Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

On the duties of visitors

Kd.18.1.1 BD.5.291 At one time the Awakened One, the Lord, was staying at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s monastery. Now at that time incoming monks entered the monastery with their sandals on,[1] and they entered the monastery with sunshades up,[2] and they entered the monastery with their heads muffled up,[3] and they entered the monastery having put their robes on their heads, and they washed their feet in the drinking water, and they did not greet the resident monks who were senior nor ask about lodgings. And a certain incoming monk, having unfastened the bolt[4] of an unoccupied dwelling-place, having opened the door,[5] entered hastily. A snake fell on to his shoulder from a lintel above; terrified, he uttered a cry of distress. Monks, having run up, spoke thus to that monk: “Why did you, your reverence, utter a cry of distress?” Then this monk told this matter to the monks. Those who were modest monks looked down upon, criticised, spread it about, saying: “How can these incoming monks enter a monastery with their sandals on … nor ask about lodgings?” Then these monks told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“Is it true, as is said, monks, that incoming monks entered a monastery with their sandals on … and did not ask about lodgings?”

“It is true, Lord.” The Awakened One, the Lord, rebuked them, saying:

“How, monks, can incoming monks enter a monastery with their sandals on … nor ask about lodgings? It is not, monks, for pleasing those who are not (yet) pleased … Having rebuked them, having given reasoned talk, he addressed the monks, saying:

BD.5.292 “Well then, monks, I will lay down an observance[6] for incoming monks which should be observed by incoming monks.

Kd.18.1.2 “Monks, an incoming monk, thinking, ‘I will now enter a monastery,’ Vin.2.208 having taken off his sandals, having put them down,[7] having beaten them, having taken them up (again), having lowered his sunshade, having uncovered his head, having put his robe over his shoulder, should enter the monastery carefully and unhurriedly.[8] While he is entering the monastery, he should notice where the resident monks have withdrawn to.[9] Wherever resident monks have withdrawn to—whether to an assembly hall or to a hut or to the root of a tree—having gone there, he should put down his bowl at one side, he should put down his robe at one side, and having taken a suitable seat he should sit down. He should ask about the drinking water, he should ask about the washing water—which the drinking water is, which the washing water. If he wants drinking water, having taken drinking water he should drink; if he wants washing water, having taken washing water he should wash his feet. When he is washing his feet he should sprinkle water (over them) with one hand and wash his feet with the other; but he should not sprinkle water and wash his feet with one and the same hand. Having asked for a piece of cloth to wipe his sandals, he should wipe the sandals. While he is wiping his sandals he should first wipe them with a dry piece of cloth, afterwards with a damp one; having washed the pieces of cloth for wiping the sandals he should spread[10] them on one side. If a resident monk is senior he should greet him; if he is newly ordained he should make him greet (him). He should ask about lodgings, saying: ‘Which lodging pertains to[11] me?’ He should ask whether it is occupied or unoccupied. He should ask about resorts for alms,[12] he should ask about non-resorts for BD.5.293 alms,[13] he should ask about the families which are agreed upon as learners,[14] he should ask about the privies, he should ask about the drinking water,[15] he should ask about the water for washing,[16] he should ask about a staff, he should ask about (the form of) the Order’s agreement, saying: ‘What time should it be entered upon, what time should it be departed from?[17]

Kd.18.1.3 “If the dwelling-place is unoccupied, having knocked at the door, having waited a moment, having unfastened the bolt, having opened the door, he should watch out while standing outside.[18] If the dwelling-place is soiled or if couch is piled on couch or if chair is piled on chair and lodgings heaped on top of them, he should clear (the dwelling-place) if he is able to do so. While clearing[19] the dwelling place, having first taken out the ground covering he should lay it to one side. Having taken out the supports for the beds … having taken out the mattress and the squatting-mat … the piece of cloth to sit upon and the sheet, he should lay them to one side. Having lowered the couch, having taken it out carefully without rubbing it, without knocking it against the door or the posts Vin.2.209 he should lay it to one side. Having lowered the chair, having taken it out carefully without rubbing it, without knocking it against the door or the posts, he should lay it to one side. Having taken out the spittoon, he should lay it to one side. Having taken out the reclining board, he should lay it to one side. If there are cobwebs in the dwelling-place, he should first remove them from the (floor-) covering. He should wipe the corners of the window-holes. If a wall that was coloured red becomes stained, he should wipe it having moistened a rag, having wrung it out. If ground that was blacked becomes stained, he should wipe it having moistened a rag, having wrung it out. If the ground has not been treated, he should sweep it having sprinkled it all over with BD.5.294 water, thinking: ‘Take care lest the dwelling-place is sullied with dust.’ Having looked for (any) rubbish, he should remove it to one side.

Kd.18.1.4 “Having dried the ground-covering in the sun, having cleaned it, having shaken it, having brought it back, he should lay it down as it was before.[20] Having dried the supports for the couch in the sun, having wiped them, having brought them back, he should place them as they were before.[21] Having dried the couch in the sun … the chair in the sun, having cleaned it, having shaken it, having lowered it, having brought it back carefully without rubbing it, without knocking it against the door or the posts, it should be laid down as it was before.[22] Having dried the mattress and the squatting mat in the sun, having cleaned them, having shaken them, having brought them back, they should be laid down as they were before.[23] Having dried the piece of cloth to sit upon and the sheet in the sun, having cleaned them, having shaken them, having brought them back, they should be laid down as they were before.[24] Having dried the spittoon in the sun, having wiped it, having brought it back, it should be placed where it was before.[25] Having dried the reclining-board in the sun, having wiped it, having brought it back, it should be placed where it was before.[26]

Kd.18.1.5 “He should[27] lay aside the bowl and robes. When laying aside the bowl, having taken the bowl in one hand, having felt with the other under the couch or under the chair, the bowl should be laid aside, but the bowl should not be laid aside on the bare ground. When laying aside the robe, having taken the robe in one hand, having stroked the other hand along the bamboo for robes or along the cord for robes, having got the edges away from him and the fold towards him, the robe should be laid aside.

“If dusty winds blow from the east, he should close the eastern windows. If dusty winds blow from the west, he should close the western windows. If dusty winds blow from the north, he should close the northern windows. If dusty winds blow from the south, he should close the southern windows. If the weather is cool, he should open the windows BD.5.295 by day, he should close them by night. If the weather is warm, he should close the windows by day, he should open them by night.

“If a cell Vin.2.210 is soiled, the cell should be swept. If a porch is soiled, the porch should be swept. If an attendance-hall … if a fire-hall … if a privy is soiled, the privy should be swept. If there is no drinking water, drinking water should be provided. If there is no water for washing, water for washing should be provided. If there is no water in the pitcher of water for rinsing, water should be tipped into the pitcher of water for rinsing. This, monks, is the observance for incoming monks that is to be observed by incoming monks.”

Footnotes and references:

1.

A sign of disrespect, see Kd.5.12 and Bu-Sk.61, Bu-Sk.62.

2.

See Kd.15.23.2.

3.

See Bu-Sk.23, Bu-Sk.67 at the latter of which “head muffled up” is defined.

4.

ghaṭikā, as at Kd.15.14.3, Kd.16.2.1. See also Vin.3.119.

6.

vatta, custom, duty, habit.

7.

nīcaṃ katvā occurs also at Kd.1.25.11, Kd.1.25.15; Kd.18.4.4; Kd.18.6.2.

8.

ataramānena as at Vin.1.248.

9.

Vin-a.1281, “have assembled.”

10.

vissajjetabbaṃ. Vin-a.1281, attharitabbaṃ.

11.

pāpuṇāti. Cf. Kd.16.11.3; Kd.16.21.2 for rules for apportioning lodgings.

12.

gocara. Vin-a.1281 says “he should ask about walking for alms thus: Is the village which gives alms, gocaragāma, near or far? May one walk for alms early, or during the day?”

13.

agocara. Vin-a.1281 says this is a village of people of wrong views or a village with a limited supply of alms. And he should ask if it is where alms are given to one or two (monks only).

14.

See Bu-Pd.3.

15.

These questions do not this time refer to finding out which is which but, according to Vin-a.1281, what pond’s drinking water it is that they drink, and what washing water it is that they use for bathing and so on.

16.

These questions do not this time refer to finding out which is which but, according to Vin-a.1281, what pond’s drinking water it is that they drink, and what washing water it is that they use for bathing and so on.

18.

For, according to Vin-a.1281, he may have seen the path of a snake or a non-human creature.

19.

Rest of this section also at Kd.1.25.15. Kd.18.7.2.

20.

yathābhāgaṃ.

21.

yathābhāgaṃ.

22.

yathābhāgaṃ.

23.

yathābhāgaṃ.

24.

yathābhāgaṃ.

25.

yathābhāgaṃ.

26.

yathābhāgaṃ.

27.

See also Kd.1.25.11; Kd.18.7.3.