Mraksha, Mrakṣa: 11 definitions
Mraksha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Mrakṣa can be transliterated into English as Mraksa or Mraksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष, “hypocrisy”) refers to one of ten types of manifestly active defilements (paryavasthāna) according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 13.—The Bodhisattvas (accompanying the Buddha at Rājagṛha on the Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata) excelled in destroying various these ten manifestly active defilements (e.g., Mrakṣa).
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष, “ill-will”) refers to one of the fourty “conditions” (saṃskāra) that are “associated with mind” (citta-samprayukta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 30). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., mrakṣa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
Mrakṣa also refers to one of the “twenty-four minor defilements” (upakleśa) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 69).
Languages of India and abroad
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष).—Hypocricy, dissimulation.
Derivable forms: mrakṣaḥ (म्रक्षः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष).—m. (= Pali makkha, which never means hypocrisy, as usually rendered; Critical Pali Dictionary under (a-)makkha more correctly disparaging, sc. good qualities of others; = paraguṇa-makkhana-lakkhaṇo, tesaṃ vināsana-raso, tadavacchādanapaccupaṭṭhāno (see pratyupasthāna) Majjhimanikāya (Pali) commentary i.106.26 f., on Majjhimanikāya (Pali) i.15.35; similarly tho less fully commentary on Dhammapada (Pali) 150 and 407; Aṅguttaranikāya (Pali) commentary ii.162.28, on Aṅguttaranikāya (Pali) i.95.15; in Pugg. 18.25, 22.29 f. read niṭṭhuriya for niddhunīya; Aṅguttaranikāya (Pali) and Majjhimanikāya (Pali) comms. l.c. define the associated paḷāsa, our pradāsa, q.v., by yugaggāha, grasping after preëminence for oneself over others), despite usual rendering hypocrisy or the like, never has that meaning; primarily, concealment of the good qualities of others, jealous disparagement, nasty disposition, ill-will, finally (like mrakṣya, q.v.) virtually = krodha, anger: this last development seems clearly complete in Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) 37.19 text krodhaḥ, upanāhaḥ, mrakṣaḥ, pradāśaḥ, but for the last read with ms. paridāghaḥ, compare Śikṣāsamuccaya 198.8 below; yet Mahāvyutpatti 1963 and Dharmasaṃgraha 69 mrakṣaḥ after krodha, upanāha, and before pradāsa (°śa); probably same meaning in Lalitavistara 262.17 (verse) krodha-mrakṣau; usually in rather misc. lists of vices; between māna and mada (after which comes krodha) Lalitavistara 52.13; 411.16; after māna and mada Mahāvastu ii.229.20; between mātsarya and māna Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 481.4; after māna and mada, (before paridāha) Śikṣāsamuccaya 198.8, (before krodha) Kāśyapa Parivarta 7.3; after māna Mahāvastu i.166.20; Udānavarga xvi.23 (= Pali Dhammapada (Pali) 150 māno makkho); after śāṭhya, vakratā, kauṭilya, māna Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 107.1; krodherṣyā-śāṭhya-mrakṣādayaś Bodhisattvabhūmi 20.15; krodha upanāhaḥ śāṭhyam īrṣyā pradāso (ed. °dāno) mrakṣo mātsaryaṃ…Dharmasaṃgraha 30. Tibetan, in all passages known to me (Mahāvyutpatti, Lalitavistara, Kāśyapa Parivarta), renders ḥchab pa, conceal- ment, which is somewhat etymological (mrakṣ, smear, anoint), but not erroneous, only incomplete; it means primarily concealment of the good qualities of others, not (as nearly all have assumed) of one's own faults.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-kṣaḥ) Slyness, hypocrisy, concealment of one’s vice or defects. E. mrakṣ to anoint, aff. ac .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष).—[mrakṣ + a], m. Concealment of one’s vices.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष).—[adjective] rubbing, destroying.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष):—[from mṛkṣ] mfn. rubbing, grinding down, destroying (cf. tuvi-mr)
2) [v.s. ...] m. concealment of one’s vices, hypocrisy (with Buddhists, one of the 24 minor evil qualities), [Dharmasaṃgraha 69.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Mrakṣa (म्रक्ष):—(kṣaḥ) 1. m. Slyness, hypocrisy.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
1) adj. (von mrakṣ) zerreibend in tuvi . —
2) m. das Verstecken der eigenen Gebrechen [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 1, 1, 131]; vgl. makṣa .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
1) Adj. zerreibend in tuvimrakṣa. —
2) m. — a) *Salbe [Rājan 15,3.] — b) das Verstecken der eigenen Gebrechen [Lalitavistarapurāṇa 59,19.] Text zu [Burnouf 280.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Search found 2 books and stories containing Mraksha, Mrakṣa, Mraksa; (plurals include: Mrakshas, Mrakṣas, Mraksas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
The Padhāna-sutta < [Chapter XXV - Patience Toward the Dharma]
Bodhisattva quality 12: having passed beyond the works of Māra < [Chapter X - The Qualities of the Bodhisattvas]
Bodhisattva quality 28: excelled in destroying various wrong views < [Chapter XIII - The Buddha-fields]
The Mahavastu (great story) (by J. J. Jones)