiva), and of Māra.

他受用土 That part of a buddhakṣetra, or reward land of a Buddha, in which all beings receive and obey his truth; cf. 自受用土.

他寳 The valuables of another person; other valuables.

他己 Another and oneself; both he and I.

他心智 他心通; 他心智通; 知他心通 paracittajñāna. Intuitive knowledge of the minds of all other beings. The eighth of the 十智, and the fourth or third of the 六神通. The eighth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows that men and devas in his paradise should all have the joy of this power.

他毘梨與部 他毘利 (or 梯毘利); 他鞞羅部; 體毘履 (or 體毘裏) Sthavirāḥ; 上巫; 老宿 One of the four branches of the Vaibhāṣika School, so called after the Vaibhāṣika-śāstra, v. 毘; the school was reputed as later represented by the Mahāvihāra-vāsins, Jetavanīyās, Abhayagirivāsins, in Ceylon; but the history of the Buddhist sects is uncertain.

他世 Another life, or world, either previous to or after this.

他那 吒那 stṣṭhāna, 處 a place, state, condition.

ṛṣi, 哩始 an immortal. 仙人; 人仙 the genī, of whom there is a famous group of eight 八仙; an ascetic, a man of the hills, a hermit; the Buddha. The 楞嚴經 gives ten kinds of immortals, walkers on the earth, fliers, wanderers at will, into space, into the deva heavens, transforming themselves into any form, etc. The names of ten ṛṣis, who preceded Śākyamuni, the first being 闍提首那? Jatisena; there is also a list of sixty-eight 大仙 given in the 大孔雀咒經下 A classification of five is 天仙 deva genī, 神仙 spirit genī, 人仙 human genī, 地仙 earth, or cavern genī, and 鬼仙 ghost genī.

仙人鹿野苑 仙人鹿園, 仙苑 The Mṛgadāva, a deer park N. E. of Vārāṇasī, 'a favourite resort of Śākyamuni. The modern Sārnath (Sāraṇganātha) near Benares. ' Eitel.

仙城 The ṛṣi's city, i. e. the Buddha's native city, Kapilavastu.

仙經 Daoist treatises on alchemy and immortality.

仙音 The voice of Buddha.

仙鹿王 The royal-stag Genius, i. e. Buddha.

By means of, by using, by; whereby, in order to.

以心傳心 Direct transmission from mind to mind, as contrasted with the written word; the intuitive principle of the Chan (Zen), or intuitive school.

Strong, valiant; suddenly.

仡那 繕摩 jāuman, 生 jāti, birth, production; rebirth as man, animal, etc.; life, position assigned by birth; race, being; the four methods of birth are egg, womb, water, and transformation.

Elder brother.

兄弟 Elder and younger brothers; brother, brethren, i. e. members of the fraternity.

Return, turn back, a turn.

囘忌 The days on which the day of death is remembered.

囘駕窣塔婆 nivartana-stūpa, erected on the spot where Śākyamuni sent back his horse after quitting home.

hima; hemanta; winter.

冬安居 The winter retreat, 16t of 10th moon to 15th of 1st.

冬夜 The night before the 冬至 winter solstice.

冬朝 The morning of that day.

冬齋 The observances of that day.

To go out, come forth, put forth; exit; beyond.

出世 (1) Appearance in the world e. g. the Buddha's appearing. (2) To leave the world; a monk or nun. (3) Beyond, or outside this world, not of this world; of nirvana character.

出世大事 The great work of the Buddha's appearing, or for which he appeared.

出世心 The nirvana, or other-world mind.

出世本懷 The aim cherished by the Buddha in appearing in the world.

出世果 The fruit of leaving the world; the result in another world; nirvana.

出世業 The work or position of one who has quitted the world, that of a monk.

出世服 The garment of one who has left the world.

出世舍 An abode away from the world, a monastery, hermitage.

出世說部 出世部 (出世間說部) (or 出世語言部) Lokottaravādinaḥ, 盧倶多婆拖部 an offshoot of the Māhāsaṇghikāḥ division of the eighteen Hīnayāna schools; the tenets of the school are unknown, but the name, as implied by the Chinese translation, suggests if not the idea of Ādi-Buddha, yet that of supra-mundane nature.

出世間 To go out of the world; the world (or life) beyond this; the supra-mundane; the spiritual world.

出世間道, or 出世間法. The way of leaving the world, i. e. of enlightenment, idem 菩提道; the spiritual law.

出佛血 To shed a Buddha's blood, one of the five grave sins.

出假行 A bodhisattva's entry into time and space, or the phenomenal 假, for the sake of saving others.

出出世間 surpassing the supra-mundane; the stage of Bodhisattvahood above the eighth 八地 or degree.

出塵 To leave the dusty world of passion and delusion.

出定 To come out of the state of dhyāna; to enter into it is 入定.

出家 pravraj; to leave home and become a monk or nun.

出家人 One who has left home and become a monk or nun. Two kinds are named: (1) 身出家 one who physically leaves home, and (2) 心出家 one who does so in spirit and conduct. A further division of four is: (1 ) one who physically leaves home, but in spirit remains with wife and family; (2) one who physically remains at home but whose spirit goes forth; (3) one who leaves home, body and spirit; and (4) one who, body and mind, refuses to leave home.

出息 To breathe out.

出息不待入 Breathing out-not waiting for breathing-in, breathless.

出慧 The wisdom of leaving mortality, or reincarnations; the wisdom of leaving the world.

出曜經 avadānas, 阿波陀那 stories of memorable deeds. The sixth of the twelve sections of the canon, consisting of 譬喩 parables and comparisons.

出期 The going forth period, i. e. from the sufferings of mortality; the appointed time of going forth; the period of setting forth.

出現 To manifest, reveal, be manifested, appear, e. g. as does a Buddha's temporary body, or nirmāṇakāya. Name of Udāyi 優陀夷 a disciple of Buddha to be reborn as Samantaprabhāsa; also of a son of Ajātaśatru.

出生 To be born; to produce; monastic food, superior as bestowed in alms, called 出飯 and 生飯.

出纏眞如 The unfettered, or free bhūtatathatā, as contrasted with the 在纏眞如.

出聖 The surpassing sacred truth, or the sacred immortal truth.

出道 To leave the world and enter the nirvana way.

出陣 To stand out from the class or rank (e. g. to ask question).

出隊 outstanding, of outstanding ability, egregious, standing forth.

出隊迦提 The public announcement of the distribution of the kaṭhina garment (v. 功德衣 ) in the last month of the rainy season, i. e. of the coming forth of the monks from their retreat.

出離 To leave, come out from.

出離煩惱 to leave the passions and delusions of life, an intp. of nirvana.

出體 External; the components of a thing or matter; to put forth a body.

Add, added; increase; put on.

加力 Added strength or power (by the Buddhas or bodhisattvas); aid.

加尸 加私; 迦尸 kasa, visibility, splendour; a species of grass, saccharum spontaneum. M. W.

加持 地瑟娓曩 adhiṣṭhāna, to depend upon, a base, rule. It is defined as dependence on the Buddha, who 加 confers his strength on all (who seek it), and 持 upholds them; hence it implies prayer, because of obtaining the Buddha's power and transferring it to others; in general it is to aid, support.

加持供物 To repeat tantras over offerings, in order to prevent demons from taking them or making them unclean.

加持成佛 By the aid of Buddha to enter Buddhahood.

加持杖 A wand (made of peach wood) laid on in driving out demons, or in healing disease, the painful place being beaten. Tantras are repeated while the wand is used on the patient.

加持身 The body which the Buddha depends upon or his manifestation, i. e. the nirmāṇakāya.

加沙 迦沙; 袈裟 kaṣāya, a colour composed of red and yellow, i. e. brown, described as a mixed colour, but 加沙野 is defined as 赤 red.

加蘭伽 Kalaviṇka, v. 迦.

加行 prayoga. Added progress, intensified effort, earnest endeavour.

加行位 The second of the four stages of the 唯識宗 known also as 四加行.

加行善 修得善; 方便善 Goodness acquired by earnest effort, or 'works', as differentiated from 生得善 natural goodness.

加被 加祐; 加備; 加護 Divine or Buddha aid or power bestowed on the living, for their protection or perfection.

Merit, meritorious; achievement, hence 功力 achieving strength, earnest effort after the good).

功嘉葛刺思 Kun-dgah-grags, also named 膽巴 Danupa, a famous Tibetan monk of the thirteenth century, who had influence at the Mongol court under Kublai Khan and after, d. 1303.

功巧論 功明論 (or 巧明論) Śilpasthāna-vidyā-śāstra; 'the śāstra of arts and sciences, ' i. e. of 術 and 數, one of the 五明 five works on knowledge; it treats of 'arts, mechanics, dual philosophy, and calendaric calculations'. Eitel.

功德 Virtue achieved; achievement; power to do meritorious works; merit; meritorious virtue; the reward of virtue; a name for 弗若多羅 Puṇyatara, one of the twenty-four 天尊 deva aryas, worshipped in China.

功德叢林 The grove of merit and virtue, i. e. a Buddhist hall, or monastery; also the scriptures.

功德使 Envoy to the virtuous, or officer supervising virtue, controller of monks and nuns appointed by the Tang Court.

功德天 (功德天女) idem 吉祥天 (吉祥天女) Lakṣmī, goddess of fortune.

功德水 (or 功德池) The water or eight lakes of meritorious deeds, or virtue, in Paradise.

功德田 The field of merit and virtue, i. e. the triratna 三寳, to be cultivated by the faithful; it is one of the three fields for cultivating welfare 三福田.

功德聚 The assembly of all merit and virtue, i. e. the Buddha; also a stūpa as symbol of him.

功德衣 kaṭhina, 迦絺那; 羯絺那 the garment of merits, given to monks after their summer retreat of ninety days; it symbolized five merits to which they had attained.

功德遊 Meritorious exercise, i. e. walking about intoning after duty.

功用 Action, functioning, in practice and achievement.

功能 Achieving power; ability, power.

uttara, North.

北山住部 鬱多世羅部 Uttaraśailāḥ. One of the sects organized in the third century after the Nirvana, whose seat is described as north of 制多山 q. v.

北宗 The northern school of the Chan (Zen) sect; from Bodhidharma 達磨 to the fifth patriarch 弘忍 Hongren the school was undivided; from 慧能 Huineng began the division of the southern school, 神秀 Shenxiu maintaining the northern; it was the southern school which prevailed.

北度 The pupil's position in paying respect to his master, i. e. facing the north where the master sits.

北斗 (北斗七星) Ursa major, the Northern Bushel with its seven stars.

北斗堂 The hall for the worship of Ursa Major.

北方七曜衆 The seven northern constellations from 胃 wei to 虛 xu are represented in the Garbhadhātu by their seven devas. Cf. 北辰.

北方佛教 Northern Buddhism, i. e. Mahāyāna, in contrast with Southern Buddhism, Hīnayāna.

北本涅槃經 The northern version of the Nirvana Sutra, in forty juan.

北枕 The northern pillow, i. e. Śākyamuni, when dying, pillowed his head to the north, pointing the way for the extension of his doctrine.

北洲 北拘盧洲 (or 北倶盧洲) Uttarakuru, the northern of the four continents surrounding Sumeru.

北羅 Valabhī. Northern Lāṭa. 'An ancient kingdom and city on the Eastern coast of Gujerat.' Eitel.

北臺 The northern Tai, i. e. Wutai shan in Shansi, the northernmost of the Four famous Buddhist Mountains.

北藏 The northern collection or edition of 1,621 works first published in Peking by order of Ch'eng Tsu (1403-1424), together with forty-one additional works, published by 密藏 Mizang after thirty years, labour beginning A. D. 1586. Later this edition was published in Japan 1678-1681 by 鐵眼 Tetsugen.

北行 Uttarāyaṇa. The northern ascension of the sun between the winter and summer solstices.

北辰菩薩 The Bodhisattva 妙見 Miaojian of Ursa Major.

Half. Used as translit. for pan, pun.

半只 (or 半支) 迦般止柯; 般闍迦; 散支 (散支迦); 德叉迦 Pāñcika, the third of the eight great yakṣas, husband of Hāritī 鬼子母.

半嗟笯 半笯嗟 Punaca or Pañcasattra or Pañcarāṣṭra, an ancient province and city of Kashmir (now Punch).

半天婆羅門 Half deva brahmans, a term for hungry ghosts.

半娜 (半娜裟); 半M015858 裟; 般捺婆; 波那娑 paṇasa, breadfruit; 婆 is incorrectly used for 娑.

半字 'Half a character'; a letter of the alphabet. Hīnayāna is likened to half-word, Mahāyāna to a 滿字 complete word; hence 半字教 is Hīnayāna.

半拏囉嚩悉寧 伴陀羅縛子尼 Pāṇḍara-vāsinī; white-clothed, i. e. the white-clothed Guanyin; also tr. as white abode.

半擇迦 paṇḍaka, intp. as 變 to change from time to time, a general term for eunuchs; see 般荼迦.

半滿教 The half and the complete doctrines: i. e. Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna.

半者珂但尼 (or 半者佉但尼) ; 半者佉闍 pañcakhādanīya, the five 'chewing' foods, not regular foods, i. e. roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits; or stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and the their triturations.

半者蒲膳尼 (or 半者蒲闍尼) pañca-bhojanīya. The five regular articles of food: the 繙譯名義 Fanyimingyi gives wheat, rice, parched rice (or cakes), fish, and flesh. Another account is rice, boiled wheat or pulse, parched grain, flesh, cakes.

半託迦 (or 半他迦) ; 槃陀 (槃陀迦); 槃特 Panthaka, born on the road; a road; two brothers— one born by a main road, the other by a path— who both became arhats.

半超 A deva who by devotion advances by leaps, escaping from one to thirteen of the sixteen heavens of form.

半跏趺坐 (半跏坐) A bodhisattva's form of sitting, different from the completely cross-legged form of a Buddha.

半遮羅 pañjara, a basket, or cage.

半齋 Half a day's fast, i. e.. fasting all day but eating at night.

To divine, prognosticate.

占察 A method of divination in the esoteric school by means of the Sanskrit letter 'a'.

占戌拏 'Tchañśuṇa' is the highly doubtful form given by Eitel, who describes it as the ancient capital of Vrji, an ' ancient kingdom N. of the Ganges, S. E. of Nepaul'.

Go, go away; gone, past; depart, leave; to remove, dismiss; the 去 tone.

去來 Go and come.

去來今 Past, future, present.

去來實有宗 The heretical sect which believed in the reality of past and future as well as the present.

去叉迦羅尼 (or 式叉迦羅尼) ; 尸叉罽羅尼; 突吉羅 Śikṣākaraṇī. 'A young Brahman stying with his preceptor. 'M. W. Studies, students. Also interpreted as 'evil deeds'. Also ' a section of the Vinaya called 衆學法... consisting of a series of 100 regulations with reference to the conduct of novices'. Eitel.

To call, cry.

叫喚 To cry, wail, raurava, hence the fourth and fifth hot hells, v. 呌.

To summon, call.

召請 To invite, especially the Buddhas or bodhisattvas to worship.

召請童子 阿羯囉灑 The inviter, possibly etymologically connected with achāvāka; he is they youth fifth on the left of Mañjuśrī in his group of the Garbhadhātu, and is supposed to invite all the living to enlightenment.

A sentence, phrase, clause; also used for a place.

句句 Sentence by sentence, every word.

句身 padakāya, perhaps prātipadika; an inflected word.

Only; a final particle; translit. j.

只底舸部 只底興世羅部; 支提加部; 支提山部; 制多山部; 住支提山部; 逝多林 (or 逝多苑); 祇桓 Jetavanīyāḥ or Jetīyaśailāḥ. School of the dwellers on Mount Jeta, or 勝林部 School of Jetṛvana. A subdivision of the Stṣṭhavirāḥ Cf. 北.

May not, cannot; translit. ph.

叵囉虞那麽洗 叵勒拏; 頗攞遇捉; 頗勒窶拏 phālgunamāsa, the twelfth month; M. W. says February-March, the month, māsa, of the Nakṣatra Phālgunī.

May, can, able.

可汗 khan. A Turkish term for 'prince'.

可漏子 (可漏) A case for books or writings, likened to the shell of an egg (殼漏).

可賀敦 khatun. A Turkish term for 'queen' or 'princess'.

Ancient, antique, old; of old.

古今 Ancient and modern.

古來實有宗 idem 去來實有宗.

A flat place, platform, plateau, terrace; an abbrev. for 臺 and for 天台 Tiantai, hence 台嶽 the Tiantai mountain; 台宗; 台家 its 'school'; 台徒 its disciples; 台教; 台道 its doctrine, or way.

台衡 The school of Tai-Heng, or Tai and Heng; Tai is Tiantai. i. e. Zhiyi 智顗 its founder, Heng is 衡嶽 the Hengyue monastery, i. e. a term for Huisi 慧思 the teacher of Zhiyi.

dakṣiṇa. The right hand, on the right, e. g.

右手 right hand.

右旋 right turn.

右繞 pradakṣiṇa, turning or processing with the right shoulder towards an object of reverence.

catur. Four.

四一 The four 'ones', or the unity contained (according to Tiantai) in the 方便品 of the Lotus Sutra; i. e. 教一 its teaching of one Vehicle; 行一 its sole bodhisattva procedure; 人一 its men all and only as bodhisattvas; 理一 its one ultimate truth of the reality of all existence.

四七品 The twenty-eight chapters of the Lotus Sutra.

四上 The four times a day of going up to worship— daybreak, noon, evening, and midnight.

四不可得 The four unattainables, perpetual youth, no sickness, perennial life, no death. There is a work, the Catur-lābha-sūtra, tr. into Chinese under this title.

四不可思議 The four things of a Buddha which are beyond human conception: 世界 his world, 衆生 his living beings, 龍 his nāgas, and 佛土境界 the bounds of his Buddha-realm.

四不可輕 The four that may not be treated lightly: a prince though young, a snake though small, a fire though tiny, and above all a 'novice' though a beginner, for he may become an arhat. Cf. 阿合經 46.

四不寄附 The four to whom one does not entrust valuables— the old, for death is nigh; the distant, lest one has immediate need of them; the evil; or the 大力 strong; lest the temptation be too strong for the last two.

四不壞淨 (or 四不壞信) The four objects of unfailing purity (or faith), i. e. the three precious ones (triratna) and the 戒 moral law.

四不成 Four forms of asiddha or incomplete statement, part of the thirty-three fallacies in logic.

四不生 That a thing is not born or not produced of itself, of another, of both, of neither; cf. 四句推撿.

四不見 The four invisibles— water to fish, wind (or air) to man, the nature (of things) to the deluded, and the 空 'void'to the 悟 enlightened, because he is in his own element, and the Void is beyond conception.

四世 The period of the Buddha's earthly life, styled 聖世 the sacred period (or period of the sage), is added to the three periods of 正法 correct Law; 像法 semblance of the Law; and 末法 decadence of the Law.

四事 The four necessaries of a monk clothing, victuals, bedding, medicine (or herbs). Another set is a dwelling, clothing, victuals, medicine.

四事供養 The four offerings or provisions for a monk. There is a sutra, the 四事經, or 阿難四事經.

四事不可思議 v. 四不可思議.

四事法門 Four methods of a bodhisattva's preparation for preaching the Law— entry into meditation: into wisdom; into complete moral self-control; and into clear discernment, or reasoning, 辯才門.

四主 The four Lords of the world, whose domains were supposed to stretch E., S., W., and N. of the Himālayas; E. 人主 the lord of men; S. 象主 of elephants; W. 寳主 of jewels (or precious things); N. 馬主of horses. 西域記.

四乘 The goat, deer, and ox carts and the great white-bullock cart of the Lotus Sutra, see 四車.

四人觀世 The world from four points of view: that of men in general— its pleasures, thoughtlessly; of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas— as a burning house, uneasily; of bodhisattvas— as an empty flower; of Buddhas— as mind, all things being for (or of) intelligent mind.

四仙 The three genī, or founders of systems, together with 若提子 Nirgranthajñāti; v. 二天三仙.

四仙避死 The four wise men who sought escape from death: one in the mountains, another in the ocean, another in the air, and a fourth in the market place— all in vain.

四住 The four abodes or states in the 智度論 3, i. e. (1) 天住 the devalokas, equivalents of charity, morality, and goodness of heart; (2) 梵住 the brahmalokas, equivalents of benevolence, pity, joy, and indifference; (3) 聖住 the abode of śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas, equivalent of the samādhi of the immaterial realm, formless and still; (4) 佛住 the Buddha-abode, the equivalent of the samādhis of the infinite. v. 四住地.

四住地 (四住) The four states or conditions found in mortality; wherein are the delusions of misleading views and desires. They are (1) 見一切住地 the delusions arising from seeing things as they seem, not as they really are. (2) 欲愛住地 the desires in the desire-realm. (3) 色愛住地 the desires in the form-realm. (4) 有愛住地 the desires in the formless realm. When 無明住地 the state of ignorance is added we have the 五住地 five states. These five states condition all error, and are the ground in which spring the roots of the countless passions and delusions of all mortal beings.

四佛 Four of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas. i.e. the four regional Buddhas; they are variously stated. The 金光明經 gives E. 阿閦; S. 寳相; W. 無量壽; N. 微妙聲. The 大日經 gives E. 寳幢; S. 大勤勇遍覺華開敷; W. 仁勝 (i. e. 無量壽); N. 不動, i. e. 鼓音如來. The 金剛頂經 gives 不動; 寳生; 觀自在, and 不 空 成就如來. v. 五智如來.

四佛土 idem 四土.

四佛知見 The four purposes of the Buddha's appearing, that the Buddha-knowledge might be 開示悟入revealed, proclaimed, understood, and entered; v. Lotus 方便品.

四依 The four necessaries, or things on which the religious rely. (1) 行四依 The four of ascetic practitioners— rag clothing; begging for food; sitting under trees; purgatives and diuretics as moral and spiritual means; these are also termed 四聖種. (2) 法四依 The four of the dharma: i. e. the truth, which is eternal, rather than man, even its propagator; the sutras of perfect meaning i. e. of the 道實相 the truth of the 'middle' way; the meaning, or spirit, not the letter; wisdom 智, i.e. Buddha-wisdom rather than mere knowledge 識. There are other groups. Cf. 四事.

四依八正 The first four of the four 四依, 行四依, and the 八正道 q. v.

四信 v.四種信心.

四信五行 The four right objects of faith and the five right modes of procedure; the 眞如 bhūtatathatā and the 三寳 Three Precious Ones are the four; the five are almsgiving, morality, patience, zeal (or progress), and 觀 meditation.

四倒 The four viparyaya i. e. inverted or false beliefs in regard to 常, 樂, 我, 淨. There are two groups: (1) the common belief in the four above, denied by the early Buddhist doctrine that all is impermanent, suffering, impersonal, and impure; (2) the false belief of the Hīnayāna school that nirvana is not a state of permanence, joy, personality, and purity. Hīnayāna refutes the common view in regard to the phenomenal life; bodhisattvism refutes both views.

四優檀那 yu-t'an-na, ? udāna, the four dogmas: all is impermanent, all is suffering, there is no ego, nirvana.

四八相 The thirty-two marks of a Buddha.

四兵 catur-an.gabalakāya; the four divisions of a cakravarti's troops— elephant, hastikāya; horse, aśvakāya; chariot, rathakāya; and foot, pattikāya.

四分 The 法相 Dharmalakṣana school divides the function of 識 cognition into four, i. e. 相分 mental phenomena, 見分 discriminating such phenomena, 自證分 the power that discriminates, and 證自證 the proof or assurance of that power. Another group is: 信 faith, 解 liberty, 行 action, and 證 assurance or realization.

四分僧戒本 Extracts from the 四分律 four-division Vinaya with verses, for use on days when the discipline is recited; there are other works under a similar title.

四分宗 idem 律宗.

四分家 The 法相 school which divides the 識心 cognition-mind into four parts, v. 四分.

四分律 The four-division Vinaya or discipline of the Dharmagupta school, divided into four sections of 20, 15, 14, and 11 chuan. The 四分律藏 Dharma-gupta-vinaya was tr. in A. D. 405 by Buddhayasas and 竺佛念 Chu Fo-nien; the 四分比丘尼羯磨法 Dharmagupta-bhikṣuṇī-karman was tr. by Gunavarman in 431: and there are numerous other works of this order.

四劫 The four kalpas, or epochs, of a world, 成劫 that of formation and completion; 住劫 existing or abiding; 懷劫 destruction; and 空劫 annihilation, or the succeeding void. 倶舍論 12.

四力 The four powers for attaining enlightenment: independent personal power; power derived from others; power of past good karma; and power arising from environment.

四加行 v. 四善根.

四勝義諦 idem 四諦.

四勝身 The four with victorious bodies, who were transformed independently of normal rebirth; also styled 解行身 bodies set free from all physical taint, thus attaining to Buddhahood. The four are the 龍女 dragon daughter of the Lotus Sutra, who instantly became a male bodhisattva; and three others of the 華嚴 Huayan sutra, i. e. 善財童子; 兜率天子, and 普莊嚴童子.

四化法 The 四無磯辯 q. v. whereby all beings may be saved.

四十 catvāriṃśat; forty.

四十一位 (or 四十一地) Forty-one of the fifty-two bodhisattva stages (of development), i. e. all except the 十信 and 妙覺. For this and 四十二位 v. 五十二位.

四十九僧 and 四十九燈. The service to 藥師 the Master of Healing, when forty-nine lamps are displayed and forty-nine monks engaged; seven of his images are used, seven of the lamps being placed before each image.

四十九日 The seven times seven days of funeral services; the forty-ninth day.

四十九重摩尼殿 (or 四十九重如意殿) . The maṇi, or Pearl palace of forty-nine stories above the Tuṣita heaven.

四十二使者 The forty-two messengers, or angels of 不動尊 q. v.

四十二位 The forty-two stages, i. e. all above the 十信 of the fifty-two stages.

四十二品無明 The forty-two species of ignorance which, according to Tiantai, are to be cut off seriatim in the above forty-two stages.

四十二字門 The doctrine of the forty-two 悉曇 Siddham letters as given in the 華嚴 76 and 般若經 4. They have special meanings, independent of their use among the fourteen vowels and thirty-five consonants, i. e. forty-nine alphabetic signs. The forty-two are supposed by the 智度論 47 to be the root or basis of all letters; and each letter has its own specific value as a spiritual symbol; Tiantai associates each of them with one of the forty-two 位. The letters begin with 阿 and end with 荼 or 佗.

四十二章經 The 'Sutra of Forty-two Sections' generally attributed to Kāśyapa Mātaṇga, v. 迦, and Gobharaṇa, v. 竺, the first Indian monks to arrive officially in China. It was, however, probably first produced in China in the 晉 Chin dynasty. There are various editions and commentaries.

四十位 The 'forty bodhisattva positions' of the 梵網經. They are classified into four groups: (1) 十發趣 Ten initial stages, i. e. the minds 心 of abandoning things of the world, of keeping the moral law, patience, zealous progress, dhyāna, wisdom, resolve, guarding (the Law), joy, and spiritual baptism by the Buddha. These are associated with the 十住. (2) 十長養 Ten steps in the nourishment of perfection, i. e. minds of kindness, pity, joy, relinquishing, almsgiving, good discourse, benefiting, friendship, dhyāna, wisdom. These are associated with the 十行. (3) 十金剛 Ten 'diamond' steps of firmness, i. e. a mind of faith, remembrance, bestowing one's merits on others, understanding, uprighthess, no-retreat, Mahāyāna, formlessness, wisdom, indestructibility; these are associated with the 十廻向. (4) The 十地 q. v.

四十八使者 The forty-eight demon satellites of Āryācalanātha 不動明王 as subduer of demons, etc.

四十八年 The forty-eight years of service demanded by an old physician of his pupil in order to acquire his skill— likened to the slow and difficult methods of Hīnayāna and of early Mahāyāna.

四十八願 The forty-eight vows of Amitābha that he would not enter into his final nirvana or heaven, unless all beings shared it; the lists vary.

四十八餘年未顯眞實 For forty and more years (the Buddha) was unable to unfold the full truth (until he first gave it in the Lotus Sutra).

四取 catuḥ-parāmarśa, the four attachments, i. e. desire, (unenlightened) views, (fakir) morals, and ideas arising from the conception of the self. Also, the possible delusions of the 四住地. Also, seeking fame in the four quarters.

四句 The four terms, phrases, or four-line verses, e. g. 四句分別 The four terms of differentiation, e. g. of all things into 有 the existing; 空 nonexisting; both; neither; or phenomenal, noumenal, both, neither. Also, double, single, both, neither; and other similar applications.

四句執 The four tenets held by various non-Buddhist schools: (1) the permanence of the ego, i. e. that the ego of past lives is the ego of the present; (2) its impermanence, i. e. that the present ego is of independent birth; (3) both permanent and impermanent, that the ego is permanent, the body impermanent; (4) neither permanent nor impermanent; that the body is impermanent but the ego not impermanent.

四句成道 The swan-song of an arhat, who has attained to the perfect life: — All rebirths are ended,
The noble life established,
My work is accomplished.
No further existence is mine.

四句推撿 The four-phrase classification that phenomena are 自因 self-caused, 他因 caused by another, 共因 by both, 無因 by neither; cf. 四不生.

四向 The four stages in Hīnayāna sanctity: srota-āpanna, sakṛdāgāmin, anāgāmin and arhan.

四含 idem 四阿含經.

四味 The four 'tastes': the Tiantai definition of the four periods of the Buddha's teaching preliminary to the fifth, i. e. that of the Lotus Sutra; cf. 五味.

四唱 The four commanders or leaders; see Lotus Sutra 15.

四善根 catuṣ-kuśala-mūla, the four good roots, or sources from which spring good fruiy or development. In Hīnayāna they form the stage after 總相念住 as represented by the 倶舍 and 成實; in Mahāyāna it is the final stage of the 十廻向 as represented by the 法相宗. There are also four similar stages connected with śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and Buddha, styled 三品四善根. The four of the 倶舍宗 are 煗法, 頂法, 忍法, and 世第一法. The four of the 成實宗 are the same, but are applied differently. The 法相宗 retains the same four terms, but connects them with the four dhyāna stages of the 眞唯識觀 in its four first 加行 developments.

四喩 The four metaphors (of infinity, etc. ): 山斤 the weight of all the mountains in pounds; 海 the drops in the ocean; 地塵 the atoms of dust in the earth; 空 界 the extent of space.

四園 idem 四苑.

四土 The four Buddha-kṣetra, or realms, of Tiantai: (1) 凡聖居同土 Realms where all classes dwell— men, devas, Buddhas, disciples, non-disciples; it has two divisions, the impure, e. g. this world, and the pure, e. g. the 'Western' pure-land. (2) 方便有餘土 Temporary realms, where the occupants have got rid of the evils of 見思 unenlightened views and thoughts, but still have to be reborn. (3) 實報無障礙土 Realms of permanent reward and freedom, for those who have attained bodhisattva rank. (4) 常寂光土 Realm of eternal rest and light (i. e. wisdom) and of eternal spirit (dharmakāya), the abode of Buddhas; but in reality all the others are included in this, and are only separated for convenience, sake.

四執 The four erroneous tenets; also 四邪; 四迷; 四術; there are two groups: I. The four of the 外道 outsiders, or non-Buddhists, i. e. of Brahminism, concerning the law of cause and effect: (1) 邪因邪果 heretical theory of causation, e. g. creation by Mahesvara; (2) 無因有果 or 自然, effect independent of cause, e. g. creation without a cause, or spontaneous generation; (3) 有因無果 cause without effect, e. g. no future life as the result of this. (4) 無因無果 neither cause nor effect, e. g. that rewards and punishments are independent of morals. II. The four erroneous tenets of 內外道 insiders and outsiders, Buddhist and Brahman, also styled 四宗 the four schools, as negated in the 中論 Mādhyamika śāstra: (1) outsiders, who do not accept either the 人 ren or 法 fa ideas of 空 kong; (2) insiders who hold the Abhidharma or Sarvāstivādāḥ tenet, which recognizes 人空 human impersonality, but not 法空 the unreality of things; (3) also those who hold the 成實 Satyasiddhi tenet which discriminates the two meanings of 空 kong but not clearly; and also (4) those in Mahāyāna who hold the tenet of the realists.

四執金剛 The four Vajra-rulers of the four elements — earth, water, fire, wind, and of the S. E., S. W., N. W,. and N. E.

四堅信 The four firm or 四不懷信 indestructible beliefs, in the Buddha, the law, the order, and the commandments.

四塔 The four stūpas at the places of Buddha's birth, Kapilavastu; enlightenment, Magadha: preaching, Benares; and parinirvāṇa, Kuśinagara. Four more are located in the heavens of the Travastriṃśas gods, one each tor his hair, nails, begging bowl, and teeth, E., S., W., N., respectively.

四墮 (四墮落法) The four causes of falling from grace and final excommunication of a monk or nun; adultery, stealing, killing, falsity; v. 四波羅夷.

四夜八晝 The four hours of the night 成亥子丑, i. e. 7 to 3, and the eight hours of the day from 寅 to 酉 3 a. m. to 7 p. m.

四大 mahābhūta, 四界; 四大界. The four elements of which all things are made; or the four realms; i. e. earth, water, fire, and wind (or air); they represent 堅, 濕, 煖, and 動 solid, liquid, heat, and motion; motion produces and maintains life. As 實 active or formative forces they are styled 四界 (四大界) ; as 假 passive or material objects they are 四大; but the 成實論 Satyasiddhi śāstra disputes the 實 and recognizes only the 假.

四大不調 The inharmonious working of the four elements in the body, which causes the 440 ailments; cf. 四蛇.

四大元無主 The verse uttered by 肇法師 Zhao Fashi when facing death under the 姚秦 Yao Qin emperor, fourth century A. D.: — 'No master have the four elements,
Unreal are the five skandhas,
When my head meets the white blade,
Twill be but slicing the spring wind.
' The 'four elements' are the physical body.

四大名山 The four famous 'hills' or monasteries in China: 普陀 P'u-t'o, for Guanyin, element water; 五臺 Wu-tai, Wen-shu, wind; 峨眉 O-mei, P'uhsien, fire; and 九華 Chiu-hua, Tizang, earth.

四大天王 see 四天王. The four deva-kings of the four quarters, guardians in a monastery.

四大明王 v. 大明王.

四大師 The four monastic heads imperially appointed during, the Tang dynasty.

四大弟子 The four great disciples of the Buddha— Śāriputra, Mahāmaudgalyāyana, Subhūti, and Mahākāśyapa. Another group is Mahākāśyapa, Piṇḍola, Rāhula, and ? Kauṇḍinya.

四大海 The four great oceans in a world, around Sumeru, in which are the four great continents; cf. 九山八海.

四大部洲 The four great continents. See 四洲.

四大種 idem 四大.

四大聲聞 The four great śrāvakas, idem 四大弟子.

四大菩薩 The four great Bodhisattvas of the Lotus Sutra, i. e. Maitreya, Mañjuśrī, Avalokiteśvara, and Samantabhadra. Another list of previous Bodhisattvas is 上行 Viśiṣtacāritra; 無邊行 Anantacāritra; 淨行 Viśuddhacāritra, and 安立行 Supratiṣṭhitacāritra.

四大護 The guardian devas of the four quarters: south 金剛無勝結護; east 無畏結護; north 懷諸怖結護; and west 難降伏結護. The 四大佛護院 is the thirteenth group of the Garbhadhātu.

四大部經 Four great sutras: 華嚴經 Huayan; 涅盤經 Nirvana; 寳積經Mahāratnakūta, and 般若經 Prajñā.

四天下 The four quarters or continents of the world.

四天上下 In the upper regions there are the four heavens of the four deva-kings; below are the people of the four continents.

四天王 (四大天王) catur-mahārājas, or Lokapālas; the four deva-kings. Indra's external 'generals 'who dwell each on a side of Mount Meru, and who ward off from the world the attacks of malicious spirits, or asuras, hence their name 護世四天王 the four deva-kings, guardians of the world. Their abode is the 四天王天 catur-maharāja-kāyikas; and their titles are: East 持國天 Deva who keeps (his) kingdom; colour white; name Dhṛtarsaṣtra. South 增長天 Deva of increase and growth; blue; name Virūḍhaka. West 廣目天 The broad-eyed (also ugly-eyed) deva (perhaps a form of Siva); red; name Virūpākṣa. North 多聞天 The deva who hears much and is well-versed; yellow; name Vaiśravaṇa, or Dhanada; he is a form of Kuvera, the god of wealth. These are the four giant temple guardians introduced as such to China by Amogha; cf. 四天王經.

四天王天 catur-maharāja-kāyikas; the four heavens of the four deva-kings.

四夷 (四夷戒 or 四夷罪) v. 四波羅夷.

四如實觀 A meditation method on the 四加行位 q. v.

四如意足 四神足 ṛddhi-pāda; the third group of the 三十七科道品 bodhi-pakṣikadharma; the four steps to supernatural powers, making the body independent of ordinary or natural law. The four steps are said to be the 四種禪定 four kinds of dhyāna, but there are several definitions, e. g. 欲神足 chanda-ṛddhi-pāda, desire (or intensive longing, or concentration); 勤神足 virya-ṛddhi-pāda, energy (or intensified effort); 心神足 citta-ṛddhi-pāda, memory (or intense holding on to the position reached); 觀神足 mīmāṃsa-ṛddhi-pāda., meditation (or survey, the state of dhyāna).

四姓 The four Indian 'clans' or castes— brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, and śūdra, i. e. (1) priestly, (2) military and ruling, (3) farmers and traders, and (4) serfs; born respectively from the mouth, shoulders, flanks, and feet of Brahma.

四威儀 Four respect-inspiring forms of demeanour in walking, standing, sitting, lying.

四孟月 The four senior or prime months, i. e. the first of each season, first, fourth, seventh, and tenth.

四安樂 (四安樂行) The four means of attaining to a happy contentment, by proper direction of the deeds of the body; the words of the mouth; the thoughts of the mind; and the resolve (of the will) to preach to all the Lotus Sutra.

四定 The four dhyāna heavens of form, and the four degrees of dhyāna corresponding to them.

四定記 v. 四記.

四宗 The four kinds of inference in logic— common, prejudged or opposing, insufficiently founded, arbitrary. Also, the four schools of thought I. According to 淨影 Jingying they are (1) 立性宗 that everything exists, or has its own nature; e. g. Sarvāstivāda, in the 'lower' schools of Hīnayāna; (2) 破性宗 that everything has not a nature of its own; e. g. the 成實宗 a 'higher' Hīnayāna school, the Satyasiddhi; (3) 破相宗 that form has no reality, because of the doctrine of the void, 'lower' Mahāyāna; (4) 願實宗 revelation of reality, that all comes from the bhūtatathatā, 'higher ' Mahāyāna. II. According to 曇隱 Tanyin of the 大衍 monastery they are (1) 因緣宗, i. e. 立性宗 all things are causally produced; (2) 假名宗, i. e. 破性宗 things are but names; (3) 不眞宗, i. e. 破相宗, denying the reality of form, this school fails to define reality; (4) 眞宗, i. e. 顯實宗 the school of the real, in contrast with the seeming.

四家 The schools of 般若, 諦, 捨煩惱, and 苦淸 likened by 章安 Zhangan of the Tiantai to the 四教, i. e. seriatim: 別, 圓, 通, and 三藏.

四尋思觀 A study or contemplation of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana sect, on 名 the terms used, 義 the meanings of the things or phenomena, 自性 the nature of the things, 差別 their differentiation.

四山 Like four closing-in mountains are birth, age, sickness, and death; another group is age, sickness, death, and decay (衰, i. e. of wealth, honours, etc., or 無常 impermanence).

四度加行 Special study of or advancement in the four degrees, a method of the esoterics, formerly extending over 800 or 1, 000 days, later contracted to 200. The four 'degrees ' are 十八道, 胎藏, 金剛, and 護摩, but the order varies.

四弘誓願 The four universal vows of a Buddha or bodhisattva: 衆生無邊誓願度 to save all living beings without limit; 煩惱無數誓願斷 to put an end to all passions and delusions however numerous; 法門無盡誓願學 to study and learn all methods and means without end; 佛道無上誓願成 to become perfect in the supreme Buddha-law. The four vows are considered as arising one by one out of the 四諦 Four Noble Truths.

四律五論 The four vinaya and the five śāstras. The four vinaya 四律, or disciplinary regulations, are the 十誦律 Sarvāstivāda version tr. in 61 chuan by Punyatara; 四分律 Dharmagupta's version, tr. in 60 chuan by Buddhayaśas; 僧祗律 Sāṃghika version or Mahāsāṃghika version, tr. in 40 chuan, by Buddhabhadra; and 五部律 Mahīśāsaka version, tr. in 30 chuan by Buddhajīva and others, also known as Mahīśāsaka-nikāya-pañcavargavinaya. The five śāstras 五論 are 毘尼母論; 摩得勒伽論; 善見論; 薩婆多論; and 明了論. v. 論.

四微 The four minutest forms or atoms perceptible to the four senses of sight, smell, taste, or touch; from these arise the 四大 four elements, from which arise the 五智 five wisdoms, q. v.

四德 The four nirvana virtues, or values, according to the Mahāyāna Nirvana Sutra: (1) 常德 permanence or eternity; (2) 樂德 joy; (3) 我德 personality or the soul; (4) 淨德 purity. These four important terms, while denied in the lower realms, are affirmed by the sutra in the transcendental, or nirvana-realm.

四德樂邦 四德波羅蜜 The joyful realm, or acme of the above four virtues, the nirvana realm, the abode or dharmakāya of the Tathāgata.

四心 The hearts of kindness, pity, joy, and indifference, idem 四無量心.

四忉利交形 copulation in the first and in the second devalokas, i. e. 四王 and 忉利 heavens; in the third it is by embrace; in the fourth, by holding hands; in the fifth, by mutual smiling; in the sixth by a mutual look.

四忘 The state of a saint, i. e. beyond, or oblivious of the four conditions of 一異有無 unity, difference, existence, non-existence.

四念住 idem 四念處.

四念珠 The four classes of 'prayer-beads', numbering 27, 54, 108, or 1, 080, styled 下品, 中品, 最勝, and 上品, lower, middle, superior, and most superior.

四念處 (四念處觀); 四念住 smṛtyupasthāna. The fourfold stage of mindfulness, thought, or meditation that follows the 五停心觀 five-fold procedure for quieting the mind. This fourfold method, or objectivity of thought, is for stimulating the mind in ethical wisdom. It consists of contemplating (1) 身 the body as impure and utterly filthy; (2) 受 sensation, or consciousness, as always resulting in suffering; (3) 心 mind as impermanent, merely one sensation after another; (4) 法 things in general as being dependent and without a nature of their own. The four negate the ideas of permanence, joy, personality, and purity 常, 樂, 我, and 淨, i. e. the four 顚倒, but v. 四德. They are further subdivided into 別 and 總 particular and general, termed 別相念處 and 總相念處, and there are further subdivisions.

四性行 The four kinds of conduct natural to a Bodhisattva, that arising from his native goodness, his vow-nature, his compliant nature, i. e. to the six pāramitās, and his transforming nature, i. e. his powers of conversion or salvation.

四怨 The four enemies— the passions-and-delusion māras, death māra, the five-skandhas māras, and the supreme māra-king.

四恒 As the sands of four Ganges.

四悔 see 五悔 and omit the first.

四悉檀 The four siddhānta, v. 悉檀. The Buddha taught by (1) mundane or ordinary modes of expression; (2) individual treatment, adapting his teaching to the capacity of his hearers; (3) diagnostic treatment of their moral diseases; and (4) the perfect and highest truth.

四惑 idem 煩惱.

四意斷 idem 四正勤.

四愛生 (or 四愛起) Four sources of affection: the giving or receiving of clothing, or food, or bedding, or independently of gifts.

四惡趣 (or 四惡道) The four apāya, or evil destinies: the hells, as hungry ghosts, animals, or asuras. The asuras are sometimes evil, sometimes good, hence the term 三惡道 'three evil destinies' excepts the asuras.

四惡比丘 The four wicked bhikṣus who threw over the teaching of their Buddha 大莊嚴 Dazhuangyan after his nirvana; these suffered in the deepest hells, came forth purified, but have not been able to attain perfection because of their past unbelief; v. 佛藏經往古品. Also four disobedient bhikṣus who through much purgation ultimately became the Buddhas of the four points of the compass, 阿閦, 寳相, 無量壽, and 微妙聲.

四慧 The four kinds of wisdom received: (1) by birth, or nature; (2) by hearing, or being taught; (3) by thought; (4) by dhyāna meditation.

四戒 Four stages in moral development: that of release, or deliverance from the world on becoming a monk; that arising from the four meditations on the realms of form; that above the stage of 見道 q. v.; that in which all moral evil is ended and delusion ceases.

四持 idem 四種總持.

四捨 The four givings, i. e. of goods of the Truth, of courage (or fearlessness), and the giving up of the passions and delusions; cf. dāna-pāramitā, 捨.

四摩 (四摩室) sīmā. A boundary, a separate dwelling, or dwellings (for monks and/or visitors).

四攝法 (or 四攝事) catuḥ-saṃgraha-vastu; four all-embracing (bodhisattva) virtues: (1) 布施 dāna, giving what others like, in order to lead them to love and receive the truth; (2) 愛語 priyavacana, affctionate, speech, with the same purpose; (3) 利行 arthakṛtya, conduct proftable to others, with the same purpose; (4) 同事 samānārthatā, co-operation with and adaptation of oneself to others, to lead them into the truth.

四攝菩薩 四攝衆; 四攝全剛 The four bodhisattvas in the Vajradhātu with the hook, the rope, the chain, and the bell, whose office is to 化他 convert the living.

四教 Four teachings, doctrines, or schools; five groups are given, whose titles are abbreviated to 光天曉苑龍: (1) 光宅四教 The four schools of 法雲 Fayun of the 光宅 Guangzhai monastery are the four vehicles referred to in the burning house parable of the Lotus Sutra, i. e. śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, bodhisattva, and the final or one vehicle teaching. (2) 天台四教 The Tiantai four are 藏通, 別, and 圓, v. 八教. (3) 曉公四教 The group of 元曉 Wŏnhyo of 海東 Haedong are the 三乘別教 represented by the 四諦緣起經; 三乘通教 represented by the 般若深密教; 一乘分教 represented by the 究網經; and 一乘滿教 represented by the 華嚴經. (4) 苑公四教 The group of 慧苑 Huiyuan: the schools of unbelievers, who are misled and mislead; of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas who know only the phenomenal bhūtatathatā; of novitiate bodhisattvas who know only the noumenal bhūtatathatā; and of fully developed bodhisattvas, who know both. (5) 龍樹四教 Nāgārjuna's division of the canon into 有 dealing with existence, or reality, cf. the 四阿含; 空 the Void, cf. 般若經; 亦有亦 空 both, cf. 深密經; and 非有非 空 neither, cf. 中論.

四教三密 Now a 眞言 Shingon term; the 四教 are the Tiantai four schools of 顯 open or exoteric teaching; the 三密 are the Shingon esoteric teaching in which the three 身口意 body, mouth, and mind have special functions.

四教三觀 The Tiantai four main doctrinal divisions as above and its three kinds of meditation.

四教五時 Tiantai's doctrine of the four developments of the Buddha's own teaching, v. above, and the five periods of the same, v. 五時教.

四教儀 A work of 智顗 Zhiyi of Tiantai.

四教地 Four stages, as given in the 大日經, 具緣品, i. e. 藏, 通, 別, and 圓 q. v.

四方 The four quarters of the compass; a square, square; the E. is ruled by Indra, S. by Yama, W. by Varuṇa, and N. by Vaiśramaṇa; the N. E. is ruled by 伊舍尼 Iśāna, S. E. by 護摩 Homa, S. W. by 涅哩底 Nirṛti, and the N. W. by 嚩瘐 Varuṇa.

四方四佛 The four Buddhas of the four regions — E. the world of 香積 abundant fragrance where reigns 阿閦 Akṣobhya; S. of 歡喜 pleasure, 寳相 Ratnaketu; W. of 安樂 restfulness, or joyful comfort, 無量壽 Amitābha; and N. of 蓮華莊嚴 lotus adornment, 微妙聲 ? Amoghasiddhi, or Śākyamuni.

四方大將 The four 'generals' or guardians of the Law, of the four directions: N. 散脂四方, E. 樂欲四方, S. 檀帝四方, W. 善現四方. Each has 500 followers and twenty-eight companies of demons and spirits. Cf. 四天王.

四施 Four benefactions, i. e. pen, ink, sutras, preaching.

四日 catvāraḥ sūryāḥ the four suns, i. e. Aśvaghoṣa, Devabodhisattva, Nāgārjuna, and Kumāralabdha (or -lata).

四明 Four Shingon emblems, aids to Yoga-possession by a Buddha or bodhisattva; they are 鉤, 索, 鏁, 鈴, a hook, a cord, a lock, and a bell; the hook for summoning, the cord for leading, the lock for firmly holding, and the bell for the resultant joy. Also, the four Veda śāstras.

四明山 A mountain range in Ningbo prefecture where the 四明 are clearly seen, i. e. sun, moon, stars, and constellations. 知禮 Zhili of the Sung dynasty is known as the 四明尊者 honoured one of Siming and his school as the 四明家 Siming school in the direct line of Tiantai. In Japan Mt. Hiei 比叡山 is known by this title, through Dengyo 傳教 the founder of the Japanese Tiantai School.

四智 The four forms of wisdom of a Buddha according to the 法相 Dharmalakṣana school: (1) 大圓鏡智 the great mirror wisdom of Akṣobhya; (2) 平等性智 the universal wisdom of Ratnaketu; (3) 妙觀察智 the profound observing wisdom of Amitābha; (4) 成所作智 the perfecting wisdom of Amoghasiddhi. There are various other groups.

四智印 Four wisdom symbols of the Shingon cult: 大智印 or 摩訶岐若勿他羅 mahājñāna-mudrā, the forms of the images; 三昧耶印 samaya-jñāna-mudrā, their symbols and manual signs; 法智印 dharma-jñāna-mudrā, the magic formula of each; 羯摩智印 karma-jñāna-mudrā, the emblems of their specific functions.

四智讚 The praise hymns of the four 'wisdoms ', v. 四智.

四月 Āṣāḍha, the fourth month.

四月八日 The eighth of the fourth moon, the Buddha's birthday.

四有爲相 The four functioning forms, i. e. 生 birth, 住 stay, 異 change, and 滅 extinction; v. 四相.

四本止觀 The four books of Tiantai on meditation 止觀, i. e. 摩訶止觀; 禪波羅蜜; 六妙門; and 坐禪法要.

四本相 The four fundamental states— birth, stay, change, and extinction (or death), v. 四相.

四果 The four phala, i. e. fruitions, or rewards — srota-āpanna-phala, sakradāgāmi-phala, anāgāmiphala, arhat-phala, i. e. four grades of saintship; see 須陀洹; 斯陀含, 阿那含, and 阿離漢. The four titles are also applied to four grades of śramaṇas— yellow and blue flower śramaṇas, lotus śramaṇas, meek śramaṇas, and ultra-meek śramaṇas.

四枯四榮 When the Buddha died, of the eight śāla trees surrounding him four are said to have withered while four continued in full leaf— a sign that the four doctrines of 苦 suffering, 空 the void, 無常 impermanence, and 無我 impersonality were to perish and those of 常 permanence, 葉 joy, 我 personality, and 淨 purity, the transcendent bodhisattva doctrines, were to flourish.

四根本性罪 (or 四根本重罪) idem 四波羅夷.

四梵住 The noble state of unlimited 慈, 悲, 喜, 捨 love, pity, joy, and indifference.

四梵堂 Four ways of attaining arhatship, idem 四梵住, except that the last of the four is 護 protection (of others).

四梵志 The four Brahmacārins who resolved to escape death each on mountain, sea, in the air, or the: market place, and yet failed; v. 山.

四棄 The four pārājika sins resulting in excommunication, v. 波.

四欲 The four desires or passions: 情 sexual love; 色 sexual beauty or attractiveness; 食 food; 婬 lust.

四正勤 saṃyakprahāṇa, v. 三十七道品; the four right efforts一to put an end to existing evil; prevent evil arising; bring good into existence; develop existing good; 四正斷; 四意斷 are similar but the third point is the conservation of the good.

四比丘 v. 四惡比丘.

四毒蛇 Four poisonous snakes (in a basket), e. g. the four elements, earth, water, fire, and air, of which a man is formed.

四河 The four rivers— Ganges, Sindhu (Indus), Vākṣu (Oxus), and Tārīm, all reputed to arise out of a lake, Anavatapta, in Tibet.

四波 An abbreviation for 四波羅蜜菩薩. The four female attendants on Vairocana in the Vajradhātu, evolved from him, each of them a 'mother' of one of the four Buddhas of the four quarters; v. 四佛, etc.

四波羅夷 四重; 四棄, 四極重感墮罪 The four pārājikas, or grievous sins of monks or nuns: (1) abrahmacarya, sexual immorality, or bestiality; (2) adattādāna, stealing; (3) vadhahiṃṣa killing; (4) uttaramanuṣyadharma-prālapa, false speaking.

四法 There are several groups of four dharma: (1) 教法 the teaching of the Buddha); 理法 its principles, or meaning; 行法 its practice; 果法 its fruits or rewards. (2) Another group relates to bodhisattvas, their never losing the bodhi-mind, or the wisdom attained, or perseverance in progress, or the monastic forest life (āraṇyaka). (3) Also 信解行證 faith, discernment, performance, and assurance. (4) The Pure-land 'True' sect of Japan has a division: 教法, i. e. the 大無量壽經; 行法 the practice of the seventeenth of Amitābha's vows; 信法 faith in the eighteenth; and 證法 proof of the eleventh. The most important work of Shinran, the founder of the sect, is these four, i. e. 教行信證. (5) A 'Lotus ' division of 四法 is the answer to a question of Puxian (Samantabhadra) how the Lotus is to be possessed after the Buddha's demise, i. e. by thought (or protection) of the Buddhas; the cultivation of virtue; entry into correct dhyāna; and having a mind to save all creatures.

四法三願 idem 四法 #4; the three vows are the seventeenth, eighteenth, and eleventh of Amitābha.

四法不懷 The four imperishables— the correctly receptive heart, the diamond, the relics of a Buddha, and the palace of the devas of light and sound, ābhasvāras.

四法印 The seal or impression of the four dogmas, suffering, impermanence, non-ego, nirvana, see 四法本末.

四法成就 idem 四種檀法.

四法本末 The alpha and omega in four laws or dogmas— that nothing is permanent, that all things involve suffering, that there is no personality, and that nirvana is 永寂 eternal rest.

四法施 The Buddha' s gift of the four laws or dogmas, that all things are impermanent, that all (sentient) existence is suffering, that there is no (essential) personality, that all form (or matter) returns to the void.

四法界 四種法界 The four dharma-realms of the Huayan School: (1) 事法界 the phenomenal realm, with differentiation; (2) 理四法 noumenal with unity; (3) 理事無礙法界 both 理 noumenal and 事 phenomenal are interdependent; (4) 事事無礙法界 phenomena are also interdependent.

四洲 catur-dvīpa; the four inhabited continents of every universe; they are situated S., E., W., and N. of the central mountain Sumeru; S. is Jambudvīpa 暗部洲; E. Pūrva-videha 東毘提訶; W. Apara-godānīya 牛貨; and N. Uttarakuru 瞿盧.

四海 The four oceans around Mount Sumeru; cf. 九山八海.

四海論主 Honorific title of the monk 敬脫 Jingtuo of the Sui dynasty.

四流 The four currents (that carry the unthinking along): i. e. the illusions of 見 seeing things as they seem, not as they really are; 欲 desires; 有 existence, life; 無明 ignorance, or an unenlightened condition.

四淨定 The 'pure' dhyāna, i. e. one of the 三定 three dhyānas; this dhyāna is in four parts.

四無常偈 (or 四非常偈) Eight stanzas in the 仁王經, two each on 無常 impermanence, 苦 suffering, 空 the void, and 無我 non-personality; the whole four sets embodying the impermanence of all things.

四無所畏 (四無畏) The four kinds of fearlessness, or courage, of which there are two groups: Buddha-fearlessness arises from his omniscience; perfection of character; overcoming opposition; and ending of suffering. Bodhisattva-fearlessness arises from powers of memory; of moral diagnosis and application of the remedy; of ratiocination; and of solving doubts. v. 智度論 48 and 5.

四無礙解 (or 四無礙智 or 四無礙辯). pratisaṃvid, the four unhindered or unlimited bodhisattva powers of interpretation, or reasoning, i. e. in 法 dharma, the letter of the law; 義 artha, its meaning; ? nirukti, in any language, or form of expression; 樂說 pratibhāna, in eloquence, or pleasure in speaking, or argument.

四無色 idem 四空處, 四空定.

四無量心 catvāri apramāṇāni; the four immeasurables, or infinite Buddha-states of mind, also styled 四等 the four equalities, or universals, and 四梵行 noble acts or characteristics; i. e. four of the twelve 禪 dhyānas: 慈無量心 boundless kindness, maitrī, or bestowing of joy or happiness; 悲無量心 boundless pity, karuṇā, to save from suffering; 喜無量心 boundless joy, muditā, on seeing others rescued from suffering; 捨無量心 limitless indifference, upekṣā, i. e. rising above these emotions, or giving up all things, e. g. distinctions of friend and enemy, love and hate, etc. The esoteric sect has a special definition of its own, connecting each of the four with 普賢; 虛 空 藏; 觀自在; or 盧 空 庫.

四煩惱 The four delusions in reference to the ego: 我痴 ignorance in regard to the ego; 我見 holding to the ego idea; 我慢 self-esteem, egotism, pride; 我愛 self-seeking, or desire, both the latter arising from belief in the ego. Also 四惑.

四爐 The four furnaces, or altars of the esoteric cult, each differing in shape: earth, square; water, round; fire, triangular; wind, half-moon shape.

四王 (四王天) catur-mahārāja-kāyikās, the four heavens of the four deva-kings, i. e. the lowest of the six heavens of desire; v. 四天王.

四王忉利 The 四王天 and trāyastriṃśas, Indra's heaven.

四生 catur-yoni, the four forms of birth: (1) 胎 or 生 jarāyuja, viviparous, as with mammalia; (2) 卵生 aṇḍaja, oviparous, as with birds; (3) 濕生 or 寒熱和合生 saṃsvedaja, moisture, or water-born, as with worms and fishes; (4) 化生 aupapāduka, metamorphic, as with moths from the chrysalis, or with devas, or in the hells, or the first beings in a newly evolved world.

四生百劫 A pratyekabuddha method of obtaining release, by intensive effort, at the shortest in four rebirths, at the longest in a hundred kalpas.

四田 The four fields for cultivating happiness — animals; the poor; parents, etc.; the religion.

四界 The four realms, idem 四大 earth, water, fire, and air.

四界攝持 The four are the substance and upholders of all things.

四病 The four ailments, or mistaken ways of seeking perfection: 作病 'works' or effort; 任病 laissez-faire; 止病 cessation of all mental operation; 滅病 annihilaīon (of all desire).

四百 Four hundred.

四百四病 The 404 ailments of the body; each of the four elements— earth, water, fire, and wind — is responsible for 101; there are 202 fevers, or hot humours caused by earth and fire; and 202 chills or cold humours caused by water and wind; v. 智度論 65.

四百戒 The 400 disciplinary laws of a bodhisattva, referred to in the 藥師經 but without detail.

四相 The four avasthā, or states of all phenomena, i. e. 生住異滅 birth, being, change (i. e. decay), and death; also 四有爲相. There are several groups, e. g. 果報四相 birth, age, disease, death. Also 藏識四相 of the Awakening of Faith referring to the initiation, continuation, change, and cessation of the ālaya-vijñāna. Also 我人四相 The ideas: (1) that there is an ego; (2) that man is different from other organisms; (3) that all the living are produced by the skandhas; (4) that life is limited to the organism. Also 智境四相 dealing differently with the four last headings 我; 人; 衆生; and 壽相.

四眞 (四眞諦) The four noble truths, v. 四諦 (四聖諦) , i. e. 苦, 集, 滅, 道 pain, its location, its cessation, the way of cure.

四眼 The four powers of sight of bodhisattvas, a Buddha has a fifth power; v. 五眼.

四知 The four who know the workings of one's mind for good or evil— heaven, earth, one's intimates, and oneself.

四神足 idem 四如意足.

四禪 (四禪天) The four dhyāna heavens, 四靜慮 (四靜慮天), i. e. the division of the eighteen brahmalokas into four dhyānas: the disciple attains to one of these heavens according to the dhyāna he observes: (1) 初禪天 The first region, 'as large as one whole universe' comprises the three heavens, Brahma-pāriṣadya, Brahma-purohita, and Mahābrahma, 梵輔, 梵衆, and 大梵天; the inhabitants are without gustatory or olfactory organs, not needing food, but possess the other four of the six organs. (2) 二禪天 The second region, equal to 'a small chiliocosmos' 小千界, comprises the three heavens, according to Eitel, 'Parīttābha, Apramāṇābha, and Ābhāsvara, ' i. e. 少光 minor light, 無量光 infinite light, and 極光淨 utmost light purity; the inhabitants have ceased to require the five physical organs, possessing only the organ of mind. (3) 三禪天 The third region, equal to 'a middling chiliocosmos '中千界, comprises three heavens; Eitel gives them as Parīttaśubha, Apramāṇaśubha, and Śubhakṛtsna, i. e. 少淨 minor purity, 無量淨 infinite purity, and 徧淨 universal purity; the inhabitants still have the organ of mind and are receptive of great joy. (4) 四禪天 The fourth region, equal to a great chiliocosmos, 大千界, comprises the remaining nine brahmalokas, namely, Puṇyaprasava, Anabhraka, Bṛhatphala, Asañjñisattva, Avṛha, Atapa, Sudṛśa, Sudarśana, and Akaniṣṭha (Eitel). The Chinese titles are 福生 felicitous birth, 無雲 cloudless, 廣果 large fruitage, 無煩 no vexations, atapa is 無熱 no heat, sudṛśa is 善見 beautiful to see, sudarśana is 善現 beautiful appearing, two others are 色究竟 the end of form, and 無想天 the heaven above thought, but it is difficult to trace avṛha and akaniṣṭha; the inhabitants of this fourth region still have mind. The number of the dhyāna heavens differs; the Sarvāstivādins say 16, the 經 or Sutra school 17, and the Sthavirāḥ school 18. Eitel points out that the first dhyāna has one world with one moon, one mem, four continents, and six devalokas; the second dhyāna has 1, 000 times the worlds of the first; the third has 1, 000 times the worlds of the second; the fourth dhyāna has 1, 000 times those of the third. Within a kalpa of destruction 壞劫 the first is destroyed fifty-six times by fire, the second seven by water, the third once by wind, the fourth 'corresponding to a state of absolute indifference' remains 'untouched' by all the other evolutions; when 'fate (天命) comes to an end then the fourth dhyāna may come to an end too, but not sooner'.

四禪八定 The four dhyānas on the form-realms and the eight concentrations, i. e. four on the form-realms and four on the formless. realms.

四禪定 The four dhyāna-concentrations which lead to the four dhyāna heavenly regions, see above.

四種 Four kinds; where phrases containing the 種 are not found here, they may occur direct, e. g. 四法界.

四種三昧耶 The four samaya, i. e. the four pārājikas— killing, stealing, carnality, lying.

四種信心 The four kinds of faith given in the Awakening of Faith, i. e. (1) in the 眞如 q. v. as the teacher of all Buddhas and fount of all action; (2) in Buddha, or the Buddhas; (3) in the Dharma; and (4) in the Sarogha.

四種根本罪 The four deadly sins, i. e. the four pārājikas— killing, stealing, carnality, lying.

四種檀法 四種悉地; 四種成就法 The four kinds of altar-worship of the esoteric sect for (1) averting calamities from self and others; (2) seeking good fortune; (3) seeking the love and protection of Buddhas; (4) subduing enemies.

四種死生 Four kinds of rebirth dependent on present deeds: from obscurity and poverty to be reborn in the same condition; from obscurity and poverty to be reborn in light and honour; from light and honour to be reborn in obscurity and poverty; from light and honour to be reborn in the heavens.

四種法界 v. 四法界.

四種總持 The four kinds of dhāraṇī 陀羅尼 q. v.

四種行人 The four grades of earnest doers, who follow the bodhisattva discipline and attain to the 十住, 十行, 十廻向, and 十地.

四種觀行 The four kinds of examination, a method of repentance as a way to get rid of any sin: study the cause of the sin, which lies in ignorance, or lack of clear understanding, e. g. moth and fame; study its inevitable effect, its karma; study oneself, introspection; and study the Tathāgata in his perfect character, and saving power.

四空處 (or四空天) catur-ārūpya brahmalokas; also 四無色界 and see 四空定. The four immaterial or formless heavens, arūpa-dhātu, above the eighteen brahmalokas: (1) 空無邊處 ākāśānantyāyatana, also termed 虛空 處 the state or heaven of boundless space; (2) 識無邊處 vijñānanāntyāyatana, of boundless knowledge; (3) 無所有處 ākiñcanyāyatana, of nothing, or nonexistence; (4) 非想非非想處 naivasanjñānasañjnāyatana, also styled 非有想非無想 the state of neither thinking nor not thinking (which may resemble a state of intuition). Existence in the first state lasts 20, 000 great kalpas, increasing respectively to 40, 000, 60, 000 and 80, 000 in the other three.

四空定 四無色定 The last four of the twelve dhyānas; the auto-hypnotic, or ecstatic entry into the four states represented by the four dhyāna heavens, i. e. 四 空 處 supra. In the first, the mind becomes void and vast like space; in the second, the powers of perception and understanding are unlimited; in the third, the discriminative powers of mind are subdued; in the fourth, the realm of consciousness or knowledge) without thought is reached, e. g. intuitive wisdom. These four are considered both as states of dhyāna, and as heavens into which one who practices these forms of dhyāna may be born.

四第一偈 A verse from the 莊嚴論 Zhuangyan lun— Health is the best wealth,
Contentment the best riches,
Friendship the best relationship,
Nirvana the best joy.

四等 The four virtues which a Buddha out of his infinite heart manifests equally to all; also called 四無量 q. w. They are: 慈悲喜捨 maitrī, karuṇā, muditā, upekṣā, i. e. kindness, pity, joy and indifference, or 護 protection. Another group is 字語法身, i. e. 字 that all Buddhas have the same title or titles; 語 speak the same language; 法 proclaim the same truth; and 身 have each the threefold body, or trikāya. A third group is 諸法 all things are equally included in the bhūtatathatā; 發心 the mind-nature being universal, its field of action is universal; 道等 the way or method is also universal; therefore 慈悲 the mercy (of the Buddhas) is universal for all.

四箇大乘 The four Mahāyānas, i. e. the four great schools: (1) 華嚴 Huayan or Avataṃsaka; (2) 天台 Tiantai; (3) 眞言 Zhenyan, Shingon, or esoteric; (4) 禪 Chan, Zen, or intuitive school. Another group is the 法相, 三論, 天台, and 華嚴.

四節 The four monastic annual periods — beginning of summer, end of summer, winter solstice, and the new year.

四料簡 A summary of the 臨濟 Linji school, an offshoot of the Chan, in reference to subjective, objective, both, neither.

四結 The four knots, or bonds, saṃyojana, which hinder free development; they are likened to the 四翳 q. v. four things that becloud, i. e. rain clouds, resembling desire; dust-storms, hate; smoke, ignorance; and asuras, gain.

四絶 The four ideas to be got rid of in order to obtain the 'mean' or ultimate reality, according to the 中論: they are that things exist, do not exist, both, neither.

四維 The four half points of the compass, N. E., N. W., S. E., S. W.

四縛 The four bandhana, or bonds are (1) desire, resentment, heretical morality, egoism; or (2) desire, possession (or existence), ignorance, and unenlightened views.

四翳 The four films, or things that becloud, i. e. rain-clouds; dust-storms; smoke; and asuras, i. e. eclipses of sun and moon; emblematic of desire, hate, ignorance, and pride; cf. 四結.

四聖 The four kinds of holy men— śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and Buddhas. Also, the four chief disciples of Kumārajīva, i. e. 道生 Daosheng, 僧肇 Sengzhao, 道融 Daorong, and 僧叡 Sengrui.

四聖行 The four holy ways— wearing rags from dust-heaps, begging for food, sitting under trees, and entire withdrawal from the world. The meaning is similar in 四良藥; 行四依; and 四聖種.

四聖諦 The four holy or noble truths, idem 四諦.

四股 The four-armed svastika, or thunderbolt.

四自侵 The four self-raidings, or self-injuries — in youth not to study from morn till night; in advancing years not to cease sexual intercourse; wealthy and not being charitable; not accepting the Buddha's teaching.

四自在 The four sovereign powers: 戒 the moral law; 神通 supernatural powers; 智 knowledge; and 慧 wisdom.

四良藥 The four good physicians, or medicines; idem 四聖行.

四花 The four (divine) flowers— mandāra, mahāmandāra, mañjūṣaka, and mahāmañjūṣaka. Also, puṇḍarīka, utpala, padma, and kumuda or white, blue, red, and yellow lotuses.

四苑 The pleasure grounds outside 善見城 Sudarśana, the heavenly city of Indra: E. 衆車苑 Caitrarathavana, the park of chariots; S. 麤惡苑 Parūṣakavana, the war park; W. 雜林苑 Miśrakāvana, intp. as the park where all desires are fulfilled; N. 喜林苑 Nandanavana, the park of all delights. Also 四園.

四苦 The four miseries, or sufferings — birth, age, disease, and death.

四菩薩 The four bodhisattvas— Avalokiteśvara, Maitreya, Samantabhadra, and Mañjuśrī. Also, the four chief bodhisattvas in the Garbhadhātu. There are also the 本化四菩薩 of the Lotus Sutra, named 上行, 無邊行, 淨行, and 安立行.

四處十六會 The sixteen assemblies, or addresses in the four places where the 大般若經 complete Prajñāpāramitā Sutra is said to have been delivered.

四處問訊 To inquire (or worship at) the four places for lighting incense at a monastery.

四蚖蛇 see 四蛇.

四蛇 idem 四毒蛇. The Fanyimingyi under this heading gives the parable of a man who fled from the two bewildering forms of life and death, and climbed down a rope (of life) 命根, into the well of impermanence 無常, where two mice, night and day, gnawed the rattan rope; on the four sides four snakes 四蛇 sought to poison him, i. e. the 四大 or four elements of his physical nature); below were three dragons 三毒龍 breathing fire and trying to seize him. On looking up he saw that two 象 elephants (darkness and light) had come to the mouth of the well; he was in despair, when a bee flew by and dropped some honey (the five desires 五欲) into his mouth, which he ate and entirely forgot his peril.

四衆 The four varga (groups, or orders), i. e. bhikṣu, bhikṣuṇī, upāsaka and upāsikā, monks, nuns, male and female devotees. Another group, according to Tiantai's commentary on the Lotus, is 發起衆 the assembly which, through Śāriputra, stirred the Buddha to begin his Lotus Sutra sermons; 當機衆 the pivotal assembly, those who were responsive to him; 影向衆 the reflection assembly, those like Mañjuśrī, etc., who reflected on, or drew out the Buddha's teaching; and 結緣衆 those who only profited in having seen and heard a Buddha, and therefore whose enlightenment is delayed to a future life.

四行 The four disciplinary processes: enlightenment; good deeds; wisdom; and worship.

四行相 To meditate upon the implications or disciplines of pain, unreality, impermanence, and the non-ego.

四衍 The four yānas or vehicles, idem 四乘.

四術 idem 四執.

四要品 The four most important chapters of the Lotus Sutra, i. e. 方便品; 安樂行品; 壽量品, and 普門品; this is Tiantai's selection; the Nichiren sect makes 勸持品 the second and 神力品 the fourth.

四親近 The four bodhisattvas associated with the five dhyāni-buddhas in the Vajradhātu.

四覺 The 'four intelligences, or apprehensions' of the Awakening of Faith 起信論, q. v., viz. 本覺, 相似覺, 隨分覺, and 究竟覺.

四記 (or 四答) The Buddha's for methods of dealing with questions: direct answer, discriminating answer, questioning in return, and silence.

四評家 The four great scholars (among the 500 arhats) who made the Vibhāṣā-śāstra, a critical commentary on the Abhidharma. Their names are 世友 Vasumitra, 妙音 Ghoṣa, 法救 Dharmatrāta, and 覺天 Buddhadeva.

四論 Four famous śāstras: (1) 中觀論Prāṇyamūla-śāstraṭīkā by Nāgārjuna, four juan; (2) 百論 Śata-śāstra by devabodhisattva, two juan; (3) 十二門論 Dvādaśanikāya(-mukha)-śāstra by Nāgārjuna, one juan; (4) 大智度論 Mahāprajñāpāramitā-śāstra by Nāgārjuna, 100 juan. During the Sui dynasty the followers of these four śāstras formed the 四論宗.

四諦 catvāri-ārya-satyāni; 四聖諦; 四眞諦. The four dogmas, or noble truths, the primary and fundamental doctrines of Śākyamuni, said to approximate to the form of medical diagnosis. They are pain or 'suffering, its cause, its ending, the way thereto; that existence is suffering, that human passion (taṇhā, 欲 desire) is the cause of continued suffering, that by the destruction of human passion existence may be brought to an end; that by a life of holiness the destruction of human passion may be attained'. Childers. The four are 苦, 聚 (or 集), 滅, and 道諦, i. e. duḥkha 豆佉, samudaya 三牟提耶, nirodha 尼棲陀, and mārga 末加. Eitel interprets them (1) 'that 'misery' is a necessary attribute of sentient existence'; (2) that 'the 'accumulation' of misery is caused by the passions'; (3) that 'the 'extinction' of passion is possible; (4) mārga is 'the doctrine of the 'path' that leads to the extinction of passion'. (1) 苦 suffering is the lot of the 六趣 six states of existence; (2) 集 is the aggregation (or exacerbation) of suffering by reason of the passions; (3) 滅 is nirvana, the extinction of desire and its consequences, and the leaving of the sufferings of mortality as void and extinct; (4) 道 is the way of such extinction, i. e. the 八正道 eightfold correct way. The first two are considered to be related to this life, the last two to 出世間 a life outside or apart from the world. The four are described as the fundamental doctrines first preached to his five former ascetic companions. Those who accepted these truths were in the stage of śrāvaka. There is much dispute as to the meaning of 滅 'extinction' as to whether it means extinction of suffering, of passion, or of existence. The Nirvana Sutra 18 says that whoever accepts the four dogmas will put an end to births and deaths 若能見四諦則得斷生死 which does not of necessity mean the termination of existence but that of continued transmigration. v. 滅.

四諦經 The sutra of the four dogmas, tr. by 安世高 An Shih Kao, one juan. 四趣 Durgati; the four evil directions or destinations: the hells, hungry ghosts, animals, asuras; v. 四惡.

四身 The four kāya, or 'bodies'. The Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra gives 化佛; 功德佛; 智慧佛 and 如如佛; the first is the nirmāṇakāya, the second and third saṃbhogakāya, and the fourth dharmakāya. The 唯識論 gives 自性身; 他受用身; 自受用身, and 變化身, the first being 法身, the second and third 報身, and the fourth 化身. The Tiantai School gives 法身; 報身; 應身, and 化身. The esoteric sect has four divisions of the 法身. See 三身.

四車 The four vehicles 四乘 of the Lotus Sutra 譬喩品, i. e. goat, deer, bullock, and great white-bullock carts.

四車家 The Lotus School, which adds to the trīyāna, or Three Vehicles, a fourth which includes the other three, viz. the 一佛乘 q. v.

四軛 The four yokes, or fetters, i. e. 欲 desire, 有 possessions and existence, 見 (unenlightened or non-Buddhist) views, 無明 ignorance.

四輪 The four wheels or circles: (1) 大地四輪 the four on which the earth rests, wind (or air), water, metal, and space. (2) Four images with wheels, yellow associated with metal or gold, white with water, red with fire, and black with wind. (3) The four dhyāni-buddhas, 金剛輪 Akṣobhya; 寳輪 Ratnasaṃbhava; 法輪 Amitābha; 羯磨輪 Amoghasiddhi. (4) Also the four metals, gold, silver, copper, iron, of the cakravartin kings.

四輪王 The four kinds of cakravartin kings.

四輩 The four grades: (1) bhikṣu, bhikṣuṇī, upāsaka, upāsikā, i. e. monks, nuns, male and female disciples, v. 四衆; (2) men, devas, nāgas, and ghosts 鬼.

四迷 idem 四執.

四道 The Dao or road means the nirvana road; the 'four' are rather modes of progress, or stages in it: (1) 加行道 discipline or effort, i. e. progress from the 三賢 and 四善根 stages to that of the 三學位, i. e. morality, meditation, and understanding; (2) 無間道 uninterrupted progress to the stage in which all delusion is banished; (3) 解脫道 liberaton, or freedom, reaching the state of assurance or proof and knowledge of the truth; and (4) 勝進道 surpassing progress in dhyāni-wisdom. Those four stages are also associated with those of srota-āpanna, sakṛdāgāmin, anāgāmin, and arhat.

四達 saindhava, 先陀婆 rock-salt, but intp. as salt, water, a utensil, and a horse, the four necessaries, i. e. water for washing, salt for food, a vessel to contain it, and a horse for progress; also called 四實.

四運 (四運心) The four stages of a thought: not yet arisen, its initiation, its realization, its passing away, styled 未念, 欲念, 正念, and 念巳.

四邪 idem 四執.

四部 The four classes, e. g. srota-āpanna, sakṛdāgāmin, anāgāmin, and arhat. v. 四道.

四部律 v. 四律五論.

四部經 The four sutras of the Pure Land sect, according to 慈恩 Cien, i. e. the 無量壽經; 觀無量壽經; 阿彌陀經, and 鼓音壽處陀羅尼經.

四部衆 四部弟子; 四部僧; 四衆 The four divisions of disciples— bhikṣu, bhikṣuṇī, upāsaka, and upāsikā, monks, nuns, and male and female devotees.

四重 (四重禁) The four grave prohibitions, or sins, 四重罪 pārājikas: killing, stealing, carnality, lying. Also four of the esoteric sect, i. e. discarding the truth, discarding the bodhi-mind, being mean or selfish in regard to the supreme law, injuring the living.

四重八重 The four pārājikas for monks and eight for nuns.

四重圓壇 四重曼荼羅 The Garbhadhātu maṇḍala of one central and three surrounding courts. The occupants are described as 四重聖衆 the sacred host of the four courts.

四金剛 The four mahārājas, v. 四天王.

四鉢 The four heavy stone begging-bowls offered to Śākyamuni by the four devas, which he miraculously combined into one and used as if ordinary material.

四鎭 The four guardians, v. 四天王.

四鏡 The four resemblances between a mirror and the bhūtatathatā in the Awakening of Faith 起信論. The bhūtatathatā, like the mirror, is independent of all beings, reveals all objects, is not hindered by objects, and serves all beings.

四門 The four doors, schools of thought, or theories: 有 is the phenomenal world real, or 空 unreal, or both, or neither ? According to the Tiantai school each of the four schools 四教 in discussing these four questions emphasizes one of them, i. e. 三藏教 that it is real 通教 unreal, 別通 both, 圓通 neither; v. 有 and 空, and each of the four schools. In esoteric symbolism the 四門 are four stages of initiation, development, enlightenment, and nirvana, and are associated with E., S., W., and N.; with the four seasons; with warmth, heat, coolness and cold, etc.

四門遊觀 The four distresses observed during his wanderings by the Buddha when a prince— birth, age, disease, death.

四阿含 The four Agamas 四阿笈摩, or divisions of the Hīnayāna scriptures: 長阿含 dīrghāgamas, 'long' works, cosmological; 中阿含 madhyamāgamas, metaphysical; 雜阿含 saṃyuktāgamas, general, on dhyāna, trance, etc.; 增一阿含 ekottarikāgamas, numerically arranged subjects.

四階成道 (or 四階成佛) The four Hīnayāna steps for attaining Buddhahood, i. e. the myriad deeds of the three asaṃkhyeya kalpas; the continually good karma of a hundred great kalpas; in the final body the cutting off of the illusions of the lower eight states; and the taking of one's seat on the bodhi-plot for final enlightenment, and the cutting off of the thirty-four forms of delusive thought.

四隅四行薩埵 The four female attendants on Vairocana in the Vajradhātu 金, 寳, 法, and 業, q. v.; also 四波.

四靜慮 (四靜慮天) v. 四禪 (四禪天).

四面毘盧遮那 The four-faced Vairocana, his dharmakāya of Wisdom.

四韋陀 (四韋) The four Vedas.

四馬 Four kinds of horses, likened to four classes of monks: those that respond to the shadow of the whip, its lightest touch, its mild application, and those who need the spur to bite the bone.

四須臾 The four short divisions of time: a wink; a snap of the fingers; 羅預 a lava, 20 finger-snaps; and 須臾 kṣaṇa, said to be 20 lava; but a lava is 'the sixtieth of a twinkling' (M. W. ) and a kṣaṇa an instant.

四食 The four kinds of food, i. e. 段食 or 摶食 for the body and its senses; 觸食 or 樂食 for the emotions; 思食 or 念食 for thought; and 識食 for wisdom, i. e. the 六識 of Hīnayāna and the 八識 of Mahāyāna, of which the eighth, i. e. ālayavijñāna, is the chief.

四食時 The four times for food, i. e. of the devas at dawn, of all Buddhas at noon, of animals in the evening, and of demons and ghosts at night.

四齋日 The four fast days, i. e. at the quarters of the moon— new, full 8th, and 23rd.

bāhya. Outside, external; opposite to 内 within, inner, e. g. 内證 inner witness, or realization and 外用 external manifestation, function, or use.

外乞 The mendicant monk who seeks self-control by external means, e. g. abstinence from food, as contrasted with the 内乞 who seeks it by spiritual methods.

外塵 The external objects of the six internal senses.

外外道 Outside outsiders, those of other cults.

外學 Study of outside, or non-Buddhist doctrines.

外我 An external Ego, e. g. a Creator or ruler of the world, such as Siva.

外法 外教; 外典; 外執 External doctrines; rules or tenets non-Buddhist, or heretical.

外海 The sea that surrounds the four world-continents.

外無爲 Unmoved by externals, none of the senses stirred.

外相 External appearance or conduct; what is manifested without; externally. The 十二外相 are the hair, teeth, nails, etc.

外護 External protection, or aid, e. g. food and clothing for monks and nuns, contrasted with the internal aid of the Buddha's teaching.

外貪欲 Sexual thoughts towards others than one's own wife, or husband.

外道 Outside doctrines; non-Buddhist; heresy, heretics; the Tīrthyas or Tīrthikas; there are many groups of these: that of the 二天三仙 two devas and three sages, i. e. the Viṣṇuites, the Maheśvarites (or Śivaites), and the followers of Kapila, Ulūka, and Ṛṣabha. Another group of four is given as Kapila, Ulūka, Nirgrantha-putra (Jainas), and Jñātṛ (Jainas). A group of six, known as the外道六師 six heretical masters, is Pūraṇa-Kāśyapa, Maskari-Gośālīputra, Sañjaya-Vairāṭīputra, Ajita-Keśakambala, Kakuda-Kātyāyana, and Nirgrantha-Jñātṛputra; there are also two other groupings of six, one of them indicative of their various forms of asceticism and self-torture. There are also groups of 13, 1, 20, 30, 95, and 96 heretics, or forms of non-Buddhist doctrine, the 95 being divided into 11 classes, beginning with the Saṃkhyā philosophy and ending with that of no-cause, or existence as accidental.

外金剛部 The external twenty devas in the Vajradhātu group, whose names, many of them doubtful, are given as Nārāyaṇa, Kumāra, Vajragoḍa, Brahmā, Śakra, Āditya, Candra, Vajramāha, ? Musala, Piṅgala, ? Rakṣalevatā, Vāyu, Vajravāsin, Agni, Vaiśravaṇa, Vajrāṅkuśa, Yama, Vajrājaya, Vināyaka, Nāgavajra.

外金剛部院 The last of the thirteen courts in the Garbhadhātu group.

To lose, opp. of 得; to err.

失守摩羅 (or 失收摩羅) śiśumāra, 'child-killing, the Gangetic porpoise, delphinus gangeticus, ' M. W. Tr. by 鰐 a crocodile, which is the kumbhīra 金毘羅.

失念 To lose the train of thought, or meditation; a wandering mind; loss of memory.

失羅婆 śravaṇā, a constellation identified with the Ox, or 9th Chinese constellation, in Aries and Sagittarius.

The middle, medial: to solicit; ample, vast.

央掘摩羅 (央掘); 央仇魔羅; 央崛鬘; 盎崛利摩羅 (or 鴦崛利摩羅) (or 鴦窶利摩羅) Aṇgulimālya, Śivaitic fanatics who ' made assassination a religious act', and wore finger-bones as a chaplet. One who had assassinated 999, and was about to assassinate his mother for the thousandth, is said to have been then converted by the Buddha.

A slave 奴僕; 奴隸.

奴婢 Male and female slaves.

To stop; a nun; near; translit. ni. When used for a nun it is an abbrev. for 比丘尼 bhikṣuṇī.

尼壇 The nun's altar; a convent or nunnery.

尼大師 An abbess.

尼姑 A nun.

尼寺 A nunnery, or convent.

尼戒 The rules for nuns, numbering 341, to which seven more were added making 348, commonly called the 五百戒 500 rules.

尼比丘 A female bhikṣu, i. e. a nun.

尼法師 A nun teacher; effeminate.

尼衆主 The Mistress of the nuns, Gautami, i. e. Mahāprājapatī, the foster-mother of Śākyamuni.

尼刺部陀 (or 尼刺浮陀) nirarbuda, 尼羅浮陀 ' bursting tumours ', the second naraka of the eight cold hells.

尼夜摩 niyama, restraint, vow; determination, resolve; a degree of Bodhisattva progress, i. e. never turning back.

尼師壇 (or 尼師但那) niṣīdana; M043724 史娜曩 A thing to sit or lie on, a mat 坐具.

尼延底 ? niyati, or niyantṛ 尼近底 tr. as 執取 to restrain, hold, also as 深入 deeply enter, and said to be another term for 貪 to desire, covet.

尼建他迦 niṣkaṇṭhaka, 尼延他柯 a kind of yakṣa, 無咽 throatless.

尼彌留陀 nirodha, tr. as 滅 extinction, annihilation, cessation, the third of the four noble truths, cf. 尼樓陀.

尼思佛 Sugatacetana, a disciple who slighted Śākyamuni in his former incarnation of 常不輕 Never despise, but who afterwards attained through him to Buddhahood.

尼拘陀 nyag-rodha, the down-growing tree, Ficus Indica, or banyan; high and wide-spreading, leaves like persimmon-leaves, fruit called 多勒 to-lo used as a cough-medicine; also intp. 楊柳 the willow, probably from its drooping characteristic; the 榕樹 'bastard banyan', ficus pyrifolia, takes its place as ficus religiosa in China. Also written尼拘律; 尼拘尼陀; 尼拘盧陀 (or 尼拘類陀, 尼拘婁陀, or 尼拘屢陀) ; 尼瞿陀; 尼倶陀 (or 尼倶類); 諾瞿陀.

尼抵 nidhi (praṇidhāna); also 尼低; 尼提 The Sanskrit is doubtful. The intp. is 願 vow, or 願志求滿足 seeking the fulfilment of resolves, or aims.

尼提 尼陀 A scavenger.

尼摩羅 nirmāṇarati, 須密陀天 devas who 'delight in transformations', i. e. 化樂天 or 樂變化天; of the six devalokas of desire they occupy the fifth, where life lasts for 8, 000 years.

尼樓陀 nirodha, restraint, suppression, cessation, annihilation, tr. by 滅 extinction, the third of the four dogmas 四諦; with the breaking of the chain of karma there is left no further bond to reincarnation. Used in Anupūrva-nirodha, or 'successive terminaīons', i. e. nine successive stages of dhyāna. Cf. 尼彌留陀.

尼民陀羅 Nimindhara, or Nemiṃdhara 尼民達羅 maintaining the circle, i. e. the outermost ring of the seven concentric ranges of a world, the 地持山 the mountains that hold the land. Also the name of a sea fish whose head is supposed to resemble this mountain.

尼沙陀 Upaniṣad, v. 鄥.

尼波羅 Nepala, Nepal, anciently corresponding to that part of Nepal which lies east of the Kathmandu. Eitel.

尼犍 nirgrantha, 尼健; 尼乾 (尼乾陀); 尼虔, freed from all ties, a naked mendicant, tr. by 離繋, 不繋, 無結 devotees who are free from all ties, wander naked, and cover themselves with ashes. Mahāvīra, one of this sect, called 若提 Jñāti after his family, and also 尼乾陀若提子 Nirgrantha-jñātiputra, was an opponent of Śākyamuni. His doctrines were determinist, everything being fated, and no religious practices could change one's lot.

尼犍度 bhikṣuṇī-khaṇḍa, a division of the Vinaya, containing the rules for nuns.

尼犍陀弗咀羅 Nirgrantha-putra, idem Jñāti.

尼羅 nila, dark blue or green.

尼羅優曇鉢羅 nila-udumbara, v. 優.

尼羅婆陀羅 尼藍婆 nīlavajra, the blue vajra, or thunderbolt.

尼羅浮陀 idem 尼刺部陀.

尼羅烏鉢羅 (or 尼羅漚鉢羅) nīlotpala, the blue lotus.

尼羅蔽荼 Nīlapiṭa, 'the blue collection' of annals and royal edicts, mentioned in 西域記.

尼薩曇 Defined as an atom, the smallest possible particle; but its extended form of 優波尼薩曇分 suggests upaniṣad, esoteric doctrine, the secret sense of the sutras.

尼薩耆波逸提 Naiḥsargika-prāyaścittika, intp. by 捨 and 墮, the sin in the former case being forgiven on confession and restoration being made, in the latter being not forgiven because of refusal to confess and restore. Cf. 二百五十戒.

尼衛 nivāsana, an inner garment.

尼近底 v. 尼延底.

尼迦羅 ? niṣkala, the name of a tree, but niṣkala means iter alia seedless, barren.

尼連禪 (尼連禪那) Nairaṅjanā, 尼連河; 希連禪 (or 希連河) The Nīlājan that flows past Gaya, 'an eastern tributary of the Phalgu. ' Eitel.

尼陀那 nidāna, a band, bond, link, primary cause. I. The 十二因緣 twelve causes or links in the chain of existence: (1) jarā-maraṇa 老死 old age and death. (2) jāti 生 (re) birth. (3) bhava 有 existence. (4) upādāna 取 laying hold of, grasping. (5) tṛṣṇā 愛 love, thirst, desire. (6) vedana 受 receiving, perceiving, sensation. (7) sparśa 觸 touch, contact, feeling. (8) ṣaḍ-āyatana, 六入 the six senses. (9) nāma-rūpa 名色 name and form, individuality (of things). (10) vijñāna 六識 the six forms of perception, awareness or discernment. (11) saṃskāra 行 action, moral conduct. (12) avidyā 無明 unenlightenment, 'ignorance which mistakes the illusory phenomena of this world for realities. ' Eitel. These twelve links are stated also in Hīnayāna in reverse order, beginning with avidyā and ending with jarā-maraṇa. The Fanyimingyi says the whole series arises from 無明 ignorance, and if this can be got rid of the whole process of 生死 births and deaths (or reincarnations) comes to an end. II. Applied to the purpose and occasion of writing sutras, nidāna means (1) those written because of a request or query; (2) because certain precepts were violated; (3) because of certain events.

尼陀那目得迦 nidāna-mātṛkā, two of the twelve divisions of the sutras, one dealing with the nidānas, the other with 本事 previous incarnations.

Skilful, clever.

巧妙智 巧智慧 is 一切智智 q. v.

巧明 v. 功巧論.

Great; translit. ko, hau, go.

巨益 Great benefit.

巨磨 gomaya, cow-dung.

巨賞彌 Kauśāmbī, (Pali) Kosambi, Vatsa-pattana. Also written 倶睒彌 (or 倶賞彌, or 倶舍彌); 拘睒彌 (or 拘剡彌) ; 拘鹽; 拘深; 拘羅瞿; 拘翼; 憍賞 (or 憍閃) 彌. The country of King Udayana in 'Central India', described as 6, 000 li in circuit, soil rich, with a famous capital, in which the 西域記 5 says there was a great image of the Buddha. Eitel says: It was 'one of the most ancient cities of India, identified by some with Kasia near Kurrah (Lat. 25 ° 41 N., Long. 81 ° 27 E. ), by others with the village of Kosam on the Jumna 30 miles above Aulahabad'. It is identified with Kosam.

The left hand.

左溪 Zuoxi, the eighth Tiantai patriarch, named Xuanlang 玄朗.

A market, a fair, an open place for public assembly.

市演得迦 Jetaka, or 婆多婆漢那 Sadvahana. A king of southern Kosala, patron of Nāgārjuna.

Cloth, to spread; translit. pu, po, pau.

布儞阿偈 pūti-agada, purgatives.

布利迦 pūrikā, a kind of cake.

布刺拏 Pūraṇa-Kāśyapa, v. 富. Also Purna of the 釋毘婆少論 v. 毘.

布史 pausa, the 10th month in India.

布咀洛迦 Potala, v. 補 and 普.

布嚕婆毗提訶 Pūrva-videha, or Videha. 弗婆提 (弗婆毗提訶); 弗子毗婆提訶; 逋利婆鼻提賀 One of the four great continents east of Sumeru.

布嚕那跋陀羅 Pūrṇabhadra, one of the eight yakṣa generals.

布如鳥伐耶 Puṇyopāya, or 那提 Nadī. A monk of Central India, said to have brought over 1, 500 texts of the Mahāyāna and Hīnayāna schools to China A. D. 655. In 656 he was sent to 崑崙山 Pulo Condore Island in the China Sea for some strange medicine. Tr. three works, one lost by A. D. 730.

布字觀 A Shingon meditation on the Sanskrit letter 'a' and others, written on the devotee's own body.

布怛那 pūtanā, 布單那; 富多那 (or 富單那 or 富陀那) a female demon poisoning or the cause of wasting in a child; interpreted as a stinking hungry demon, and the most successful of demons.

布教 To publish, or spread abroad the doctrine.

布施 dāna 檀那; the sixth pāramitā, almsgiving, i. e. of goods, or the doctrine, with resultant benefits now and also hereafter in the forms of reincarnation, as neglect or refusal will produce the opposite consequences. The 二種布施 two kinds of dāna are the pure, or unsullied charity, which looks for no reward here but only hereafter; and the sullied almsgiving whose object is personal benefit. The three kinds of dāna are goods, the doctrine, and courage, or fearlessness. The four kinds are pens to write the sutras, ink, the sutras themselves, and preaching. The five kinds are giving to those who have come from a distance, those who are going to a distance, the sick, the hungry, those wise in the doctrine. The seven kinds are giving to visitors, travellers, the sick, their nurses, monasteries, endowments for the sustenance of monks or nuns, and clothing and food according to season. The eight kinds are giving to those who come for aid, giving for fear (of evil), return for kindness received, anticipating gifts in return, continuing the parental example of giving, giving in hope of rebirth in a particular heaven, in hope of an honoured name, for the adornment of the heart and life. 倶舍論 18.

布瑟波 puṣpa, 補澀波 a flower 華.

布薩 poṣadha, upavasatha, upoṣana; 布沙他 (or 布灑他); 褒沙陀 Pali: uposatha; fasting, a fast, the nurturing or renewal of vows, intp. by 淨住 or 善宿 or 長養, meaning abiding in retreat for spiritual refreshment. There are other similar terms, e. g. 布薩陀婆; 優補陀婆; also 布薩犍度 which the Vinaya uses for the meeting place; 鉢囉帝提舍耶寐 pratideśanīya, is self-examination and public confession during the fast. It is also an old Indian fast. Buddha's monks should meet at the new and fall moons and read the Prātimokṣa sutra for their moral edification, also disciples at home should observe the six fast days and the eight commands. The 布薩日 fast days are the 15th and 29th or 30th of the moon.

布薩護 is a term for the lay observance of the first eight commandments on fast days, and it is used as a name for those commands.

布袋和尚 Pu-tai Ho-shang (J.: Hotei Osho) Cloth-bag monk, an erratic monk 長汀子 Changtingzi early in the tenth century, noted, inter alia, for his shoulder bag. Often depicted, especially in Japanese art, as a jovial, corpulent monk, scantily clad and surrounded by children.

布路沙 puruṣa, 布嚕沙; 補盧沙 man, mankind, a man, Man as Nārayāṇa the soul and origin of the universe, the soul, the Soul, Supreme Being, God, see M. W.; intp. as 人 and 丈夫 man, and an adult man, also by 士夫 master or educated man, 'explained by 神我, literally the spiritual self. A metaphysical term; the spirit which together with nature (自性 svabhāva), through the successive modifications (轉變) of guṇa (求那 attributes or qualities), or the active principles (作者), produces all forms of existence (作一切物). ' Eitel.

布路沙布羅 佛樓沙 Puruṣapura; the ancient capital of Gandhara, the modern Peshawar.

布達拉 Potala, 普陀羅 the monastery of the Dalai Lama in Lhasa; v. 普.

Even, level, tranquil; ordinary.

平常 Ordinary, usual, common.

平生 Throughout life; all one's life.

平等 sama; samatā. Level, even, everywhere the same, universal, without partiality; it especially refers to the Buddha in his universal; impartial, and equal attitude towards all beings.

平等力 Universal power, or omnipotence, i. e. to save all beings, a title of a Buddha.

平等大慧 'Universal great wisdom', the declaration by the ancient Buddha in the Lotus Sutra, that all would obtain the Buddha-wisdom.

平等心 An impartial mind, 'no respecter of persons, ' not loving one and hating another.

平等性 The universal nature, i. e. the 眞如 bhūtatathatā q. v.

平等性智 samatājñāna. The wisdom of rising above such distinctions as I and Thou, meum and tūm, thus being rid of the ego idea, and wisdom in regard to all things equally and universally, cf. 五智. The esoteric school also call it the 灌頂智 and Ratnasaṃbhava wisdom.

平等教 One of two schools founded by 印法師 Yin Fashi early in the Tang dynasty.

平等智 samatajñāna, wisdom of universality or sameness, v. supra.

平等法 The universal or impartial truth that all become Buddha, 一切衆生平等成佛.

平等法身 Universalized dharmakāya, a stage in Bodhisattva development above the eighth, i. e. above the 八地.

平等王 Yama, the impartial or just judge and awarder. But the name is also applied to one of the Ten Rulers of the Underworld, distinct from Yama. Also, name of the founder of the kṣatriya caste, to which the Śākyas belonged.

平等義 The meaning of universal, i. e. that the 眞如 q. v. is equally and everywhere in all things.

平等覺 A Buddha's universal and impartial perception, his absolute intuition above the laws of differentiation.

平等觀 One of the three Tiantai meditations, the 假觀 phenomenal being blended with the noumenal or universal. The term is also used for 空觀 meditation on the universal, or absolute.

平袈裟 A one-coloured robe of seven pieces.

Vast, great; to enlarge, spread abroad; e. g. 弘宣; 弘教; 弘法; 弘通 widely to proclaim the Buddhist truth.

弘忍 Hung-jen noted monk.

弘法 Hung-fa, noted monk.

弘誓 弘誓願 vast or universal vows of a Buddha, or Bodhisattva, especially Amitābha's forty-eight vows.

Not; no; do not.

弗于逮 弗于毘婆提訶 idem 布嚕波 Pūrva-Videha.

弗伽羅 福伽羅 (or 富伽羅) ; 補特伽羅 pudgala; Pali, puggala M. W. says 'handsome', 'having form or property', 'the soul, personal identity' Keith uses 'person'; 'personality'. Eitel. 'a general term for all human beings as subject to metempsychosis. A philosophical term denoting personality. ' It is tr. by 人 man and 衆生 all the living; later by 數取趣 those who go on to repeated reincarnations, but whether this means the individual soul in its rebirths is not clear.

弗如檀 Puṇyadarśa, auspicious mirror, interpreted as 法鏡 mirror of the law; name of a man.

弗婆勢羅 Pūrvaśaila, 'the eastern mountain behind which the sun is supposed to rise. ' M. W. The eastern mountain, name of a monastery east of Dhānyakataka (Amaravati), the 弗婆勢羅僧伽藍 (or 佛婆勢羅僧伽藍) (or 弗媻勢羅僧伽藍) Pūrvaśaila-saṅghārāma. One of the subdivisions of the Mahāsāṅghika school.

弗婆呵羅 puṣpāhara flower-plucker 食花 flower-eater, name of a yakṣa.

弗婆提 弗婆鞞陀提 idem 弗毘提訶.

弗沙王 Vatsarāja. King Vatsa, idem Udayana, v. 優塡. The 弗沙迦王經 is another name for the 萍沙王五願經.

弗沙 勃沙 or 富沙 or 逋v or 補沙; puṣya; 'the sixth (or in later times the eighth) Nakshatra or lunar mansion, also called Tishya. ' M. W. 底沙. It is the 鬼 group Cancer γδηθ, the 23rd of the Chinese twenty-eight stellar mansions. Name of an ancient Buddha.

弗沙佛 idem 底沙佛.

弗沙蜜多 Puṣyamitra, descendant of Asoka and enemy of Buddhism; possibly a mistake for 弗沙蜜羅.

弗沙蜜羅 Puṣyamitra, the fourth successor of King Aśoka; asking what he should do to perpetuate his name, he was told that Aśoka had erected 84, 000 shrines and he might become famous by destroying them, which he is said to have done, v. 雜阿含經 25. Also see 弗沙蜜多.

弗栗特 Vṛji, or 三伐特 Saṃvaji. An ancient kingdom north of the Ganges, S. E. of Nepal, the inhabitants, called Saṃvaji, were noted for their heretical proclivities. Eitel.

弗毘提訶 Pūrva-Videha, or Videha, the continent east of Sumeru, idem 布嚕波.

弗波提 弗把提 Either devapuṣpa, or bhūpadī, the latter being jasmiunm zambae; both are interpreted by 天華 deva-flowers.

弗若多羅 功德華 Puṇyatara, a śramaṇa of Kubha 罽賓國 (Kabul), who came to China and in 404 tr. with Kumārajīva the 十誦律 Sarvāstivāda-vinaya. 'One of the twenty-four deva-ārya (天尊) worshipped in China. ' Eitel.

Certainly, necessary, must.

必定 Certainly, assuredly; tr. of 阿鞞蹴致 avaivartika, intp. as 不退轉 never receding, or turning back, always progressing, and certainly reaching nirvana.

必栗託仡那 pṛthagjana, interpreted as 獨生, 異生, and 凡夫; pṛthak is separately, individually; with Buddhists the whole term means born an ordinary man; the common people.

必棏家 比摘迦 piṭaka, a basket, receptacle, thesaurus, hence the Tripiṭaka 三藏.

必至 Certainly will, certainly arrive at.

Grieved, distressed.

忉利天 trāyastriṃśas, 怛唎耶怛唎奢; 多羅夜登陵舍; the heavens of the thirty-three devas, 三十三天, the second of the desire-heavens, the heaven of Indra; it is the Svarga of Hindu mythology, situated on Meru with thirty-two deva-cities, eight on each side; a central city is 善見城 Sudarśana, or Amarāvatī, where Indra, with 1, 000 heads and eyes and four arms, lives in his palace called 禪延; 毘闍延 (or 毘禪延) ? Vaijayanta, and 'revels in numberless sensual pleasures together with his wife' Śacī and with 119, 000 concubines. 'There he receives the monthly reports of the' four Mahārājas as to the good and evil in the world. 'The whole myth may have an astronomical' or meteorological background, e. g. the number thirty-three indicating the 'eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve Ādityas, and two Aśvins of Vedic mythology. ' Eitel. Cf. 因陀羅.

wu, mou; nourishing; the fifth of the ten 'stems'.

戊地 The Fanyimingyi 翻譯名義 describes this as 西安國, perhaps 安西國 Parthia is meant.

戊達羅 A misprint for 戍達羅; 首陁 śūdra, the caste of farmers and slaves.

To beat, strike, make, do; used for many kinds of such action.

打供 To make offerings.

打包 To wrap up or carry a bundle, i. e. a wandering monk.

打坐 To squat, sit down cross-legged.

打成一片 To knock all into one, bring things together, or into order.

打板 To beat the board, or wooden block, e.g. as an announcement, or intimation.

打眠衣 A monk's sleeping garment.

打聽 To make inquiries.

打靜 To beat the silencer, or beat for silence.

打飯 To eat rice, or a meal.


旦望 The new moon and full moon, or first, and fifteenth of the moon.

旦過僧 A wandering monk, who stays for a night.

旦過寮 A monastery at which a wandering monk 旦過僧 stays.

Not yet; the future; 1-3 p. m.

未了因 The karma of past life not yet fulfilled.

未來 當來 anāgata; that which has not come, or will come; the future, e. g. 未來世 a future life, or lives; also the future tense, one of the 三世, i. e. 過, 現, 未 past, present, future.

未受具人 A monk who has not yet formally pledged himself to all the commandments.

未敷蓮華 A half-opened lotus, such as one of the forms of Guanyin holds in the hand.

未敷蓮華 A half-opened lotus, such as one of the forms of Guanyin holds in the hand.

未曾有 希有; 阿浮陀 adbhuta; never yet been, non-such, rare, marvellous.

未曾有經 Adbhutadharma-paryāya, one of the twelve divisions of the sutras 十二部經.

未曾有正法經 A Sung translation of the 阿闍世王經 Ajātaśatru-kaukṛīyavinodana.

未生怨 Having no enemy, tr. of the name of Ajātaśatru 阿闍世王. There is a sutra of this name describing his murder of his father Bimbisāra.

未至 未到 Not yet arrived, or reached.

未陀 ? arbuda, 100 (or 10) millions.

未顯眞實 未開顯 The unrevealed truth, the Truth only revealed by the Buddha in his final Mahāyāna doctrine.

Radical, fundamental, original, principal, one's own; the Buddha himself, contrasted with 蹟 chi, traces left by him among men to educate them; also a volume of a book.

本三昧耶印 The first samaya-sign to be made in worship, the forming of the hands after the manner of a lotus.

本不生際 The original status of no rebirth, i. e. every man has a naturally pure heart, which 不生不滅 is independent of the bonds of mortality.

本事經 itivṛttaka; ityukta; one of the twelve classes of sutras, in which the Buddha tells of the deeds of his disciples and others in previous lives, cf. 本生經.

本二 His original second (in the house), the wife of a monk, before he retired from the world.

本佛 The Buddha-nature within oneself; the original Buddha.

本來 Coming from the root, originally, fundamentally, 無始以來 from, or before, the very beginning.

本來成佛 All things being of Buddha become Buddha.

本來法爾 So from the beginning, interpreted as 自始自然.

本來無一物 Originally not a thing existing, or before anything existed— a subject of meditation.

本來空 That all things come from the Void, or Absolute, the 眞如.

本初 In the beginning; originally.

本命星 The life-star of an individual, i. e. the particular star of the seven stars of Ursa Major which is dominant in the year of birth; 本命宿 is the constellation, or star-group, under which he is born; 本命元辰 is the year of birth, i. e. the year of his birth-star.

本命道塲 Temple for worship of the emperor's birth-star, for the protection of the imperial family and the state.

本地 Native place, natural position, original body; also the 本身; 本法身; or 本地身 fundamental person or embodiment of a Buddha or bodhisattva, as distinct from his temporal manifestation.

本地門 The uncreated dharmakāya of Vairocana is eternal and the source of all things and all virtue.

本尊 ? satyadevatā, 裟也地提嚩多. The original honoured one; the most honoured of all Buddhas; also the chief object of worship in a group; the specific Buddha, etc., being served.

本山 Native hill; a monk's original or proper monastery; this (or that) monastery; also 本寺.

本師 The original Master or Teacher. Śākyamuni.

本師和尚 upādhyāya 鳥波陀耶 an original teacher, or founder; a title of Amitābha. 本形 Original form, or figure; the substantive form.

本心 The original heart, or mind; one's own heart.

本性 The spirit one possesses by nature; hence, the Buddha-nature; the Buddha-nature within; one's own nature.

本惑 The root or origin of delusion; also 根本惑; 根本煩惱.

本拏哩迦 idem puṇḍarīka, v. 奔.

本據 mūlagrantha; the original text, or a quotation from it.

本教 The fundamental doctrine, i. e. of the One Vehicle as declared in the Lotus Sutra, also 根本之教.

本明 The original light, or potential enlightenment, that is in all beings; also 元明; cf. 本覺.

本時 The original time, the period when Sakyamumi obtained enlightenment; at that time.

本書 The foundation books of any school; a book.

本有 Originally or fundamentally existing; primal existence; the source and substance of all phenomena; also the present life; also the eighth 八識, i. e. ālaya-vijñāna.

本有修生 The 本有 means that original dharma is complete in each individual, the 眞如法性之德 the virtue of the bhūtatathatā dharma-nature, being 具足無缺 complete without lack; the 修生 means the development of this original mind in the individual, whether saint or common man, to the realization of Buddha-virtue; 由觀行之力, 開發其本有之德, 漸漸修習而次第開顯佛德也.

本有家 A division of the Dharmalakṣana school 法相宗.

本末 Root and twigs, root and branch, first and last, beginning and end, etc.

本母 upadeśa: mātṛkā: the original 'mother' or matrix; the original sutra, or work.

本淨 (本淨無漏) Primal purity.

本生經 Jātaka sutras 闍陀伽; stories of the Buddha's previous incarnations, one of the twelve classes of sutras.

本生說 The stories told in the Jātaka tales. v. 本事經.

本緣 The origin or cause of any phenomenon.

本行 The root of action: the method or motive of attainment; (his) own deeds, e. g. the doings of a Buddha or bodhisattva.

本行經 (本行集經) A sutra of this title.

本囊伽吒 pūrṇaghaṭa, full pitcher, 'one of the sixty-five mystic figures said to be traceable on every footprint (śrīpada) of Buddha. ' Eitel.

本覺 Original bodhi, i. e. 'enlightenment', awareness, knowledge, or wisdom, as contrasted with 始覺 initial knowledge, that is 'enlightenment a priori is contrasted with enlightenment a posteriori'. Suzuki, Awakening of Faith, P. 62. The reference is to universal mind 衆生之心體, which is conceived as pure and intelligent, with 始覺 as active intelligence. It is considered as the Buddha-dharmakāya, or as it might perhaps be termed, the fundamental mind. Nevertheless in action from the first it was influenced by its antithesis 無明 ignorance, the opposite of awareness, or true knowledge. See 起信論 and 仁王經,中. There are two kinds of 本覺, one which is unconditioned, and never sullied by ignorance and delusion, the other which is conditioned and subject to ignorance. In original enlightenment is implied potential enlightenment in each being.

本覺眞如 The 眞如, i. e. bhūtatathatā, is the 體 corpus, or embodiment; the 本覺 is the 相 or form of primal intelligence; the former is the 理 or fundamental truth, the latter is the 智, i. e. the knowledge or wisdom of it; together they form the whole embodiment of the buddha-dharmakāya.

本質 Original substance, the substance itself; any real object of the senses.

本誓 samaya; the original covenant or vow made by every Buddha and Bodhisattva.

本識 The fundamental vijñāna, one of the eighteen names of the ālaya-vijñāna, the root of all things.

本身 oneself; it also means 本心 the inner self.

本迹 The original 本 Buddha or Bodhisattva and his 迹 varied manifestations for saving all beings, e. g. Guanyin with thirty-three forms. Also 本地垂迹.

本迹二門 A division of the Lotus Sutra into two parts, the 迹門 being the first fourteen chapters, the 本門 the following fourteen chapters; the first half is related to the Buddha's earthly life and previous teaching; the second half to the final revelation of the Buddha as eternal and the Bodhisattva doctrines.

本門 v. 本迹.

本門本尊 The especial honoured one of the Nichiren sect, Svādi-devatā, the Supreme Being, whose maṇḍala is considered as the symbol of the Buddha as infinite, eternal, universal. The Nichiren sect has a meditation 本門事觀 on the universality of the Buddha and the unity in the diversity of all his phenomena, the whole truth being embodied in the Lotus Sutra, and in its title of five words, 妙法蓮華經 Wonderful-Law Lotus-Flower Sutra, which are considered to be the embodiment of the eternal, universal Buddha. Their repetition preceded by 南無 Namah ! is equivalent to the 歸命 of other Buddhists.

本願 pūrvapraṇidhāna. The original vow, or vows, of a Buddha or bodhisattva, e. g. the forty-eight of Amitābha, the twelve of 藥師, etc.

本願一實大道 The great way of the one reality of Amitābha's vows, i. e. that of calling on his name and trusting to his strength and not one's own.

本高迹下 The higher (Buddha) manifesting himself in lower form, e. g. as a bodhisattva.

Branch, twig; end; dust; not; translit, ma, va, ba; cf. 摩.

末上 On the last, at last, finally.

末世 The third and last period of a Buddha-kalpa; the first is the first 500 years of correct doctrine, the second is the 1, 000 years of semblance law, or approximation to the doctrine, and the third a myriad years of its decline and end. Also 末代.

末伽 mārga; track, path, way, the way; the fourth of the four dogmas 四諦, i. e. 道, known as the 八聖道, 八正道 (or 八正門), the eight holy or correct ways, or gates out of suffering into nirvana. Mārga is described as the 因 cause of liberation, bodhi as its 果 result.

末伽始羅 mārgaśiras, M. W. says November-December; the Chinese say from he 16th of the 9th moon to the 15th of the 10th.

末伽梨 (or 末伽黎) 拘賖梨 (or 拘賖黎); 末佉梨劬奢離 Maskari Gośālīputra, one of the six Tīrthikas 外道六師. He denied that present lot was due to deeds done in previous lives, and the Laṅkāvatāra Sutra says he taught total annihilation at the end of this life.

末利 mallikā, 摩利; 末羅 (1) jasminum zambac, M. W., which suggests the 茉莉花, i. e. the Chinese jasmine; according to Eitel it is the narrowleaved nyctanthes (with globular berries 柰); the flower, now called kastūrī (musk) because of its odour. By the Fanyimingyi 翻譯名義 it is styled the 鬘花 chaplet flower, as its flowers may be formed into a chaplet. (2) A concoction of various fruits mixed with water offered in worship.

末利夫人 The wife of Prasenajit, king of Kośala, so called because she wove or wore jasmine chaplets, or came from a jasmine garden, etc.

末利室羅 Mālyaśrī, said to be a daughter of the last and queen in Ayodhyā, capital of Kośala.

末剌諵 maraṇa, 死 dying, mortal, death.

末化 Buddha transformed into (palm-) branches or leaves; the transformation of the Buddha in the shape of the sutras.

末嗟羅 matsara, 慳 grudging, stingy, greedy.

末多利 One of the divisions of the Sarvāstivādāḥ school, said to be the 北山部 q. v.

末奴是若颯縛羅 manojñasvara 如意音, 樂音 lovely sounds, music; a king of the gandharvas, Indra's musicians.

末奴沙 mānuṣa, manuṣya; 摩奴娑 (or 摩努娑); 摩奴闍 (or 摩奴曬); 摩努史; 摩?沙 (or 摩?賖, or 摩?奢, or 摩舍喃); 摩?; 摩拏赦 man, human, intp. by 人 and man and mind or intelligence.

末寺 Subsidiary buildings of a monastery.

末尼 maṇi 摩尼; a jewel, a crystal, a pearl, symbol of purity, therefore of Buddha and of his doctrine. It is used in oṃ-maṇi -padmi-hūṃ.

末尼教 The Manichean religion, first mentioned in Chinese literature by Xuanzang in his Memoirs, between A. D. 630 and 640. The first Manichean missionary from 大秦 Daqin reached China in 694. In 732, an imperial edict declared the religion of Mani a perverse doctrine, falsely taking the name of Buddhism. It continued, however, to flourish in parts of China, especially Fukien, even to the end of the Ming dynasty. Chinese writers have often confused it with Mazdeism 火祅教.

末底 mati 摩提; devotion, discernment, understanding, tr. by 慧 wisdom.

末底僧訶 Matisiṃha, the lion of intelligence, an honorific title.

末度迦 madhūka 末杜迦; 摩頭; M. W. bassia lavtifolia, tr. as 美果 a fine or pleasant fruit.

末捺南 vandana, 禮 worship, reverence.

末摩 marman; a vital part, or mortal spot.

末梨 Bali, an asura king.

末法 The last of the three periods 正, 像, and 末; that of degeneration and extinction of the Buddha-law.

末田 Madhyāntika, 末田地 (末田地那); 末田底加, 末田提; 末田鐸迦; 末彈地; 末闡地 or a 摩 is also used for 末. It is tr. by 中; 日中, 水中河中, and 金地. One of the two chief disciples of Ānanda, to whom he handed down the Buddha's doctrine. He is reputed to have been sent to convert 罽賓 Kashmir, the other, 商那和修 Śāṇakavāsa, to convert 中國 which is probably Central India, though it is understood as China. Another account makes the latter a disciple of the former. Eitel says that by his magic power he transported a sculptor to the Tuṣita heavens to obtain a correct image of Maitreya.

末睇提舍 Madhyadeśa, 中國 the central kingdom, i. e. Central India.

末笯曷剌他 Manorhita, or Manoratha, tr. by 如意, an Indian prince who became the disciple and successor of Vasubandhu, reputed author of the 毘婆沙論 Vibhāṣā śāstra and the twenty-second patriarch.

末羅 malla 魔羅; a term for inhabitants of Kuśinagara and Pāvā.

末羅王經 The sutra of the king of this name, whose road was blocked by a rock, which his people were unable to remove, but which the Buddha removed easily by his miraculous powers.

末羅鋼多 marakata, 摩羅迦陀 the emerald.

末羅遊 Malaya, 'the western Ghats in the Deccan (these mountains abound in sandal trees); the country that lies to the east of the Malaya range, Malabar. ' M, W. Eitel gives 秣羅矩吒 Malakūṭa, i. e. Malaya, as 'an ancient kingdom of Southern India, the coast of Malabar, about A. D. 600 a noted haunt of the Nirgrantha sect'. It is also identified with 尸利佛逝 Śrībhoja, which is given as 馬來半嶋 the Malay peninsula; but v. 摩羅耶 Malaya.

末栗者 marica, pepper.

末迦吒賀邏馱 Markaṭa-hrada; the Apes' Pool, near Vaiśālī.

末達那 madana; 摩陀那 (or 摩達那); 摩陀羅 a fruit called the intoxicating fruit 醉果.

末那 manāḥ; manas; intp. by 意 mind, the (active) mind. Eitel says: 'The sixth of the chadâyatana, the mental faculty which constitutes man as an intelligent and moral being. ' The 末那識 is defined by the 唯識論 4 as the seventh of the 八識, namely 意, which means 思量 thinking and measuring, or calculating. It is the active mind, or activity of mind, but is also used for the mind itself.

末陀 madya, intoxicating liquor, intoxicating. The two characters are also given as a translation of ? madhya, and mean 100, 000.

末陀摩 This is intp. as not. in the mean or middle way.

末麗曩 Balin 麽攞; strong, strengthening.

Right, correct; just, exact chief, principal; the first month.

正中 Exactly middle; midday.

正依經 The sutras on which any sect specially relies.

正像末 The three periods of correct law, semblance law, and decadence, or finality; cf. 正法.

正命 samyagājīva, the fifth of the 八正道, right livelihood, right life; 'abstaining from any of the forbidden modes of living. ' 正因 The true or direct cause, as compared with 緣因 a contributory cause.

正地部 v. 磨 Mahīśāsakāḥ.

正報 The direct retribution of the individual's previous existence, such as being born as a man, etc. Also 正果.

正士 Correct scholar, bodhisattva.

正定 saṃyak-samādhi, right abstraction or concentration, so that the mind becomes vacant and receptive, the eighth of the 八正道; 'right concentration, in the shape of the Four Meditations.' Keith.

正定業 Concentration upon the eighteenth vow of Amitābha and the Western Paradise, in repeating the name of Amitābha.

正徧智 saṃyak-saṃbuddha 三藐三佛陀; omniscience, completely enlightened, the universal knowledge of a Buddha, hence he is the 正徧智海 ocean of omniscience. Also 正徧覺; 正等正覺.

正忌 The day of decease.

正念 samyak-smṛti, right remembrance, the seventh of the 八正道; 'right mindfullness, the looking on the body and the spirit in such a way as to remain ardent, self-possessed and mindful, having overcome both hankering and dejection. ' Keith.

正思惟 samyak-saṃkalpa, right thought and intent, the second of the 八正道, 'right aspiration towards renunciation, benevolence and kindness. ' Keith.

正日 Correct day, the day of a funeral.

正智 samyag-jñāna; correct knowledge; 聖智 sage-like, or saint-like knowledge.

正業 samyakkarmānta, right action, purity of body, avoiding all wrong, the fourth of the 八正道; 'right action, abstaining from taking life, or what is not given, or from carnal indulgence. ' Keith.

正法 The correct doctrine of the Buddha, whose period was to last 500, some say 1, 000 years, be followed by the 像法時 semblance period of 1, 000 years, and then by the 末法時 period of decay and termination, lasting 10, 000 years. The 正法時 is also known as 正法壽.

正法依 He on whom the Truth depends, a term for a Buddha.

正法明如來 The Tathāgata who clearly understands the true law, i. e. Guanyin, who attained Buddhahood in the past.

正法炬 The torch of truth, i. e. Buddhism.

正法華經 The earliest translation of the Lotus Sutra in 10 juan by Dharmarakṣa, A. D. 286, still in existence.

正當恁麽時 Just at such and such an hour.

正盡覺 idem 正等覺.

正直 Correct and straight; it is also referred to the One Vehicle teaching of Tiantai.

正直捨方便 The straight way which has cast aside expediency.

正精進 samyagvyāyāma, right effort, zeal, or progress, unintermitting perseverance, the sixth of the 八正道; 'right effort, to suppress the rising of evil states, to eradicate those which have arisen, to stimulate good states, and to perfect those which have come into being. ' Keith.

正等 idem 正徧智.

正等覺 samyagbuddhi, or -bodhi; the perfect universal wisdom of a Buddha.

正行 Right deeds, or action, opposite of 邪行.

正行經 is an abbreviation of 佛說阿含正行經.

正覺 Sambodhi. the wisdom or omniscience of Buddha.

正見 samyag-dṛṣṭi, right views, understanding the four noble truths; the first of the 八正道; 'knowledge of the four noble truths. ' Keith.

正語 samyag-vāk, right speech; the third of the 八正道; 'abstaining from lying, slander, abuse, and idle talk. ' Keith.

正量部 Saṃmatīya, Saṃmitīya (三彌底); the school of correct measures, or correct evaluation. Three hundred years after the Nirvana it is said that from the Vātsīputrīyāḥ school four divisions were formed, of which this was the third.

mātṛ, a mother.

母主 The 'mother-lord', or mother, as contrasted with 主 and 母, lord and mother, king and queen, in the maṇḍala of Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu; Vairocana, being the source of all things, has no 'mnother'as progenitor, and is the 部主 or lord of the maṇḍala; the other four dhyāni-buddhas have 'mothers' called 部母, who are supposed to arise from the paramitas; thus, Akṣobhya has 金剛波羅蜜 for mother; Ratnasaṃbhava has 寳波羅蜜 for mother; Amitābha has 法波羅蜜 for mother; Amoghasiddhi has 羯磨波羅蜜 for mother.

母經 摩怛理迦 mātṛkā; a text, as distinguished from its commentary; an original text; the Abhidharma.

母邑 摩咀理伽羅摩 matṛgrāma, the community of mothers, womankind.

母陀摩奴沙 (or 母那摩奴沙) mṛta-manuṣya; a human corpse.

母陀羅 母捺羅 (or 慕捺羅) ; 目陀羅; 末得羅 mudrā, 印 a seal, stamp, sign, manual sign.

母陀羅手 A manual sign of assurance, hence felicitous.

母馱 毋馱 idem 佛陀, i. e. 佛 Buddha.

Ice; chaste.

氷揭羅 (or 氷伽羅) ; 畢哩孕迦 Piṅgala, name of the son of Hariti, 阿利底 the mother of demons. She is now represented as a saint holding a child. Piṅgala, as a beloved son, in her left arm. The sutra of his name 氷揭羅天童子經 was tr. by 不空金剛 Amoghavajra, middle of the eighth century.

Perpetual, eternal, everlasting (like the unceasing flow of water).

永劫 Eternity; the everlasting aeon.

永生 Eternal life; immortality; nirvana is defined as 不生 not being born, i. e. not reborn, and therefore 不滅 not dying; 永生 is also perpetual life; the Amitābha cult says in the Pure Land.

To offend against, break (as a law).

犯戒 To offend against or break the moral or ceremonial laws (of Buddhism).

犯重 To break the weightier laws.

Dark, sombre, black; abstruse, obscure, deep, profound; hence it is used to indicate Daoism, and was afterwards adopted by the Buddhists.

玄一 Xuanyi, a commentator of the 法相 Dharmalakṣana school during the Tang dynasty.

玄奘 Xuanzang, whose name is written variously e. g. Hsüan Chuang, Hiüen-tsang, Hiouen Tsang, Yüan Tsang, Yüen Chwang; the famous pilgrim to India, whose surname was 陳 Chen and personal name 禕 Wei; a native of Henan, A. D. 600-664 (Giles). It is said that he entered a monastery at 13 years of age and in 618 with his elder brother, who had preceded him in becoming a monk, went to Chang-an 長安, the capital, where in 622 he was fully ordained. Finding that China possessed only half of the Buddhist classics, he took his staff, bound his feet, and on foot braved the perils of the deserts and mountains of Central Asia. The date of his setting out is uncertain (629 or 627), but the year of his arrival in India is given as 633: after visiting and studying in many parts of India, he returned home, reaching the capital in 645, was received with honour and presented his collection of 657 works, 'besides many images and pictures, and one hundred and fifty relics, 'to the Court. Taizong, the emperor, gave him the 弘福寺 Hongfu monastery in which to work. He presented the manuscript of his famous 大唐西域記 Record of Western Countries in 646 and completed it as it now stands by 648. The emperor Gaozong called him to Court in 653 and gave him the 慈恩寺 Cien monastery in which to work, a monastery which ever after was associated with him; in 657 he removed him to the 玉華宮 Yuhua Gong and made that palace a monastery. He translated seventy-five works in 1335 juan. In India he received the titles of 摩訶耶那提婆 Mahāyānadeva and 木叉提婆 Mokṣadeva; he was also known as 三藏法師 Tripiṭaka teacher of Dharma. He died in 664, in his 65th year.

玄宗 The profound principles, or propositions, i. e. Buddhism.

玄應 Deep, or abstruse response; also Xuanying, the author in the Tang dynasty of the 玄應音義, i. e. 一切經音義 a Buddhist dictionary in 25 juan, not considered very reliable.

玄景 Xuanjing, a monk, d. 606, noted for his preaching, and for his many changes of garments, as 衡嶽 Hengyue was noted for wearing one garment all his days.

玄暢 Xuanchang, a famous Shensi monk, who was invited to be tutor of the heir-apparent, A. D. 445, but refused, died 484.

玄朗 Xuanlang, a Chekiang monk of the Tang dynasty, died 854, at 83 years of age, noted for his influence on his disciples and for having remained in one room for over thirty years: also called 慧明 Huiming and 左溪 Zuoqi.

玄疏 The 玄義, a Tiantai commentary an the contents and meaning of the Lotus Sutra, and 疏 the critical commentary on the text.

玄沙 Xuansha, a famous Fukien monk who had over 800 disciples, died A. D. 908; his chief subjects were the fundamental ailments of men— blindness, deafness, and dumbness.

玄流 The black-robed sect of monks.

玄琬 Xuanyuan, an influential Shensi monk who lived through the persecution of Buddhism in the 北周 Northern Zhou dynasty into the Sui and Tang dynasties.

玄範 Xuanfan, a Tang monk and editor, said to be a contemporary of Xuanzang, some say his disciple.

玄義 The deep meaning; the meaning of the profound; it refers chiefly to the Tiantai method of teaching which was to proceed from a general explanation of the content and meaning of the various great sutras to a discussion of the deeper meaning. the method was: (1) 釋名 explanation of the terms; (2) 辨體 defintion of the substance; (3) 明宗 making clear the principles; (4) 論用 discussing their application; (5) 判教 discriminating the doctrine. v. also 玄疏.

玄覺 Hsüan-chio, a Wenchow monk, also named 明道 Ming-tao, who had a large following; he is said to have attained to enlightenment in one night, hence is known as 一宿覺.

玄贊 An abbreviation of 法華經玄贊.

玄道 The profound doctrine, Buddhism.

玄鏡 An abbreviation of 華嚴法界玄鏡.

玄鑑居士 An Indian, the patron of an Indian monk Dharmapāla, author of the 唯識釋論. After his death the patron gave the MS. to Xuanzang.

玄門 The profound school, i. e. Buddhism. Also that of the 華嚴 Huayan (Kegon) which has a division of 十玄門 or 十玄緣起, indicating the ten metaphysical propositions, or lines of thought; of these there are two or more versions.

玄高 Hsüan-kao, a famous Shensi monk, influential politically, later killed by order of the emperor Wu Ti, circa 400.

Jade, a gem; jade-like, precious; you, your.

玉佛 A famous jade Buddha recovered while digging a well in Khotan, 3 to 4 feet high.

玉柔 Pliable jade, i. e. 牛肉 beef.

玉泉玉花兩宗 The two schools of the Jade-fountain and Jade-flower. i. e. 天台 Tiantai and 法相 Dharmalakṣana, the latter with Hsüan-tsang as founder in China. 玉泉 Yü-ch'üan was the name of the monastery in Tang-yang 當陽 Hsien, An-lu Fu, Hupeh, where Chih-i, the founder of the T'ien-t'ai School, lived; 玉花 Yü-hua, where Hsüan-tsang lived.

玉環 The Jade ring in one of the right hands of the 'thousand-hand' Guanyin.

玉耶 The name of the woman to whom the sutra 玉耶女經 is addressed.

玉花 The palace 玉花宮 'Yuhuagong', transformed into a temple for Xuanzang to work in, where he tr. the 大般若經 Mahāprajñāpāramitā-sūtra, 600 juan, etc. Cf. 玉泉.

玉豪 玉毫 The ūrṇā or white curl between the Buddha's eyebrows, from which he sent forth his ray of light illuminating all worlds.

Gourd, melon, etc.

瓜皮 Melon rind.

Tiles, pottery.

瓦器金器 An earthen vessel, i. e. the śrāvaka method, and a golden vessel, the bodhisattva method.

瓦師 The Buddha in a previous incarnation as a potter.

瓦鉢 An earthenware begging bowl.

Sweet, agreeable, willing; kansu.

甘丹 Dgahldan, the monastery of the yellow sect 30 miles north-east of Lhasa 拉薩, built by Tsoṅ-kha-pa.

甘珠爾 Kanjur, one of the two divisions of the Tibetan canon, consisting of 180 juan, each juan of 1, 000 leaves; a load for ten yaks.

甘菩 (甘菩遮, 甘菩國); 紺蒲; 劍蒲 Kamboja, one of the 'sixteen great countries of India', noted for its beautiful women.

甘蔗 Sugar-cane, symbol of many things. A tr. of Ikṣvāku, one of the surnames of Śākyamuni, from a legend that one of his ancestors was born from a sugar-cane.

甘蔗王 懿師摩; 一叉鳩王 King of the sugar-cane; Ikṣvāku Virūḍhaka, said to be one of the ancestors of Śākyamuni, but the name is claimed by others.

甘露 阿密哩多 (or 啞密哩多) (or 啞密哩達) amṛta, sweet dew, ambrosia, the nectar of immortality; tr. by 天酒 deva-wine, the nectar of the gods. Four kinds of ambrosia are mentioned— green, yellow, red, and white, all coming from 'edible trees' and known as 蘇陀 sudhā, or 蘇摩 soma.

甘露法, or 甘露雨 The ambrosial truth, or rain, i. e. the Buddha truth.

甘露法門 The method of the ambrosial truth.

甘露滅 The nectar of nirvana, the entrance is the 甘露門, and nirvana is the 甘露城 or 甘露界 nectar city, or region.

甘露王 amṛta, intp. in its implication of immortality is a name of Amitābha, and connected with him are the 甘露咒, 甘露陀羅尼咒, 十甘露咒 (or 十甘露明), 甘露經, etc.

甘露軍荼利明王 甘露王尊 amṛtakuṇḍalin, one of the five 明王 Ming Wang, who has three forms, vajra, lotus, and nectar.

甘露飯 阿彌都檀那 amṛtodana. The king whose name was 'ambrosia-rice ', a prince of Magadha, father of Anuruddha and Bhadrika, and paternal uncle of Śākyamuni.

甘露鼓 The ambrosial drum, the Buddha-truth.

jāti 惹多; life; utpāda means coming forth, birth, production; 生 means beget, bear, birth, rebirth, born, begin, produce, life, the living. One of the twelve nidānas, 十二因緣; birth takes place in four forms, catur yoni, v. 四生, in each case causing: a sentient being to enter one of the 六道 six gati, or paths of transmigration.

生住異滅 Birth, stay, change (or decay), death.

生佛 Buddha alive; a living Buddha; also 生, i. e. 衆生 all the living, and 佛, i. e. Buddha.

生佛一如 生佛一體; 生佛不二; 凡聖一如 The living and the Buddha are one, i. e. all are the one undivided whole, or absolute; they are all of the same substance: all are Buddha, and of the same 法身 dharmakāya, or spiritual nature; all are of the same 空 infinity.

生佛不增不滅 The indestructibility of the living and the Buddha; they neither increase nor decrease, being the absolute.

生佛假名 The living and the Buddha are but temporary names, borrowed or derived for temporal indication.

生像 生似 Natural and similar, i. e. gold and silver, gold being the natural and perfect metal and colour; silver being next, though it will tarnish; the two are also called 生色 and 可染, i. e. the proper natural (unchanging) colour, and the tarnishable.

生化 化生 aupapāduka; one of the four forms of birth, i. e. by transformation, without parentage, and in full maturity; thus do bodhisattvas come from the Tuṣita heaven; the dhyāni-buddhas and bodhisattvas are also of such miraculous origin.

生化二身 The physical body of Buddha and his transformation body capable of any form; the nirmāṇakāya in its two forms of 應 and 化.

生卽無生無生卽生 To be born is not to be born, not to be born is to be born— an instance of the identity of contraries. It is an accepted doctrine of the 般若 prajñā teaching and the ultimate doctrine of the 三論 Mādhyamika school. Birth, creation, life, each is but a 假 temporary term, in common statement 俗諦 it is called birth, in truth 眞諦 it is not birth; in the relative it is birth, in the absolute non-birth.

生報 Life's retribution, i. e. the deeds done in this life produce their results in the next reincarnation.

生天 The heavens where those living in this world can be reborn, i. e. from that of the 四天王 to the 非想天; v. 福生天.

生忍 common or ordinary patience, i. e. of 衆生 the masses.

生念處菩薩 The second Bodhisattva on the right of the Bodhisattva of Space 虛空藏 in the Garbhadhātu.

生支 liṅga; aṅga-jāta; the male organ, penis.

生有 One of the four forms of existence, cf. 有.

生死 saṃsāra: birth and death: rebirth and redeath; life and death; 生死, 死生; 生生死死 ever-recurring saṃsāra or transmigrations; the round of mortality. There are two, three, four, seven, and twelve kinds of 生死; the two are 分斷生死 the various karmaic transmigrations, and 不思義變易生死 (or simply 變易生死) the inconceivable transformation life in the Pure Land. Among the twelve are final separation from mortality of the arhat, with 無餘 no remains of it causing return; one final death and no rebirth of the anāgāmin; the seven advancing rebirths of the srota-āpanna; down to the births-cum-deaths of hungry ghosts.

生死卽涅槃 Mortality is nirvana, but there are varying definitions of 卽 q. v.

生死園 The garden of life-and-death. This mortal world in which the unenlightened find their satisfaction.

生死大海 The ocean of mortality, mortal life, 輪迴 saṃsāra, or transmigrations.

生死岸 The shore of mortal life; as生死流 is its flow; 生死泥 its quagmire; 生死淵 its abyss; 生死野 its wilderness; 生死雲 its envelopment in cloud.

生死解脫 Release from the bonds of births-and-deaths, nirvana.

生死輪 The wheel of births-and-deaths, the round of mortality.

生死長夜 The long night of births-and-deaths.

生死際 The region of births-and-deaths, as compared with that of nirvana.

生法 The living and things, i. e. 人法, 我法 men and things, the self and things; the 有情 sentient, or those with emotions, i. e. the living; and 非情 those without, i. e. insentient things.

生死二身 The physical body and the spiritual body of the Buddha: the nirmāṇakāya and dharmakāya.

生津 The ford of life, or mortality.

生滅 utpādanirodha. Birth and death, production and annihilation; all life, all phenomena, have birth and death, beginning and end; the 三論 Mādhyamika school deny this in the 實 absolute, but recognize it in the 假 relative.

生滅去來 Coming into existence and ceasing to exist, past and future, are merely relative terms and not true in reality; they are the first two antitheses in the 中論 Mādhyamika-śāstra, the other two antitheses being 一異斷常 unity and difference, impermanence and permanence.

生生 Birth and rebirth (without end).

生田 The three regions 三界 of the constant round of rebirth.

生盲 Born blind.

生空 Empty at birth, i. e. 我空, 人空 void of a permanent ego.

生經 Stories of the previous incarnations of the Buddha and his disciples, tr. by Dharmapāla, 5 juan, third century A. D.

生老病死 Birth, age, sickness, death, the 四苦 four afflictions that are the lot of every man. The five are the above four and 苦 misery, or suffering.

生肇融叡 Four great disciples of Kumārajīva, the Indian Buddhajīva or 道生 Tao-sheng and the three Chinese 僧肇 Seng-chao, 道融 Tao-jung, and 僧叡 Seng-jui.

生色 jāta-rūpa; gold, v. 生像.

生起 Birth and what arises from it; cause of an act; the beginning and rise.

生趣 The 四生 four forms of birth and the 六趣 six forms of transmigration.

生身 The physical body; also that of a Buddha in contrast with his 法身 dharmakāya; also a bodhisattva's body when born into any mortal form.

生身供 The worship paid to Buddha-relics, 生身舍利.

生途 The way or lot of those born, i. e. of mortality.

生靈 The mind or intelligence of the living; a living intelligent being; a living soul.

生飯 出飯 Offerings made before a meal of a small portion of food hosts and all the living; cf. Nirvana Sutra 16, and Vinaya 雜事 31.

生臺 A board on which the offerings are placed.

生盤 The bowl in which offerings are contained.

To use, to employ; use, function.

用大 Great in function, the universal activity of the 眞如 bhūtatathatā; v. 起信論; and cf. 性相用 inner nature, form and function.

用滅 Function or activity ceasing; i. e. matter (or the body 體) does not cease to exist, but only its varying functions or activities.

A field, fields; a place, or state, for the cultivation of meritorious or other deeds; cf. 福田.

田衣 (田相衣) A patch-robe, its patches resembling the rectangular divisions of fields.

From; by: a cause, motive; to allow, let; translit. yo, yu; e. g. 由乾; 由乾陀羅 由乾陁羅, Yugaṃdhara, idem 踰健達羅.

由旬 由延; 兪旬 (or 揄旬) ; 踰繕那 (or 踰闍那 or 踰延那) Yojana; described as anciently a royal day's march for the army; also 40, 30, or 16 li; 8 krośas 拘羅舍, one being the distance at which a bull's bellow can be heard; M. W. says 4 krośas or about 9 English miles, or nearly 30 Chinese li.

Scale, mail; the first of the ten 'celestial stems '.

甲冑印 A digital or manual sign, indicating mail and helmet.

甲馬 A picture, formerly shaped like a horse, of a god or a Buddha, now a picture of a horse.

To draw out, stretch, extend, expand; notify, report: quote.

申日 candra, the moon; also the name of an elder.

申毒 身毒; 賢頭 Sindhu, Indus, Sindh, v. 印度.

申河 The river Hiraṇyavatī, v. 尸賴; otherwise said to be the Nairañjanā 尼連禪河.

申瑟知林 申怒林 (申怒波林) ; 杖林 yaṣṭi-vana, grove of staves, said to have grown from the staff with which a heretic measured the Buddha and which he threw away because the more he measured the higher the Buddha grew.

申頭羅 ? sindūra, the trick of the illusionist who disappears in the air and reappears.

White, pure, clear; make clear, inform.

白一羯磨 (or 白二羯磨) jñaptidvitīyā karma-vācanā; to discuss with and explain to the body of monks the proposals or work to be undertaken; 白四羯磨 is to consult with them on matters of grave moment and obtain their complete assent.

白佛 To tell the Buddha.

白傘佛頂 (or 白蓋佛頂) The white umbrella or canopy over the head of Buddha, indicating him as a cakravarti, or wheel-king.

白報 Pure reward, or the reward of a good life.

白心 A clear heart or conscience.

白拈賊 (白拈) Robbing with bare hands and without leaving a trace, as 白戰 is fighting without weapons, and 白折 is killing with bare hands.

白月 śuklapakṣa 自分; the bright, i. e. first half of the month, as contrasted with the 黑分 kṛṣṇapakṣa, dark or latter half.

白槌 自椎 The informing baton or hammer, calling attention to a plaint, or for silence to give information.

白檀 White candana, or white sandal-wood.

白毫 The curl between Śākyamuni's eyebrows; from it, in the Mahāyāna sutras, he sends out a ray of light which reveals all worlds; it is used as a synonym of the Buddha, e. g. 白毫之賜 (all that a monk has is) a gift from the White-curled One.

白水城 White-river town, Isfijab, 'in Turkestan, situated on a small tributary of the Jaxartes in Lat. 38° 30′ N., Long 65° E. ' Eitel.

白牛 A white ox.

白牛無角 a hornless white ox: a horse.

白眞 To lay a true information.

白蓮教 The White Lily Society, set up near the end of the Yuan dynasty, announcing the coming of Maitreya, the opening of his white lily, and the day of salvation at hand. It developed into a revolution which influenced the expulsion of the Mongols and establishment of the Ming dynasty. Under the Qing dynasty it was resurrected under a variety of names, and caused various uprisings.

白蓮菜 The Sung vegetarian school of 茅子元 Mao Tzu-yuan.

白蓮 (白蓮華); 分陀利 puṇḍarīka, the white lotus.

白蓮華座 The lotus throne in the first court of the Garbhadhātu.

白蓮社 (白蓮華社) ; 白蓮之交; 蓮社 A society formed early in the fourth century A. D. by 慧遠 Huiyuan, who with 123 notable literati, swore to a life of purity before the image of Amitābha, and planted white lotuses in symbol. An account of seven of its succeeding patriarchs is given in the 佛祖統紀 26; as also of eighteen of its worthies.

白衣 White clothing, said to be that of Brahmans and other people, hence it and 白俗 are terms for the common people. It is a name also for Guanyin.

白衣觀音 (or 白處觀音) ; 白衣大士; 半拏囉嚩悉寧 Pāṇḍaravāsinī, the white-robed form of Guanyin on a white lotus.

白象 The six-tusked white elephant which bore the Buddha on his descent from the Tuṣita heaven into Maya's womb, through her side. Every Buddha descends in similar fashion. The immaculate path, i. e. the immaculate conception (of Buddha).

白贊 To speak praises to the Buddha.

白足 (白足和尚); 白足阿練 The white-foot monk, a disciple of Kumārajīva.

白雲宗 (白雲) Buddhist school formed in the White Cloud monastery during the Sung dynasty; its followers were known as the 白雲菜 White Cloud vegetarians.

白飯王 Śuklodana-rāja, a prince of Kapilavastu, second son of Siṃhahanu, father of Tiṣya 帝沙, devadatta 調達, and Nandika 難提迦. Eitel.

白馬寺 The White Horse Temple recorded as given to the Indian monks, Mātaṇga and Gobharaṇa, who are reputed to have been fetched from India to China in A. D. 64. The temple was in Honan, in Lo-yang thc capital; it was west of the ancient city, cast of the later city. According to tradition, originating at the end of the second century A. D., the White Horse Temple was so called because of the white horse which carried the sutras they brought.

白鷺池 The White Heron Lake in Rājagṛha, the scene of Śākyamuni's reputed delivery of part of the Mahāprajñāpāramitā-sūtra 大般若經 juan 593-600, the last of the '16 assemblies' of this sutra, which is also called the 白鷺池經.

白黑 white and dark, e. g. 白黑業 good and evil deeds, or karma.

白黑布薩 light and dark uposatha, the observances of the waxing and waning moon, cf. 白月.

皮革 Leather, skin, hide.

皮殼漏子 (or 皮可漏子) The body, lit. 'skin and shell leaking'.

皮衣 Clothing of hides or skins; a name for a monk's garments, implying their roughness and simplicity.

皮袋 Skin bag, i. e. the body.

cakṣṣuḥ, the eye; the organ of vision; the head or chief; translit. ma, mu.

目佉 mukha, mouth, opening.

目多 mukta, release, free, released; mukta, a pearl, jewels in general.

目多伽 Abbrev. for 伊提目多伽 Itivṛttaka, biographical stories.

目帝羅 木得羅 Intp. as mukti, release, emancipation 解脫, or as the knowledge or experience of liberation.

目支鄰陀 (or 目脂鄰陀 or 目眞鄰陀) ; 目支鄰; 牟眞鄰陀; 母眞鄰那 (or 母止鄰那) ; 文眞鄰陀; 摩訶目支鄰陀. Mucilinda, or Mahāmucilinda. A nāga or dragon king who dwelt in a lake near a hill and cave of this name, near Gayā, where Śākyamuni sat absorbed for seven days after his enlightenment, protected by this nāga-king.

目機銖兩 The power of the eye to discern trifling differences; quick discernment.

目犍連 目連; 摩訶目犍連 (or 摩訶羅夜那); 大目犍連 (or 大目乾連) ; 沒特伽羅子 (or 沒力伽羅子); 目伽略 (Mahā-) Maudgalyāyana, or Maudgalaputra; explained by Mudga 胡豆 lentil, kidney-bean. One of the ten chief disciples of Śākyamuni, specially noted for miraculous powers; formerly an ascetic, he agreed with Śāriputra that whichever first found the truth would reveal it to the other. Śāriputra found the Buddha and brought Maudgalyāyana to him; the former is placed on the Buddha's right, the latter on his left. He is also known as 拘栗 Kolita, and when reborn as Buddha his title is to be Tamāla-patra-candana-gandha. In China Mahāsthāmaprapta is accounted a canonization of Maudgalyāyana. Several centuries afterwards there were two other great leaders of the Buddhist church bearing the same name, v. Eitel.

目竭嵐 mudgara; a hammer, mallet, mace.

目足 Eye and foot, knowledge and practice; eyes in the feet.

目足仙 Akṣapāda, founder of the Nyaya, or logical school of philosophers. M. W.

An arrow; to take as oath; a marshal; ordure.

矢石 Arrow and rock are two incompatibles, for an arrow cannot pierce a rock.

Stone, rock.

畫石 A painting of a rock: though the water of the water-color rapidly disappears, the painting remains.

難石石裂 Even rock meeting hard treatment will split.

石壁經 Sutras cut in stone in A. D. 829 in the 重玄寺 Ch'ung-hsüan temple, Soochow, where Po Chü-i put up a tablet. They consist of 69, 550 words of the 法華, 27, 092 of the 維摩, 5,287 of the 金剛, 3,020 of the 尊勝陀羅尼, 1,800 of the 阿彌陀, 6,990 of the 普顯行法, 3, 150 of the 實相法密, and 258 of the 般若心經.

石女 A barren woman; a woman incompetent for sexual intercourse.

石女兒 Son of a barren woman, an impossibility.

石榴 The pomegranate, symbol of many children because of its seeds; a symbol held in the hand of 鬼子母神 Hariti, the deva-mother of demons, converted by the Buddha.

石火 Tinder; lighted tinder, i. e. of but momentary existence.

石經山 The hill with the stone sutras, which are said to have been carved in the Sui dynasty in grottoes on 自帶山 Pai Tai Shan, west of 涿州 Cho-chou in Shun-t'ienfu, Chihli.

石蜜 Stone honey; a toffee, made of sugar, or sugar and cream (or butter).

石鉢 The four heavy stone begging bowls handed by the four devas to the Buddha on his enlightenment, which he miraculously received one piled on the other.

To indicate, notify, proclaim.

示教 To point out and instruct.

示寂 to indicate the way of nirvana.

告示 A proclamation; to notify.

Growing grain.

禾山 Ho-Shan, a monastery in 吉州 Chi-chou, and its abbot who died A. D. 960.

Set up, establish, stand, stand up.

立僧首座 The learned monk who occupies the chief seat to edify the body of monks.

立播 repa, or repha, a 'low' garment, a loin-cloth.

立教 To establish a 'school', sect, or church.

立教開宗 To set up a school and start a sect.

立法 To set up, or state a proposition; to make a law, or rule.

立破 To state— and confute— a proposition.

立量 To state a syllogism with its 宗 proposition, 因 reason, and 喩 example.

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