Manikya, Māṇikya, Māṇikyā: 21 definitions

Introduction:

Manikya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Māṇikya (माणिक्य, “Ruby”):—One of the nine gems (navaratna) according to the 13th century Rasaprakāśasudhākara.

It has two known varieties:

  1. Padmarāga-māṇikya
  2. and Nīlagandhi-māṇikya.

The Ruby (māṇikya) has the following Pharmaco-therapeutic properties:

  • rūkṣa (dry) in property,
  • sandīpana (good stimulant to digestive fire),
  • vṛṣyatama (having a high vṛṣya (aphrodisiac property) in karma),
  • destroys vātadoṣa,
  • karmaja-vyādhi,
  • bhutābadha,
  • and the prakopa of all the three doṣas.

It is found highly suitable for kings and high society persons.

Superior: The Ruby is considered superior when the following properties can be described about the form of the gem: Mahat (big in size), kamalacchāya (looking like lotus in colour and shade), snigdha (greasy), svaccha (clean), guru (heavy), sphuṭa (clear), asama (uneven) and vṛttāyata (oval shaped).

Inferior: The Ruby is considered inferior when containing the following characteristics: Having fissures, dull shade, light weight, rough surface, flat apperance, tilled or un-straight, small in size and unclear.

Rasashastra book cover
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Kosha (encyclopedic lexicons)

[«previous next»] — Manikya in Kosha glossary
Source: University of Cambridge: Amarakośavivṛti

Author of the Amarakośavivṛti. Most probably, Māṇikya (or Maṇika) is also the author of the Abhinavarāghavānandanāṭaka, preserved in Add. 1658.1, as well as of a Newari commentary on the legal text called Mānavanyāyaśāstraṭīkā, preserved in (Add.2137 (see also Shastri 1905: x and 43-44).

context information

Kosha (कोश, kośa) refers to Sanskrit lexicons intended to provide additional information regarding technical terms used in religion, philosophy and the various sciences (shastra). The oldest extant thesaurus (kosha) dates to the 4th century AD.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images

Māṇikya (माणिक्य) refers to “icons made of ruby”, as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—As per Brāhmīyacitrakarmaśāstra (15.33-35a), the kautuka icon made of wood is of inferior (adhama) grade; the kautuka-bera made of stone, copper, silver, gold, gem and ruby (māṇikya) is superior in ascending order; of al, the kautuka icon made of ruby (māṇikya) results in both enjoyment (bhukti) and salvation (mukti).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Māṇikyā (माणिक्या) refers to “rubies”, according to the Kularatnoddyota, one of the earliest Kubjikā Tantras.—Accordingly, “[...] (The gross form has) five faces, ten arms and, pure, it has a smiling face. [...] Her stomach is thin, navel, deep set and thighs large. (Her) hips and knees are very soft. She has beautiful thighs and red finger (nails) that are very beautiful. She (wears) beautiful cloths, a divine garland and an excellent shawl. (She wears) a necklace made of large gems, bangles on her limbs [i.e., kaṭaka-aṅgada], anklets and a blazing diadem of rubies [i.e., jvalat-mukuṭa-māṇikyā]. O supreme mistress, adorned with divine rings (on her fingers), she sits on a svastika (as her) seat”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Māṇikya (माणिक्य) refers to “rubies”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 13.1-9, while describing the appearance and worship of Viṣṇu, in the form of Nārāyaṇa]—“He should always think of the four-armed Nārāyaṇa arising. [...] Deva bears divine garments [and] sits atop a divine flower [i.e., a lotus]. [He is] decorated with a gleaming crown of rubies (sphurat-mukuṭa-māṇikya), a small bell, and a net [and] wears heavenly earrings. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Google Books: The Sanskrit, Syriac and Persian Sources in the Comprehensive Book of Rhazes

An Indian physician by the presumed name of Māṇikya travels to Iraq at the beginning of the reign of the Abbasid caliph Hārūn ar-Rašīd, probably upon the latter’s request and perhaps in the company of a delegation dispatched by the Arab governor of Sind, Isḥāq ibn Sulaimān al-Hāšimī; he carries with Ayurvedic books; he is admitted to the palace in Baghdad, serves both the caliph and his vizier, the Barmakid Yaḥyā ibn Hālid, as a physician, and is also attached to the newly founded Barāmika hospital; the vizier commissions him to undertake the translation of the Suśrutasaṃhitā; Māṇikya translates from Sanskrit into Pahlavi, probably on his own, and/or into Arabic, probably not on his own—it seems unlikely that he could have tackled single-handedly a direct translation from Sanskrit into Arabic; in the course of this translatory process the formal structure of the original work is altered, probably as a result of condensing its contents, and metrical structures are dissolved; the translation is commissioned and accomplished duruing Yaḥyā ibn Ḫālid’s vizierate, namely between the years 789 and 803 CE, though Māṇikya stays in Baghdad even after the downfall of the Barmakid, whom he visits in jail; Māṇikya may or may not have returned to India.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Māṇikya (माणिक्य) refers to the “ruby (of discrimination)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Having abandoned the ruby of discrimination (viveka-māṇikya) that fulfils all desires the one who is stupid is occupied with ideas that are unconsidered and pleasing. Also the unconsidered and pleasing teachings, which are vile, of those who are bad are practised by people who are controlled by [their] tongue and genitals, etc.”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Manikya in India is the name of a plant defined with Colubrina asiatica in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Rhamnus caroliniana Walter (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Florulae Insularum Australium Prodromus (1786)
· American Journal of Botany (1992)
· Flora de Filipinas (1837)
· Flora Indica, or ‘Descriptions of Indian Plants’ (1832)
· Mémoire sur la Famille des Rhamnées (1826)
· Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden (1989)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Manikya, for example chemical composition, diet and recipes, side effects, extract dosage, health benefits, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

māṇikya (माणिक्य).—n S pop. māṇīka n A ruby. māśānēṃ māṇīka giḷaṇēṃ A figure expressive of the utter irrecoverableness of a loss.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

māṇikya (माणिक्य).—n A ruby.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Māṇikya (माणिक्य).—A ruby; शैले शैले न माणिक्यम् (śaile śaile na māṇikyam) Subhāṣ.

Derivable forms: māṇikyam (माणिक्यम्).

--- OR ---

Māṇikyā (माणिक्या).—A small house-lizard.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Māṇikya (माणिक्य).—n.

(-kyaṃ) A ruby. f.

(-kyā) A house-lizard. E. maṇi a gem, kai to call, yat or yañ added.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Māṇikya (माणिक्य).—i. e. maṇi + ka + ya, I. n. A ruby, [Pañcatantra] 207, 23. Ii. f. , A house-lizard.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Māṇikya (माणिक्य).—[neuter] ruby; [masculine] [Name] of a man.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Māṇikya (माणिक्य) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—son of Padmanābha: Saṃnipātacandrikāṭippaṇī.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Māṇikya (माणिक्य):—[from māṇi] n. ruby, [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.

2) Māṇikyā (माणिक्या):—[from māṇikya > māṇi] f. a kind of small house-lizard, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) Māṇikya (माणिक्य):—[from māṇi] m. Name of a man, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

4) [v.s. ...] (with sūri) Name of an author, [Catalogue(s)]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Māṇikya (माणिक्य):—(kyaṃ) 1. n. A ruby, a gem. f. (kyā) A house lizard.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Māṇikya (माणिक्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Māṇikka.

[Sanskrit to German]

Manikya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Māṇikya (ಮಾಣಿಕ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] a clear, deep-red variety of corundum, valued as a precious stone; a ruby.

2) [noun] (pros.) a verse of four lines each having three groups of three syllables followed by two long syllables (—-, uu-, u-u, -, -).

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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