Krisara, Kṛsara, Krishara, Kṛśara: 18 definitions

Introduction:

Krisara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Kṛsara and Kṛśara can be transliterated into English as Krsara or Krisara or Krishara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Kṛsara (कृसर) is a Sanskrit word referring to “Rice cooked with Sesamum”. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (also see the Manubhāṣya verse 5.7)

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Kṛsara (कृसर) is a Sanskrit word referring to a mixture of milk, sesamum (tila) and rice. During the ceremony of “raising the pillars” of the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa), this kṛsara should be fed to the twice-born caste, when raising the Śūdra pillar in the north-eastern direction, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 2.46-50.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Kṛśara (कृशर) refers to “rice and pulses cooked together”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Kṛśara is recommended as an offering to be made to Nikumbha and Yama and as a gift for the Brāhmaṇas (verses 382, 489, 490). Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Kṛśara (कृशर) refers to the naivedya offerings in the month Magha for the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-Vrata, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-vrata is observed in honour of Śiva for acquiring virtue, great fortune, wealth and for destruction of sins [...] This vrata is to be performed for a year from Mārgaśīra.—In the month of Magha, the tooth-brush is that of plakṣa-wood. The food taken is mauktika. The deity to be worshipped is Naṭeśvara. The flowers used in worship are karavīra. The naivedya offerings is kṛśara. The result  accrued is vahusvama.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Kṛsara (कृसर) refers to one of the various types of “gruels” (usually refers to a food preparation with cereal boiled in water or milk), as mentioned in the Kṛtānnavarga, which is a subsection of the Annapānavidhi of the Sūtrasthāna of the Suśrutasaṃhitā, an important Ayurvedic treatise. The discourses of the teacher Divodasa are believed to be summarised by his disciple Suśruta, who wrote the work Suśrutasaṃhitā in 4th century CE. [...] Kṛtānna-varga, the subsection of Annapānavidhi describes the preparations and properties of different types of gruels like peya, vilepi, maṇḍa, pāyasa, mudgayūṣa and kṛsara, meat dishes like ullupta, vesavāra, etc.

Kṛsara (mixture of cooked rice, jaggery and milk) is mentioned as being harmful in when combined (saṃyogaviruddha, “forbidden combinations”) with Pāyasa (a mixture of cooked rice, jaggery and milk), according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala in the dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana, which contains the discussions on different food articles and their dietetic effects according to the prominent Ayurvedic treatises. [...] Also, it is unhealthy to consume a mixture of pāyasa (a mixture of cooked rice, jaggery and milk), liquor and kṛsara (a mixture of cooked rice, salt, wet ginger, asafoetida and split red lentil).

Kṛsara is also mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., kṛsara]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., sindhuja (rock salt)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Kṛśarā (कृशरा):—To prepare kṛśarā rice, gram, salt, ginger, asafetida are taken in appropriate quantity and boiled together to obtain. Also called as Khicadi / Khara Pongal / one pot preparation. It enhances the Agni (digestive fire) and alleviates Vataja and Pittaja disorders.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: BDK Tripiṭaka: The Susiddhikara-sūtra

Kṛsara (कृसर) refers to a type of gruel, as mentioned in Chapter 12 (“offering food”) of the Susiddhikara-sūtra. Accordingly, “Milk gruel is for using in the śāntika [rite], pomegranate gruel, curd gruel, and so forth are for using in the pauṣṭika [rite], and kṛsara gruel, [made,] namely, with sesamum, nonglutinous rice, and pulse, is for using in the ābhicāruka [rite]”.

When you wish to offer food [viz., kṛsara], first cleanse the ground, sprinkle scented water all around, spread out on the ground leaves that have been washed clean, such as lotus leaves, palāśa (dhak) leaves, and leaves from lactescent trees, or new cotton cloth, and then set down the oblatory dishes. [...] First smear and sprinkle the ground and then spread the leaves; wash your hands clean, rinse out your mouth several times, swallow some water, and then you should set down the food [viz., kṛsara]. [...]

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Kṛsara (कृसर) refers to a “dish of rice and peas” (suitable for an offering ritual), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [As the Bhagavān said]: “Now I shall teach the offering manual which is auspicious and can bring about any effect. [...] Seven coiling figures should be made and rice spirals. Twenty-one figures should be prepared one after the other. Boiled rice, milk rice, a dish of rice and peas (kṛsara), yoghurt and thickened milk should be placed. Fruits and flowers should be placed. Four jars should be placed. Preceded by a great offering barley-meal should be placed as foremost. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kṛśara (कृशर).—

1) A dish made of milk, sesamum and rice; ददौ द्विजेभ्यः कृशरं च गाश्च (dadau dvijebhyaḥ kṛśaraṃ ca gāśca) Bu. Ch.2.36.

2) Rice and peas boiled together with a few spices (Mar. khicaḍī).

Derivable forms: kṛśaraḥ (कृशरः).

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Kṛsara (कृसर).—= कृशर (kṛśara) q. v. Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.36.33; Manusmṛti 5.7.

Derivable forms: kṛsaraḥ (कृसरः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛśara (कृशर).—mf.

(-raḥ-rā) 1. A dish composed of milk, sesamum, and rise. 2. Rice and pease boiled together wich a few spices, commonly Khichree: also kṛsara.

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Kṛsara (कृसर).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. A dish consisting of sesamum and grain. 2. A mixture of rice and peas with a few spices. E. kṝ to scatter, sara Unadi affix; also kṛśara.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛsara (कृसर).—m. A dish consisting of sesamum and grain, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 5, 7.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kṛsara (कृसर).—[masculine] [neuter], ā [feminine], a dish of rice and sesamum.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kṛśara (कृशर):—for kṛsara q.v.

2) Kṛsara (कृसर):—m. ([Pāṇini 8-3, 59], [vArttika] 1; often spelt kṛśara) a dish consisting of sesamum and grain (mixture of rice and peas with a few spices), [ṢaḍvBr. v, 2; Kauśika-sūtra; Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Gobhila-śrāddha-kalpa; Manu-smṛti] etc.

3) m. [plural] idem, [Suśruta; Kathāsaritsāgara]

4) Kṛsarā (कृसरा):—[from kṛsara] f. idem, [Suśruta; Bhāvaprakāśa]

5) Kṛsara (कृसर):—n. idem, [Mahābhārata; Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kṛśara (कृशर):—[(raḥ-rā-raṃ)] 1. m. f. n. A dish composed of milk, sesamum and rice; khichrī.

2) Kṛsara (कृसर):—(raḥ) 1. m. A dish of sesamum and grain; khichrī.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kṛśara (कृशर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kisara, Kisarā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Krisara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kṛśara (ಕೃಶರ):—

1) [noun] rice boiled in milk with sesame.

2) [noun] a food prepared with rice, peas, spice, etc.

--- OR ---

Kṛsara (ಕೃಸರ):—

1) [noun] rice boiled in milk with sesame.

2) [noun] a food prepared with rice, peas, spice, etc.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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