Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Formal Meeting (Saṅghādisesa) 2

BD.1.199 Bu-Ss.2.1.1 Vin.3.119 At one time the enlightened one, the lord, was staying at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s park. At that time the venerable Udāyin lived in the jungle. The dwelling[1] of the venerable one was lovely, good to look upon, beautiful, the inner chamber in the middle was entirely surrounded by the house; the couch and chair, the bolster and pillow were well designed, the water used for drinking and that used for washing were well placed; the cell[2] was well swept. Many people came to look at the dwelling of the venerable Udāyin, and a certain brahmin together with his wife approached the venerable Udāyin, and having approached the venerable Udāyin, he said: “We want to see the dwelling of the good Udāyin.”

“Do look at it, brahmin,” he said, and taking the key, unfastening the bolt, and opening the door,[3] he entered the dwelling. The brahmin entered after the venerable Udāyin, and the brahmin lady entered behind the brahmin. Then the venerable. Udāyin, opening some windows and closing others, going round about the inner room, and coming up from behind, rubbed up against[4] the brahmin lady limb by limb. Then the BD.1.200 brahmin, having exchanged greetings with the venerable Udāyin, went away. Then the brahmin, who was pleased, burst out with a cry of pleasure:[5] “Superb are these recluses, sons of the Sakyans; who dwell in such a jungle, superb is the revered Udāyin who dwells in such a jungle.”

Having spoken thus, the brahmin lady said to the brahmin: Vin.3.120

“What is there superb about him? Even as you rubbed up against me limb by limb, so did this recluse Udāyin rub up against me limb by limb.”

Then the brahmin became annoyed, vexed, angry and said:

“These recluses, sons of the Sakyans,[6] are shameless, of low morality, liars. And they pretend to be walking by dhamma, walking by right, leading the Brahma-life, speaking truth, virtuous, of good conduct. Among these there is no recluseship, among these there is no brahminhood. Perished is recluseship among these, perished is brahminhood among these. Where is recluseship among these? Where is brahminhood among these? Fallen from recluseship are these, fallen from brahminhood are these. How can this recluse Udāyin rub up against my wife limb by limb? It is not possible to go to the park or dwelling with wives of respectable families, with daughters of respectable families, with girls of respectable families,[7] with daughters-in-law[8] of respectable families, with women-slaves of respectable BD.1.201 families. If wives of respectable families, daughters of respectable families, girls of respectable families, daughters-in-law of respectable families, women-slaves of respectable families should go to a park or dwelling, the recluses, sons of the Sakyans, may assault them.”


Bu-Ss.2.1.2 The monks heard this brahmin as he was grumbling, murmuring, and becoming angry. Those who were modest monks became annoyed, vexed, angry and said: “How can the reverend Udāyin come into bodily contact with women-kind?” Then these monks told this matter to the lord. Then the lord on this occasion, for this reason, causing the Order of monks to be convened, asked the reverend Udāyin:

“Is it true as they say, Udāyin, that you came into bodily contact with a woman?”

“It is true, lord,” he said.

Then the enlightened one, the lord, rebuked him, saying:

“It is not right, foolish man, it is not becoming, it is not suitable, it is not fit in a recluse, it is not proper, it is not to be done. How can you, foolish man, come into bodily contact with a woman? Foolish man, is not dhamma uttered by me in various ways for the sake of stilling passion, and not for the sake of passion … declared the allaying of the flames of the pleasures of the senses? It is not, foolish man, for the benefit of unbelievers … Thus, monks, this course of training should be set forth:

Whatever monk, affected by desire,[9] with perverted[10] heart, should come into[11] physical contact with a woman, BD.1.202 holding her hand, or holding a braid of her hair, or rubbing against any one or other of her limbs: this is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.


Bu-Ss.2.2.1 Whatever means: he who …

Monk means: … this is how monk is to be understood in this sense. Vin.3.121

Affected by desire means: infatuated, full of desire, physically in love with.[12]

Perverted means: the perverted heart is impassioned, the perverted heart is corrupt, the perverted heart is erring. And in this meaning it is to be understood that the perverted heart is impassioned.[13]

Woman means: a human woman, not a female yakkha, not a female departed one, not a female animal,[14] even a girl born on this very day, all the more an older one.[15]

Together with means: together.

Should come into physical contact means: it is called a transgression.[16]

BD.1.203 The hand means: going up from the tip of the nail as far as the elbow.

Braid of hair means: nothing but hair,[17] or mixed with threads,[18] or mixed with garlands,[19] or mixed with gold coins,[20] or mixed with gold,[21] or mixed with pearls, or mixed with jewels.[22]

A limb means: setting to one side a hand and a braid of hair, what remains is called a limb.


Bu-Ss.2.2.2 Rubbing, rubbing up against, rubbing downwards, rubbing upwards,[23] bending down, raising up, drawing to, pushing back, holding back hard, taking hard hold of, the grasp, the touch.

Rubbing is called merely rubbed. Rubbing up BD.1.204 against is called moving from here and there. Rubbing downwards is called bringing down low. Rubbing upwards is called raising up high. Bending down is called lowering. Bending up is called raising up high. Drawing to is called pulling. Pushing back is called sending back. Holding back hard[24] is called holding back having taken hold of a limb. Taking hard hold of is called taking hold together with someone. Grasp is called merely taken. Touch means merely contact.

Offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order means: … therefore it is called an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.


Bu-Ss.2.3.1 If there is a woman, and thinking her to be a woman, if the monk is infatuated, and rubs the woman’s body with his body, rubs up against it, rubs it downwards, rubs it upwards, bends it down, raises it up, draws it to, pushes it back, holds it back hard, takes hold of it hard, grasps it, touches it, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

If there is a woman, and being doubtful, if the monk is infatuated, and rubs the woman’s body with his body, rubs up against it … touches it, there is a grave offence.

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be an eunuch, if the monk is infatuated … grave offence.

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a man … thinking it to be an animal, if the monk is infatuated … grave offence.

If there is an eunuch, and thinking it to be an eunuch, if the monk is infatuated, Vin.3.122 and rubs the eunuch’s body … touches it … grave offence.

If there is an eunuch, and being doubtful … thinking it to be a man … thinking it to be an animal … thinking it to be a woman, if the monk is infatuated, and rubs the eunuch’s body … touches it, there is an offence of wrong-doing

If there is a man, and thinking it to be a man … doubtful … thinking it to be an animal … thinking it to be a woman … thinking it to be an eunuch, BD.1.205 if the monk is infatuated and rubs the man’s body … touches it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If there is an animal, and thinking it to be an animal … doubtful … thinking it to be a woman … thinking it to be an eunuch … thinking it to be a man, if the monk is infatuated and rubs the animals body … touches it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

Beginning with one

Bu-Ss.2.3.2 If there are two women, and thinking the two women to be women, if the monk is infatuated and rubs the women’s bodies … touches them, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

If there are two women, and being doubtful whether they are two women … thinking them to be men … to be eunuchs … to be animals, if the monk is infatuated and rubs with his body the bodies of the two women … touches them, there are two grave offences.

If there are two eunuchs, and thinking the eunuchs to be two eunuchs, if the monk is infatuated and rubs their bodies … touches them, there are two grave offences.

If there are two eunuchs, and being doubtful of their being eunuchs … thinking them to be men … to be animals … to be women, if the monk is infatuated and rubs the bodies of the eunuchs … touches them, there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there are two men, and thinking the two men to be men, if the monk is infatuated and rubs the two men with his body … touches them, there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there are two men, and being doubtful of their being men … thinking them to be animals … to be women … to be eunuchs, if the monk is infatuated and rubs the two men with his body … touches them, there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there are two animals, and thinking the two animals to be animals … doubtful … thinking them to be women … to be eunuchs … to be men, if the monk is infatuated and rubs the two animals with his body, there are two offences of wrong-doing.


Bu-Ss.2.3.3 If there are a woman and an eunuch, and thinking both to be women, if the monk is infatuated Vin.3.123 and BD.1.206 rubs with his body … touches them, there is an offence of wrong-doing together with an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

If there are a woman and an eunuch, and being doubtful, if the monk is infatuated … there is an offence of wrong-doing together with a grave offence.

If there are a woman and an eunuch, and thinking both to be eunuchs, if the monk is infatuated … there are two grave offences.

If there are a woman and an eunuch and thinking both to be men, if the monk is infatuated … there is an offence of wrong-doing together with a grave offence.

If there are a woman and an eunuch, and thinking both to be animals, if the monk is infatuated … there is an offence of wrong-doing together with a grave offence.

If there are a woman and a man, and thinking both to be women, if the monk is infatuated … there is an offence of wrong-doing together with an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

If there are a woman and a man, and being doubtful of both … thinking them to be eunuchs … to be men … to be animals, if the monk is infatuated … there is an offence of wrong-doing together with a grave offence.

If there are a woman and an animal, and thinking both to be women, if the monk is infatuated … there is an offence of wrong-doing together with an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

If there are a woman and an eunuch, and being doubtful of both … thinking them to be eunuchs … to be men … to be animals, if the monk is infatuated … there is an offence of wrong-doing together with a grave offence.

If there are an eunuch and a man, and thinking both to be eunuchs, if the monk is infatuated … there is an offence of wrong-doing together with a grave offence.

If there are an eunuch and a man, and being doubtful of both … thinking them to be men … to be animals … to be women, if the monk is infatuated … there are two offences of wrong-doing.

BD.1.207 If there are an eunuch and an animal, and thinking both are eunuchs, if the monk is infatuated … there is an offence of wrong-doing together with a grave offence.

If there are an eunuch and an animal, and being doubtful of both … thinking them to be men … to be animals … to be women, if the monk is infatuated … there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there are a man and an animal, and being doubtful of both … thinking them to be animals … to be women … to be eunuchs, if the monk is infatuated … there are two offences of wrong-doing.

Beginning with two

Bu-Ss.2.3.4 If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, if the monk is infatuated and rubs with his body the woman’s article of dress (worn on the body[25]) touches it, there is a grave offence.[26]

If there are two women, and thinking the two women to be women, if the monk is infatuated and rubs with his body an article of dress belonging to the two women … touches it, there are two grave offences. Vin.3.124

If there are a woman and an eunuch, thinking that both are women if the monk is infatuated and rubs an article of dress of both with his body … touches them, there is an offence of wrong-doing together with a grave offence.

If there is a woman, thinking it to be a woman, if the monk is infatuated and rubs his body with the woman’s article of dress … touches it, there is a grave offence.

If there are two women … there are two grave offences.

If there are a woman and an eunuch … there is an offence of wrong-doing together with a grave offence.

If there is a woman, thinking it to be a woman, if the monk is infatuated and rubs (his) article of dress with the woman’s article of dress … touches it, there is an offence of wrong-doing.[27]

BD.1.208 If there are two women … there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there are a woman and an eunuch … there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there is a woman, and thinking it is a woman, if the monk is infatuated and rubs the woman’s body with something that may be thrown (aside), there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If there are two women, and thinking that the two women are women, if the monk is infatuated and rubs the bodies of the two women with something that may be thrown[28] (aside), there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there are a woman and an eunuch, and thinking both are women, if the monk is infatuated and rubs the body of each with something that may be thrown (aside), there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, if the monk is infatuated and rubs the woman’s article of dress with something that may be thrown (aside), there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If there are two women, and thinking that the two women are women, if the monk is infatuated and rubs an article of dress belonging to the two women with something that may be thrown (aside), there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there are a woman and an eunuch … there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, if the monk is infatuated and rubs something he has thrown (aside) with something of the woman’s which may be thrown (aside), there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If there are two women … there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there are a woman and eunuch … there are two offences of wrong-doing.

Told is the Monk Repetition

Bu-Ss.2.3.5 If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, if the monk is infatuated and the woman rubs the body of the monk with her body, rubs against it, rubs it down BD.1.209 wards, rubs it upwards, bends it down, raises it up, draws it to her, pushes it back, holds it back hard, takes hard hold of it, grasps it, touches it; if desiring cohabitation, he exerts his body and recognises the contact, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

If there are two women, and thinking them to be women, if the monk if infatuated and the women rub … and recognises the contact, there is an offence entailing two formal meetings of the Order. Vin.3.125

If there are a woman and an eunuch, and thinking both to be women, if the monk is infatuated and if both rub … and recognises the contact, there is an offence of wrong-doing together with an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, if the monk is infatuated and the woman rubs with her body the monk’s article of clothing … there is a grave offence.

If there are two women … there are two grave offences.

If there are a woman and an eunuch … there is an offence of wrong-doing together with a grave offence.

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, if the monk is infatuated and the woman rubs the monk’s body with, her article of dress … there is a grave offence.

If there are two women … there are two grave offences.

If there are a woman and an eunuch … there is an offence of wrong-doing together with a grave offence.

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, if the monk is infatuated and the woman rubs the monk’s article of dress with her article of dress … there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If there are two women … there are two offences of wrong doing.

If there are a woman and an eunuch … there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, if the monk is infatuated and the woman rubs the monk’s body with something that may be thrown (aside), if desiring cohabitation, he exerts his body and recognises the contact, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

BD.1.210 If there are two women … there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there are a woman and an eunuch … there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, if the monk is infatuated and the woman rubs the monk’s article of dress with something that may be thrown (aside) … and recognises the contact, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If there are two women … there are two offences of wrong- doing.

If therearea woman and an eunuch … there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there is a woman, and thinking it to be a woman, if the monk is infatuated and the woman rubs with something that may be thrown (aside) something of the monk’s that may be thrown (aside), if desiring cohabitation, he exerts his body but does not recognise the contact, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If there are two women … there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there are a woman and an eunuch … there are two offences of wrong-doing.


Bu-Ss.2.3.6 If desiring cohabitation, he makes bodily exertion and recognises contact, there is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order. If desiring cohabitation, he makes bodily exertion but does not recognise contact, there is an offence of wrong-doing. If desiring cohabitation, he does not make bodily exertion but recognises contact, there is no offence. If desiring cohabitation, he does not make bodily exertion nor recognises contact, there is no offence.

If desiring emission he exerts his body and recognises contact, there is no offence. If desiring emission, he exerts the body but does not recognise contact, Vin.3.126 there is no offence. If desiring emission, he does not exert the body but recognises contact, there is no offence. If desiring emission, he does not exert the body and does not recognise contact, there is no offence.


Bu-Ss.2.3.7 BD.1.211 There is no offence if it is not on purpose, not intentional, not knowing, not agreeing, if he is mad, unhinged, in pain, a beginner.[29]

Bu-Ss.2.4.1 Mother, daughter, and sister, wife, and female yakkha, eunuch,
Asleep, dead, an animal, about a wooden doll, /
Pressing up to, a bridge, a road, a tree, and a boat, and a cord,
A stick, he disclosed the bowl,[30] in salutation,
he exerted himself but did not touch.

Now at that time a certain monk stroked[31] a mother[32] for the sake of a mother’s affection … a daughter for the sake of a daughter’s affection … a sister for the sake of a sister’s affection. He was remorseful, and said: “What now if I have fallen into an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order?” He told this matter to the lord. He said:

“Monk, this is not an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order, it is an offence of wrong-doing.”


Bu-Ss.2.4.2 Now at one time a certain monk came into physical contact with his former wife. He was remorseful …

“You, monk, have fallen into an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.”


Bu-Ss.2.4.3 Now at that time a certain monk came into physical contact with a female yakkha … with a eunuch. He was remorseful … “Monk, it is not an offence BD.1.212 entailing a formal meeting of the Order, it is a grave offence.”


Bu-Ss.2.4.4 Now at one time a certain monk came into physical contact with a sleeping woman. He was remorseful … “Monk, you have fallen into an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.”

At one time a certain monk came into physical contact with a dead woman. He was remorseful. “Monk, it is not an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order, it is a grave offence.”

Now at one time a certain monk came into physical contact with a female animal[33] … “Monk, it is not an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order, it is an offence of wrong-doing.”,

Now at one time a certain monk came into physical contact with a wooden doll … “an offence of wrong-doing.”


Bu-Ss.2.4.5 Now at one time many women, pressing up to[34] a certain monk, led him about arm-in-arm. He was remorseful … “Did you consent, monk?” he said.

“I did not consent, lord,” he said.

“It is not an offence, monk, as you did not consent,” he said. Vin.3.127


Bu-Ss.2.4.6 Now at one time a certain monk, being infatuated, shook the bridge[35] upon which a woman had ascended. He was remorseful … “… offence of wrong-doing.”


Bu-Ss.2.4.7 Now at one time a certain monk seeing a woman whom he met on the way, was infatuated, and gave her a blow on the shoulder. He was remorseful … “… formal meeting of the Order.”


Bu-Ss.2.4.8 BD.1.213 Now at one time a certain monk, being infatuated, shook the tree up which a woman had climbed … the boat in which a woman had embarked. He was remorseful … “… offence of wrong-doing.”


Bu-Ss.2.4.9 Now at one time a certain monk, being infatuated, pulled a cord[36] of which a woman held (the other end). He was remorseful … “… grave offence,” he said.

Now at one time a certain monk, being infatuated, pulled a stick of which a woman held (the other end). He was remorseful … “… grave offence,” he said.


Bu-Ss.2.4.10 Now at one time a certain monk, being infatuated, greeted[37] a woman with his bowl. He was remorseiul … “… grave offence,” he said.


Bu-Ss.2.4.11 Now at one time a certain monk, infatuated by a woman who made reverence, raised his foot. He was remorseful … “… formal meeting of the Order,” he said.

Now at one time a certain monk, saying: “I will take a woman,” exerted himself but did not touch one. He was remorseful … “… offence of wrong-doing,” he said.

Told is the Second Offence entailing a Formal Meeting of the Order

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Vihāra.

[2]:

pariveṇa, see above, BD.1.119, n.1.

[3]:

Kavāṭaṃ paṇāmetvā. Cf. Vin.1.87; Vin.2.114, Vin.2.207 and Vinaya Texts iii.88, where in note 1 the translator (rightly) insists that paṇāmeti is “to open” and not “to shut.” Our passage above is further evidence that this is so. But Pali-English Dictionary says “kavāṭaṃ paṇāmeti, to shut the door.” Possibly it means “to make the door lean,” i.e. when open against the wall, when closed against the post.

[4]:

parāmasi, see below, BD.1.203, and n.6. This “rubbing up against” was not, I think, an act of deliberate familiarity or meant offensively. In the tiny cell-room Udāyin just rubbed up against the visitors, as we might rub up against people in a crowd—in a bus or train or queue.

[5]:

attamano attamanavācaṃ nicchāresi = MN.i.32 and MN.i.509 (nicchāreyya). Vin-a is silent. MN-a.1.151 says: attamano ti sakamano tuṭṭhamano; pītisomanassehi va gahitamano. Attamanavācaṃ nicchāresī ti attamanatāya vācaṃ, attamanabhāvassa vā yuttavācaṃ nicchāresi. Udīrayi, pabyāharī ti vuttaṃ hoti.

[6]:

As above, BD.1.125, and below, BD.1.223.

[7]:

These two are probably meant to be opposed. Buddhaghosa calls kuladhītā, purisantaraṃ gatā, and kulakumāriyo, aniviṭṭhā (unsettled).

[8]:

Kulasuṇhā. Pali-English Dictionary gives suṇhā under suniṣa. At Vinaya Texts ii.348 it is translated “sisters-in-law.” Childers gives daughter-in-law. Vin-a.532 says, “brought from another family for the young men of respectable families, they are vadhuyo,” which is daughters-in-law. And indeed a daughter-in-law held a more important position in the social system than did a sister-in-law.

[9]:

Otiṇṇa, as passive: possessed by. See Old Commentary’s explanation below in Bu-Ss.2.2.1. The translators in Vinaya Texts i.7, n.2 say, “our word ‘degraded’ has often a very similar connotation.” They render otiṇṇa by “degraded”. Cf. below, BD.1.215.

[10]:

Vipariṇatena, literally changed. Cf. below, BD.1.215.

[11]:

Samāpajjeyya = saṃ + āpajjati, Sanskrit. āpadyate = ā + pad, to get into, to come into, to meet with. Sam + ā (as here) very often pleonastic. Although samāpajjati does not, in the above context, necessarily imply deliberate action, coming into physical contact with a woman was nevertheless regarded as an offence of a serious nature, because the desires possibly resulting from such a contact had to be suppressed. For in a growing vogue of monasticism the majority of members were perhaps young and middle-aged men. Cf. below, BD.1.338.

[12]:

= below, BD.1.215.

[13]:

= below, BD.1.215.

[14]:

= below, BD.1.215.

[15]:

Mahattarī. This is comparative of mahant. The Sanskrit form is mahattarā, but Pali has , after therī. Same definition occurs below, BD.1.332.

[16]:

Ajjhācāra, cf. ajjhācarati (adhy-ā + √car) to practise (something bad). Used in Vinaya in the sense of a fault, a transgression; then in an erotical sense as above, and cf. below, BD.1.216. It could not there be used in sense of contact, for the speech, not the body, was at fault. Vin-a.533 says, “whatever is called physical contact (cf. Vin-a.547, “offensive speech”) according to that meaning it is a transgression.” Cf. also Vin-a.213, “she, because of his transgression, became pregnant.” Vin-a.19 says, “he disciplines body and speech through the restraint of transgressions of body and speech.” At Vin.1.63 we get adhisīle sīlavipanno hoti ajjhācāre ācāravipanno hoti atidiṭṭhiyā diṭṭhivipaṇṇo hoti. Here ajjhācāre (indeclinable) means according to Critical Pali Dictionary, “in matter of conduct” as adhisīle means not “in the higher morality,” but “as to a matter of morality.” Vinaya Texts i.184, n.1, points out that there Buddhaghosa says that adhisīle “is said with regard to offences against the Defeat and Formal Meeting rules, while ajjhācāre consists in offences against the minor rules of the Pātimokkha.” But below, BD.1.211, “to come into physical contact,” which above is called a transgression, is there (below) called a Formal Meeting offence.

[17]:

I.e., unmixed with threads, Vin-a.533.

[18]:

I.e., the hair mixed with threads of five colours.

[19]:

l.e., with jasmine flowers, and so on.

[20]:

On hirañña and suvaṇṇa see above, BD.1.28. Here Vin-a.534 says that hiraññamissa means mixed with garlands and kahāpaṇas; and suvaṇṇamissa means mixed with golden cīraka and with pāmaṅga. Here suvaṇṇacīraka probably means gold threads or bands or fillets (cf. Ja.5.197 where suvaṇṇacīraka seems to mean gold brocade). On pāmaṅga, cf. above, BD.1.77.

[21]:

See previous note.

[22]:

With jewels strung on threads.

[23]:

These four words: āmasanā, parāmasanā, omasanā, ummasanā are all connected with masati from √mrṣ, to touch. I have tried to give the force of the prefixes with masati by suitable prepositions. Ā has the force of “at,” therefore ā-masati, to stroke at, touch at, although ā in itself denotes touch (contact) or a personal (close) relation with the object—so Pali-English Dictionary. Cf. below, BD.1.211. Parā means “over.” Note the difference of o = ava and ut in the third and fourth words. There are similar prefixes in some of the following words, meaning “down” and “up.” Parāmasati at Vin.2.216 is translated by “wipes” (at Vinaya Texts iii.291)—i.e., wipes over, rubs over (the spoon and the dish). Cf. parāmasati, above, BD.1.199.

[24]:

abhiniggaṇhanā, while merely “holding back” is niggaṇhanā. Also cf. next, abhinippīḷanā and nippīḷanā.

[25]:

Kāyapaṭibaddha or ornaments, e.g. rings, Vin-a.536, clothes and flowers, Vin-a.537. Whoso takes several women, encircling them in things to be worn, commits various offences. Cf. below, BD.1.218.

[26]:

Cf. Vin.4.214.

[27]:

Cf. Vin.4.214.

[28]:

nissaggiya, cf. BD.1.129. Vin-a.540, flowers and fruits; cf. Vin.4.214.

[29]:

Vin-a.541 says that thera Udāyin was the first offender, therefore there was no offence for him.

[30]:

Cf. kavāṭaṃ paṇāmeti. See BD.1.199, n.3, above, and BD.1.213, below.

[31]:

Āmasi, see above, BD.1.199, n.4, and BD.1.203 n.6. Āmasi is the word there translated by “to rub,” but there it seems to call for “to stroke.”

[32]:

Vin-a.541 says “he strokes the mother’s body, saying, ‘she is my mother.’” In text āmasi (he stroked) is not followed by the accusative as is usually the case.

[33]:

tiracchānagatitthi, see above, BD.1.47, n.4.

[34]:

sampīḷetvā, pressing, pinching, or worrying.

[35]:

Vin-a.546, whether it is a bridge for one passenger, or for waggons, if he succeeds in shaking it or not, it is a dukkaṭa.

[36]:

rajjuṃ āviñji.

[37]:

pattena paṇāmesi. In “Table of Contents,” BD.1.211, above, this appears as pattaṃ paṇāmesi, which at Vin.2.216 is “uncovered (or disclosed) the bowl.” The translation of this passage at Vinaya Texts iii.290 is not accurate; but it means “he presents the bowl with his right hand.” In the above passage it is so curious that patta is in the instrumental, as against the more natural accusative that I am inclined to suspect that añjaliṃ should have been inserted—then meaning, “he raised his hands together with his bowl in respectful salutation of the woman.” Thus this “greeting with the hands” would be balanced just below by “greeting with the feet.” Commentary is silent. I think that there must be some confusion between pattaṃ paṇāmeti and añjaliṃ paṇāmeti. Cf. on kavāṭaṃ paṇāmeti, above, BD.1.199, n.3.

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