Mraksha, Mrakṣa: 12 definitions


Mraksha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Mrakṣa can be transliterated into English as Mraksa or Mraksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष, “hypocrisy”) refers to one of ten types of manifestly active defilements (paryavasthāna) according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 13.—The Bodhisattvas (accompanying the Buddha at Rājagṛha on the Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata) excelled in destroying various these ten manifestly active defilements (e.g., Mrakṣa).

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष) refers to “concealing (one’s own mistakes)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, as Gaganagañja said to Ratnapāṇi: “Son of good family, those sixty-four dharmas are included in one hundred twenty-eight dharmas. What are those one hundred twenty-four? [...] (25) love is included in faultlessness and not concealing one’s own mistakes (mrakṣaāpattyamrakṣa); (26) having faith in the maturation of action is included in being careful in this life and seeing imperfections as a danger for the next world; (27) little desire is included in properly grasping and not being satisfied with insight; (28) knowing satisfaction is included in being easily satisfied with food; [...]’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष, “ill-will”) refers to one of the fourty “conditions” (saṃskāra) that are “associated with mind” (citta-samprayukta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 30). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., mrakṣa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Mrakṣa also refers to one of the “twenty-four minor defilements” (upakleśa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 69).

Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष).—Hypocricy, dissimulation.

Derivable forms: mrakṣaḥ (म्रक्षः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष).—m. (= Pali makkha, which never means hypocrisy, as usually rendered; Critical Pali Dictionary under (a-)makkha more correctly disparaging, sc. good qualities of others; = paraguṇa-makkhana-lakkhaṇo, tesaṃ vināsana-raso, tadavacchādanapaccupaṭṭhāno (see pratyupasthāna) Majjhimanikāya (Pali) commentary i.106.26 f., on Majjhimanikāya (Pali) i.15.35; similarly tho less fully commentary on Dhammapada (Pali) 150 and 407; Aṅguttaranikāya (Pali) commentary ii.162.28, on Aṅguttaranikāya (Pali) i.95.15; in Pugg. 18.25, 22.29 f. read niṭṭhuriya for niddhunīya; Aṅguttaranikāya (Pali) and Majjhimanikāya (Pali) comms. l.c. define the associated paḷāsa, our pradāsa, q.v., by yugaggāha, grasping after preëminence for oneself over others), despite usual rendering hypocrisy or the like, never has that meaning; primarily, concealment of the good qualities of others, jealous disparagement, nasty disposition, ill-will, finally (like mrakṣya, q.v.) virtually = krodha, anger: this last development seems clearly complete in Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) 37.19 text krodhaḥ, upanāhaḥ, mrakṣaḥ, pradāśaḥ, but for the last read with ms. paridāghaḥ, compare Śikṣāsamuccaya 198.8 below; yet Mahāvyutpatti 1963 and Dharmasaṃgraha 69 mrakṣaḥ after krodha, upanāha, and before pradāsa (°śa); probably same meaning in Lalitavistara 262.17 (verse) krodha-mrakṣau; usually in rather misc. lists of vices; between māna and mada (after which comes krodha) Lalitavistara 52.13; 411.16; after māna and mada Mahāvastu ii.229.20; between mātsarya and māna Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 481.4; after māna and mada, (before paridāha) Śikṣāsamuccaya 198.8, (before krodha) Kāśyapa Parivarta 7.3; after māna Mahāvastu i.166.20; Udānavarga xvi.23 (= Pali Dhammapada (Pali) 150 māno makkho); after śāṭhya, vakratā, kauṭilya, māna Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 107.1; krodherṣyā-śāṭhya-mrakṣādayaś Bodhisattvabhūmi 20.15; krodha upanāhaḥ śāṭhyam īrṣyā pradāso (ed. °dāno) mrakṣo mātsaryaṃ…Dharmasaṃgraha 30. Tibetan, in all passages known to me (Mahāvyutpatti, Lalitavistara, Kāśyapa Parivarta), renders ḥchab pa, conceal- ment, which is somewhat etymological (mrakṣ, smear, anoint), but not erroneous, only incomplete; it means primarily concealment of the good qualities of others, not (as nearly all have assumed) of one's own faults.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष).—m.

(-kṣaḥ) Slyness, hypocrisy, concealment of one’s vice or defects. E. mrakṣ to anoint, aff. ac .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष).—[mrakṣ + a], m. Concealment of one’s vices.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष).—[adjective] rubbing, destroying.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष):—[from mṛkṣ] mfn. rubbing, grinding down, destroying (cf. tuvi-mr)

2) [v.s. ...] m. concealment of one’s vices, hypocrisy (with Buddhists, one of the 24 minor evil qualities), [Dharmasaṃgraha 69.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष):—(kṣaḥ) 1. m. Slyness, hypocrisy.

[Sanskrit to German]

Mraksha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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