by Manmatha Nath Dutt | 1908 | 245,256 words | ISBN-13: 9788183150736
The English translation of the Garuda Purana: contents include a creation theory, description of vratas (religious observances), sacred holidays, sacred places dedicated to the sun, but also prayers from the Tantrika ritual, addressed to the sun, to Shiva, and to Vishnu. The Garuda Purana also contains treatises on astrology, palmistry, and preci...
Brahma said:—Now I shall deal with the mode of practising the expiatory penances, which tend to extinguish all sins for which the Self of a man is consigned to the pangs of hell. Flies, ants, drops of water, water that lies accumulated on the surface of the earth, fire, cats, and ichneumons, are always pure. A twice-born one, who, through inadvertence, eats anything, which has been defiled by the touch of the residue of a shudra’s meal, shall fast for an entire day and night and regain his purity by taking Panchagavyam. A Brahmana, accidentally touched by another Brahmana, who has not washed his mouth after eating, or happening to touch the residue of the meal of another Brahmana, shall bathe and recite the Mantras, and take his meal at the close of the day. A Brahmana, happening to partake of a meal containing a tip of hair or a flee, shall regain his purity by vomiting out the ingested food. He, who takes a meal, held in the hollow of his palm, or on the tips of his fingers, or on his arms, shall regain his purity by fasting for an entire day and night. The residue of water, drunk with left-hand, is as impure as that which is contained in a leather-bag, and hence, that should not be drunk. A Brahmana, in whose house a Chandala lies concealed without his knowledge, shall effect his purification by practising a Paraka, or a Chandrayana penance, whereas a shudra householder, under the circumstances, shall practise a Prajapatyam. He, who takes any cooked food in the house of a low-caste, shall practise a half Krichchha penance. He, who eats meals belonging to these harbourers of low-castes in their houses, shall perform a quarter part of Krichchha Vrata. A twice-born one having taken the food cooked by a washerman, carpenter, cobbler, or of one who manufactures articles of bamboo, or food belonging to any of these people, shall practise a Chandrayanam. A Brahmana, having unknowingly drunk water out of a Chandala’s well-cup, shall practise a Santa-panam. A Kshatriya and a Vaishya, under the circumstances, shall respectively practise a half and a quarter Santapanam. A shudra, under the same circumstances, shall practise a quarter Chandrayanam. Having unknowingly taken any food in the house of one of a vile caste, a Brahmana shall regain his purity by practising three Krichchha Vratas, while a shudra, under the circumstances, shall practise a Parakam penance. A Brahmana having partaken of the residue of the meal of a member of vile caste shall regain his purity by practising a Chandrayanam, while having drunk water in the house of a low caste person a Brahmana shall fast for six nights (Sh?d Ratram.) A Kshatriya having unknowingly partaken of the food of a Chandala shall practise a Santapanam, while a Vaishya and a shudra., under the circumstances, shall respectively practise the Shadratri and Triratri penances. A Brahmana having unknowingly eaten a fruit, while seated on a branch of the same tree with a Chandala, shall regain his purity by fasting for an entire day and night.
A Brahmana happening to touch a Chandala, before washing his face, after eating a meal, shall repeat eight thousand times the Gayatri, or a hundred times the Drupada Mantra. Having eaten the food of a Chandala or shvapacha, or that which has been defiled by the touch of excreta, a Brahmana shall practise a Triratram penance, the expiation for the members of other castes, under the circumstances, being the performance of a Paraka Vrata. Having wantonly visited a woman, a man shall practise a Paraka penance by way of expiation. No expiation exists for one, sprung of a vile caste, under these circumstances. A Brahmana, having drunk water out of a cup which contained wine, shall regain his purity by practising a quarter Krichchha Vrata, and by getting himself reinitiated with the holy thread. Brahmanas, who having renounced the vows of Pravrajyam, or Agnihotram wish, to reenter the order of house-holders, shall regain their purity by practising three Krichchha Vratas and three Chandrayanas, and by again going through the rites of Jata Karma, etc. This is the opinion of the holy Vashishtha. A woman having failed to completely practise a Prajapatyam shall regain her purity by feeding Brahmanas. A Brahmana, with his face unwashed after a meal, happening to be touched by a shudra, similarly circumstanced as himself, or by a dog, shall regain his purity by fasting for a night, and by taking the compound known as Panchagavyam, Touched by members of other castes, while circumstanced as above, a Brahmana shall regain his purity by fasting for five nights. Undefiled is a current stream of water; pure are the particles of dust blown about by the wind, women, infants, and old men are above all pollution; constantly pure is the face of a woman, pure are the fruits felled down by birds from their stems, pure is a calf after being delivered of its mother’s womb, pure is the mouth of a dog at the time of catching a game. Pure are the aquatic animals in water, pure are the land-animals on the surface of the earth, pure is the person that perform an achamanam by resting his feet in water. Articles of Indian bell-metal, undefiled by the touch of wine, are purified by rubbing them with ashes; defiled by the touch of wine or urine, they should be purified by heating. Articles of Indian bell-metal, smelled by kine or defiled by the touch of the residue of a shudra's meal, or by the contact of a dog or a crow, are purified by being rubbed with the ten kinds of ashes. Having partaken his meal out of the saucer of a shudra, a Brahmana shall regain his purity by fasting for a day, and by taking Panchagavyam as well. A Brahmana having touched a dog, a shudra, or any other beast, or a woman in her menses, before washing his face after a meal, shall regain his purity by fasting for a day, and by taking Panchagavyam. In a waterless place, or on a road infested by thieves or tigers, a person is not polluted by voiding urine with an article of human use in his hand. He shall place it on the ground, and again take hold of the same, after having cleansed his person. Kanjikam (fermented rice or barley gruel,) milk-curd, milk, whey, meat, honey and Krishara, may be accepted, without impunity, even from a shudra. A Brahmana, who takes any kind of intoxicating liquor such as Gaudi, Paishti, or Madhvikam, shall expiate his sin by taking any flame-coloured wine, or by taking cow-dung and cow’s urine. Having carnally known a dancing girl, an actress, a laundress, a carpenter's or Benujivi’s wife, or the wife or daughter of one’s own mother’s brother, or the daughter of one’s own spiritual preceptor, or the wife of one’s own friend (relation) or uterine brother, one shall practise a Tapta Krichehham penance by way of expiation. No expiation exists for the sin of carnally knowing the daughter of one’s own mother’s sister. Having taken any thing previously eaten by a jackal or a hog, one shall regain one’s purity by practising a Shadratram penance. Having taken dry meat one shall practise a Tapta Krichchham penance. Persons, guilty of incendiarism or of administering poison to any body, shall practise a Tapta Krichchham by way of expiation. Having partaken of any thing in the house of a shudra, affected by a birth or death impurity, a Brahmana shall recite eight hundred times the Gayatri Mantra; having taken a meal in the house of a Vais’ya or a Kshatriya, circumstanced as before, he shall recite five hundred times the Gayatri Mantras. A Brahmana, who takes his meal in the house of a Brahmana, impure with a birth or death uncleanness, shall regain his purity by reciting a hundred times the sacred Gayatri.
On the occasion of a birth or death in his family, a Brahmana remains unclean for ten days; a Kshatriya for twelve days; a Vaishya, for fifteen days; and a shudra, for a month. Uncleanness, incidental to the death of one's relation in battle, in a foreign country, during the celebration of a religious sacrifice, or in execution of a capital sentence passed by the king, as well as that which results from the death of a cognate relation, below six months of age, expires with the very day of the occurrence of the death. Uncleanness incidental to the death of an unmarried girl, of a twice-born son not initiated with the Maunji, of a boy who has cut his teeth, or of a girl of three years of age, lasts for three nights only. Uncleanness, incidental to the abortion or miscarriage of a fætus, lasts for the same number of days as that of the months of pregnancy in which the said abortion or miscarriage has occurred. Uncleanness in respect of the birth of a child, born before time, lasts for the same number of days as that of the months of gestation in which the birth has taken place. In times of famine or scarcity, during civic disturbances, birth or death-uncleanness does not affect a person, nor does it affect those who are in the habit of practising charities, every day, or those who are being initiated, or are practising vow, or penances, or are residing in any sanctuary. At the time of spiritual initiation, during the celebration of a marriage ceremony, at times when Brahmanas are feasted in one’s house, or while performing an act previously determined, a death or birth uncleanness does not affect. Similarly, a Brahmana becomes unclean by touching his justly parturient wife. Birth uncleanness does not affect a man in a place where oblations are cast in the sacred fire, or the Vedas are studied, or offerings are constantly offered unto the Vishvedevas. A shudra, consecrated with the sacred Mantra, regains his personal purity a fortnight after the occurrence of a (birth) uncleanness. Brahmanas in jeopardised conditions remain unclean for a single day in connection with a birth-uncleanness. A performer of Agni-Hotra sacrifices, a vowist and a reciter of any sacred Mantra arc not affected by birth-uncleanness,
A woman in feer menses happened to be touched by a dog, or a Chandala or a Pukkasa shall fast till the day of her bath of purification, when she shall regain her purity by bathing. Any household work done by her, under the circumstances, should be regarded as an unsanctified act, whereto sin is attached. A twice-born one happening to take his meal in a house under uncleanness shall practise a Triratram Vrata by way of expiation. Brahmanis, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas in their menses, happening to touch one another, shall respectively fast for three nights, two nights and one night, while shudras shall be clean again only by taking ablutions. A Drona measure of cooked food or articles of fare, happened to be defiled by the touch of a dog or crow, should not be cast aside as impure; only the superficial stratum of such food should be rejected. The mode of purifying such food consists in sprinkling waters, in which bits of gold have been kept immersed, over its pile and in heating it again on fire. A Brahmana, a Kshatriya, and a Vaishya happening to drink the water of a well in which the carcase of a dog, jackal, or monkey has been cast, shall regain their purity by respectively fasting for three nights, two nights and one night. In the event of a well being defiled by the casting of bones, hair, or other excrementitious matter in its water, it shall be purified by dredging its bottom and casting Panchagavyam into it. In the event of a pond or tank being defiled by ashes, sixty pitcherfuls of water should be baled out of its bed, and Panchagavyam should be cast in its water. In the event of a tank being defiled by the washing of catamenial blood of a woman in its water, thirty pitcherfuls of its water should be baled out. Having visited a woman standing in an interdicted relation to him, or used any forbidden article of food and drink such as beef, wine, etc., a Brahmana, or a Kshatriya is purified by practising a Prajapatyam penance; a Vaishya, by a Santapanam; and a shudra, by a Pancha-ratram penance. After practising an expiatory penance, one shall feed the worthy Brahmanas and make gifts of kine to them.
The use (wearing) of an indigo-dyed cloth by one in bed or at the time of visiting one’s wife is not sinful, otherwise an indigo-dyed cloth should not be touched and an indigo-dyer goes to hell, after death. A Brahmanicide, a wine-drinker, a stealer of gold of more than eighty Ratis weight, he who defiles the bed of his own preceptor, as well as the one who keeps company of these men, are absolved of their sin by paying visit to Setubandha. After return from his pilgrimage, any of these absolved sinners shall feed the pious Brahmanas and make gifts of kine to them. A Brahmanicide shall live for twelve years in a cottage in the forest; and carrying a human skull on his head he shall stroll out for alms. Thus he shall live on alms for twelve years, whereby he will be absolved of his sin. On the other hand, he shall immolate his self in a blazing fire, or shall renounce his life for the good of a Brahmana, or shall dedicate all his possessions to use of a Brahmana. Similarly, a wine-drinker shall immolate his self in a blazing fire. A gold stealer, falling under the category of a Steyin, shall expiate his sin by making gift of all his possessions to a Brahmana, well-versed in the Vedas. He, who has defiled the bed of his preceptor, shall purchase his absolution by making gifts of a thousand bullocks to Brahmanas.
If a cow dies, while penned in a sired or an enclosure, her owner shall practise a quarter part of the Krichchha penance by way of expiation, in the case where the cow dies with fastenings or halter round her neck, the expiation is the practice of a half Krichchha penance, whereas in cases the cow is burnt down to death, or where the death occurs from its being led astray in the wilderness, her owner shall practise a full Krichchha Vrata by way of expiation. The practice of a quarter Krichchha penance is the expiation in the case where the cow dies from the effects of injudicious fastenings of bells round her neck. Having accidentally broken the horn of a cow, Or a bone in her body, or having broken her tail or injured her skin, One shall live, for a fortnight, on Javakam. A member of any of the three twice-born orders, having unknowingly taken wine or any excrementitious matter such as, the stool or urine, should be re-initiated with the holy thread. Shaving of the head, carrying of staff, wearing of the grass-girdle (Mekhala), begging of alms and observance of vows should be omitted in the rites of súch second initiation of the twice-born. Raw meat, clarified buttter, honey and seed-oils, kept in the Vessel of a man of vile cast, become pure as son as they are taken out of it. The practice of a quarter-Krichchha penance consists in taking a night-meal on the first day, in living on what is obtained without asking on the second day, and in fasting on the third day of its term, while that of a half Krichchha Vrata is double of what is laid down in connection with a quarter-Krichchham. The practice of a Prajapatyam penance, which extinguishes all sin, consists in triply doing what is laid down in respect of a quarter-Krichchham. A Krichchham penance, practised by fasting for seven days in succession, is called a Maha-Santapanam Vrata. Take only warm water on the first) three days, only warm milk on the second three days, and only clarified butter on the third three days of the penance. This is called the sin-absolving Tapta-Krichchha-Vrata. The practice of a Paraka Vrata, Which extinguishes all sin, consists in fasting for twelve days in succession.
In this penance the penitent shall take one morsel of food (Pinda) On the first day of the light fortnight, and successively increase the number by one, each day, till the day of the full moon, and thereafter go On decreasing it by one, each day, till the day of the hew moon. The compound known as the Panchagavyam, the use of which tends to extinguish all sin, shall consist of the milk of a golden-coloured cow, the dung of a white cow, the urine of a copper-coloured cow, the butter made out of the milk of a blue-coloured cow, the curdled milk of a black cow, and the washings of the blades of Kusha-grass, in the following proportions viz., eight Mashas of cow’s urine, four Mashas of cowdung, twelve Mashas of cow-milk, ten Mashas of curdled cow-milk, and five Mashas of melted cow-butter. O Vyasa, the holy sages have devoutly practised the pieties I have narrated; those, who propitiate the divine Vishnu, live in comfort and happiness. By performing Japas, Homas, and Sandhyas, one acquires (is merged in) Vishnu, the granter of virtues, wealth, creature-comforts and emancipation. Vishnu is virtue, Vishnu is vow, Vishnu is worship; Vishnu is Tarpanam. He is Homa, Sandhya, meditation and psychic trance.