Gamaka, Gāmaka: 12 definitions

Introduction

Gamaka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi

Gamaka (गमक, “embellishments”) refers to an essential element of the sthāyas (technical phrases) of a rāga (melodic mode) in Indian classical music (gāndharva), according to the Saṅgītaśiromaṇi 14.83-94. Accordingly, “performing a note with a vibrato (prakampana) which has a very pleasing effect on the listener is what people call gamaka”.

There are fifteen aspects of gamaka (‘embellishment’ or ‘ornamentation’) defined:

  1. vali (wrinkle),
  2. āndolita (swung),
  3. līna (pressed),
  4. kampita (shaken),
  5. sphurita (trembling),
  6. tiripa (stressing),
  7. tribhinna (divided into three),
  8. kurula (curl),
  9. ullāsita (jumping),
  10. āhata (struck),
  11. huṃphita (humming),
  12. plavita (prolonged),
  13. mudrita (closed),
  14. nāmita (bent),
  15. miśrita (mixed),
Source: archive.org: Northern Indian Music Volume I

Gamaka (गमक, “grace”).—Graces (gamakas) are the ornaments of notes, according to the 17th century Sangitadarpana (commentary 2-4). When, in singing, a note rises from its own pitch and moves towards another so that something of the expression of the second sound passes like a shadow over it, this is called a grace (gamaka). (Saṅgītasamayasāra 1.47) Gamakas, also called‘roaming about’ (caraṇa), are said to be of twenty-one kinds. (Saṅgītamakaranda 2.17) All the ways in which notes can be attacked, ornamented or resolved, are known under the general name of gamaka.

The grace that pleases the mind of the hearer is a gamaka. These are of fifteen different kinds, called tiripa (flurry), sphurita (throb), kampita (shake), līna (melting away), āndolita (swing), vali (ripple), tribhinna (threefold), kurula (curl), āhata (struck), ullāsita (laughing), plavita (overflow), gumphita (tied), mudrita (sealed), nāmita (obeisance), miśrita (mixed). See Saṅgītaratnākara 2.3.87-89

Source: WikiPedia: Natyashastra

Gamaka (गमक, “ornamented note”) refers to ornamentation that is used in the performance of Indian classical music. Gamakas involve the variation of pitch of a note, using heavy forceful oscillations between adjacent and distant notes. Each raga (melodic tone) has specific rules on the types of gamakas that might be applied to specific notes, and the types that may not.

Source: Vrindavan Today: Govinda-lilamrita: Rasa-lila musicology

Gamaka (गमक).—The sensational art of making a melody pulsate (svarasya kampaḥ) is called gamaka. “A gamaka is any graceful turn, curve or cornering touch given to a single note or a group of notes, which adds emphasis to each rāga’s individuality”. According to Saṅgīta-darpaṇa, there are fifteen different gamaka styles which are called: tiripa, sphurita, kampita, nīla, āndolita, bali, tribhinna, kuvala, āhata, unnamita, plavita, hankrita, mudrita, namita and miśrita. Other Indian music texts give other numbers of gamakas.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Gamaka (गमक).—Capable of conveying the sense; intelligible; the word is often used in grammatical works; cf. सापेक्षत्वेपि गमकत्वात्समासः (sāpekṣatvepi gamakatvātsamāsaḥ); cf. also अवश्यं कस्याचिन्नञ्स-मासस्य असमर्थसमासस्य गमकस्य साधुत्वं वक्तव्यम् । असूर्यपश्यानि मुखानि (avaśyaṃ kasyācinnañsa-māsasya asamarthasamāsasya gamakasya sādhutvaṃ vaktavyam | asūryapaśyāni mukhāni) M. Bh. on II. 1. 1.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

gāmaka : (m.) small village.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Gāmaka, 1. =gāma Vin.I, 208; J.I, 199 (Macala°), 253; IV, 431 (cora°); PvA.67 (Iṭṭhakāvatī and Dīgharājī); DhA.II, 25 (dvāra°).—2. a villager J.V, 107 (=gāmavāsin).

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

gamaka (गमक).—n (S Causing to go.) A proof, an evidence, an argument for: also support, sanction, authority, warrant, grounds for assurance or admission. 2 A deep expectorated tone in singing. Singers speak of three tones, ālāpha, jōra, gamaka.

--- OR ---

gamakā (गमका).—m P Airs, affectation, strutting, swelling, swaggering.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

gamaka (गमक).—n A proof, an evidence; support, sanction, authority. A deep ex- pectorated tone in singing.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Gamaka (गमक).—a. (-mikā f.) [गम्-ण्वुल् (gam-ṇvul)]

1) Indicative or suggestive, a proof or index of; तदेव गमकं पाण्डित्यवैद- ग्ध्ययोः (tadeva gamakaṃ pāṇḍityavaida- gdhyayoḥ) Māl.1.7.

2) Convincing.

-kaḥ A kind of musical note (of which there are seven cf. svarotthāna- prakārastu gamakaḥ parikīrtitaḥ | sa kampitādibhedena smṛtaḥ saptavidho budhaiḥ || sthānaprāptyā dadhānaṃ prakaṭitagamakāṃ mandratāravyavasthām Nāg.1.12).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gamaka (गमक).—[adjective] convincing, conclusive; showing, betraying (—°). Abstr. [feminine], tva [neuter]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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