Naishthika, Naiṣṭhika: 18 definitions


Naishthika means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Naiṣṭhika can be transliterated into English as Naisthika or Naishthika, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Naishthik.

In Hinduism

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: eScholarship: Chapters 1-14 of the Hayasirsa Pancaratra

Naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक) represents an undesirable Ācārya, according to the 9th-century Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra Ādikāṇḍa chapter 3.—The Lord said:—“I will tell you about the Sthāpakas endowed with perverse qualities. He should not construct a temple with those who are avoided in this Tantra. [...] He with whom one constructs a temple should not be a Śaiva, or a Saura, nor a Naiṣṭhika, nor a naked one, nor born of mixed marriage, nor unclean, old, or one who is of a despicable form or marked by great sin. [...] A god enshrined by any of these named above (viz., naiṣṭhika), is in no manner a giver of fruit. If a building for Viṣṇu is made anywhere by these excluded types (viz., naiṣṭhika) then that temple will not give rise to enjoyment and liberation and will yield no reward, of this there is no doubt”.

Note: A Naiṣṭhikaḥ is “a perpeptual religious student who continues with his spiritual precept even after the prescribed period and vows lifelong absence and chastity” (Apte).

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Naishthika in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक) refers to a “renouncer”, according to the 16th century Śaivāgamaparibhāṣāmañjarī, a compendium of extracts from the Siddhāntāgamas written by Siddhāntin Vedajñāna.—[...] The recognized observances (āśrama) are that of the householder, the mendicant monk (bhikṣu), the brahmacārin and the forest dwelling ascetic, but this basic list is qualified by dichotomies within each of the observances and, moreover, by categories that are superimposed on the aforementioned four:... [...] The dichotomies relate to the brahmacārin, gṛhastha and vānaprastha. Concerning the first, it is said that he can make a perpetual vow (to be celibate) and he is then a naiṣṭhika, a renouncer.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[«previous next»] — Naishthika in Jyotisha glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक) refers to “one who is well-versed” (i.e., in horoscopy and astronomy), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “That prince meets with ruin who does not support a Jyotiṣaka well-versed in all the Divisions and Subdivisions of Saṃhitā and in Horoscopy and Astronomy [i.e., horā-gaṇita-naiṣṭhika]. Even men who, having conquered their passions and cut asunder all ties of family, live in woods, desire to question a learned Jyotiṣaka regarding their future”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Naishthika in Kavya glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक) refers to the “last rites”, according to Kālidāsa’s Raghuvaṃśa verse 8.25.—Accordingly: “...he, who had arranged the sacrificial fires, performed his last rites (naiṣṭhika) without fire together with the ascetics”.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Naishthika in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक) refers to “those who are life-long celibates”, according to the Śivayogadīpikā, an ancient Sanskrit text dealing with Yoga possibly corresponding to the Śivayoga quoted in Śivānanda’s Yogacintāmaṇi.—Accordingly, [while describing a sequence of Haṭhayoga practices]: “Thus, by means of this Haṭhayoga which has eight auxiliaries, those [students who are] life-long celibates (naiṣṭhika) obtain the Siddhis of the [best of Sages] because of their untiring practice. Listen to [my account of] them. In the first year, [the celibate] becomes free of disease and much loved by all people and, in the second year, he then [gains] great eloquence and can write poetry. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Naishthika in Jainism glossary
Source: Jaina Yoga

1) Naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक) refers to a type of Brahmacārin: the first of the four stages of a layman (āśrama) according to Cāmuṇḍarāya (940–989 A.D.) in his Caritra-sāra. Naiṣṭhika-brahmacārin refers to a man who begs his food, wears a red or white loin-cloth and the sacred thread on his chest, and has his hair shaven save for a top-knot.

Cāmuṇḍarāya, who was a Digambara Jain, has taken over the Hindu concept of the four āśramas, which, following Jinasena, he terms brahmacārin (e.g., Naiṣṭhika), gṛhastha, vānaprastha, and bhikṣu.

2) Naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक) refers to a division of a śrāvaka (laymen), according to certain Digambadara Jains, eg., Āśādhara (Sāgāra-dharmāmṛta 1.19-20), and Medhāvin (Dharma-saṃgraha-śrāvakācāra 5.1-8). Naiṣṭhika refers to one who pursues his path upwards through the pratimās till he reaches the eleventh. At this culminating point (niṣṭhā) he quits the household life and practises the ten-fold dharma of the ascetic. It would seem that if he back-slides he is down-graded to the state of a pākṣika.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Naishthika in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक).—a S Regular in and devoted to (the observance of religious rites, ceremonies, and works): also of fixed affection or attachment; devoted, intent. 2 or naiṣṭhika brahmacārī m A Brahman who continues with his spiritual preceptor, and remains in the order and condition of the religious student.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक).—a Regular in and devoted to naiṣṭhika brahmacārī m A Brahman who continues with his spiritual preceptor, and remains in the order and condition of the religious student.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Naishthika in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक).—a. (- f.)

1) Final, last, concluding; विदधे विधिमस्य नैष्ठिकम् (vidadhe vidhimasya naiṣṭhikam) R.8.25.

2) Decided, definitive, conclusive (as a reply.); एषा नो नैष्ठिकी बुद्धिः (eṣā no naiṣṭhikī buddhiḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.37.29.

3) Fixed, firm, constant; शान्तिमाप्नोति नैष्ठिकीम् (śāntimāpnoti naiṣṭhikīm) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 5.12; भक्तिर्भवति नैष्ठिकी (bhaktirbhavati naiṣṭhikī) Bhāgavata 1.2.18.

4) Highest, perfect; मोदेन वां कामसुखैर्मदाद् वा यो नैष्ठिकं श्रोष्यति नास्य धर्मम् (modena vāṃ kāmasukhairmadād vā yo naiṣṭhikaṃ śroṣyati nāsya dharmam) Bu. Ch.1.82.

5) Completely familiar with or versed in.

6) Vowing perpetual abstinence and chastity.

7) Obligatory; न चैतन्नैष्ठिकं कर्म त्रयाणां भूरिदक्षिण (na caitannaiṣṭhikaṃ karma trayāṇāṃ bhūridakṣiṇa) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.63.23.

-kaḥ [niṣṭhā maraṇaṃ tatparyantaṃ brahmacaryeṇa tiṣṭhati tiṣṭhati niṣṭhā-ṭhak] A perpetual religious student who continues with his spiritual precept or even after the prescribed period, and vows life-long abstinence and chastity; निवेदितो नैष्ठिकसुन्दरस्तया (nivedito naiṣṭhikasundarastayā) Kumārasambhava 5.62; cf. नैष्ठिको ब्रह्मचारी तु वसेदाचार्यसंनिधौ (naiṣṭhiko brahmacārī tu vasedācāryasaṃnidhau) Y.1.49 and उपकुर्वाण (upakurvāṇa) also.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kī-kaṃ) 1. Relating to state or condition. 2. Beloning to the character or office of a perpetual student. 3. Firm, fixed. 4. Final. 5. Highest, perfect. 6. Completely verced in. 7. Vowing perpetual abstinence and chastity. m.

(-kaḥ) The Brahman who continues with his spiritual preceptor, and always remains in the condition of the religious student. E. niṣṭhā certainty, ṭhak aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक).—i. e. niṣṭhā + ika, I. adj., f. . 1. Final, Mahābhārata 17, 21. 2. Decided, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 21, 28. 3. Accomplished, Mahābhārata 13, 758. Ii. m. A Brāhmana who remains always in the condition of a religious student, observing the vow of chastity.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक).—[feminine] ī forming the end, last, definitive; highest, perfect, complete.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक):—[=nai-ṣṭhika] [from nai] mf(ī)n. (or naiḥ-; See 2. ni-ṣṭhā) forming the end, final, last, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Raghuvaṃśa]

2) [v.s. ...] definitive, fixed, firm, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Yājñavalkya]

3) [v.s. ...] highest, perfect, complete, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature; Purāṇa] (-sundara mfn. perfectly beautiful, [Kumāra-sambhava v, 62])

4) [v.s. ...] completely versed in or familiar with ([compound]), [Varāha-mihira]

5) [v.s. ...] belonging to the character or office of a perpetual student, [Horace H. Wilson]

6) [v.s. ...] m. a perpetual religious student or Brāhman who observes the vow of chastity, [Rājataraṅgiṇī; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक):—[(kaḥ-kī-kaṃ) a.] Relating to state, office or condition; firm, fixed. m. A brāhman who always lives with his tutor.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ṇiṭṭhiya, Ṇiṭṭhia.

[Sanskrit to German]

Naishthika in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Naishthika in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Naiṣṭhika (नैष्ठिक) [Also spelled naishthik]:—(a) faithful; inspired by religious faith; hence ~[] (nf) —[brahmacārī] one who faithfullyobserves strict celibacy from the sacred thread ceremony till the end while residing at the preceptor’s hermitage.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Naishthika in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Naiṣṭhika (ನೈಷ್ಠಿಕ):—

1) [adjective] by which a process or series comes to an end; final; conclusive; ultimate.

2) [adjective] that settles or can settle a dispute, question, etc.; conclusive; decisive.

3) [adjective] not moving or unmoved; stable; steady; firm.

4) [adjective] containing all the elements or parts; entire; complete; undivided; whole.

5) [adjective] experienced; veteran.

6) [adjective] that is to be done, observed invariably.

7) [adjective] that is in a state of celibacy; celibate.

8) [adjective] faithful or sincerely adhering, to an ideal, rule, custom, etc.; loyal.

--- OR ---

Naiṣṭhika (ನೈಷ್ಠಿಕ):—[noun] = ನೈಷ್ಠಿಕಬ್ರಹ್ಮಚಾರಿ [naishthikabrahmacari].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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