Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expulsion (Pārājika) 4: Permutations

Summary

Bu-Pj.4.4.1 MS.574 A super-human achievement[1] means: jhāna, emancipation, samādhi, attainment, knowledge and insight, development of the path, realisation of the fruits, abandoning the defilements, a mind without hindrances, delighting in solitude.

Definitions

MS.575 Jhāna means: the first jhāna, the second jhāna, the third jhāna, the fourth jhāna.

MS.576 Emancipation means: emptiness emancipation, signless emancipation, desireless emancipation.[2]

Vin.3.93 MS.577 Samādhi means: emptiness samādhi, signless samādhi, desireless samādhi.

MS.578 Attainment means: emptiness attainment, signless attainment, desireless attainment.

MS.579 Knowledge and insight means: the three higher knowledges.

MS.580 Development of the path means: the four focuses of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four bases of BD.1.162 psychic potency, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven factors of awakening, the noble eightfold path.[3]

MS.581 Realisation of the fruits means: realisation of the fruit of stream-entry, realisation of the fruit of once-returning, realisation of the fruit of non-returning, realisation of the fruit of arahantship.

MS.582 Abandoning the defilements means: the abandoning of sense desire, the abandoning of anger, the abandoning of confusion.[4]

MS.583 A mind without hindrances means: the mind without sense desire, the mind without anger, the mind without confusion.

MS.584 Delight in solitude means: Because of the first jhāna there is delight in solitude, because of the second jhāna … because of the third jhāna … because of the fourth jhāna there is delight in solitude.

Exposition

First jhāna

Bu-Pj.4.4.2 MS.585 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the first jhāna,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied, he knows he is going to lie; while lying, he knows he is lying; after he has lied, he knows he has lied.[5]

MS.586 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the first jhāna,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when four conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied, he knows he is going to lie; while lying, he knows he is lying; BD.1.163 after he has lied, he knows he has lied; in misrepresenting his view (of what is true).

MS.587 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the first jhāna,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when five conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied … in misrepresenting his view (of what is true); in misrepresenting his belief (of what is true).

MS.588 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the first jhāna,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when six conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied … in misrepresenting his view (of what is true); in misrepresenting his belief (of what is true); in misrepresenting his acceptance (of what is true).

MS.589 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the first jhāna,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when seven conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied … in misrepresenting his view (of what is true); in misrepresenting his belief (of what is true); in misrepresenting his acceptance (of what is true); in misrepresenting his sentiment (of what is true).[6]

Bu-Pj.4.4.3 MS.590 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I am attaining the first jhāna,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled … in misrepresenting his sentiment (of what is true).

MS.595 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I have attained the first jhāna,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled … in misrepresenting his sentiment (of what is true).

MS.600 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I obtain the first jhāna,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled … in misrepresenting his sentiment (of what is true).

MS.605 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I master the first jhāna,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled … in misrepresenting his sentiment (of what is true).

Vin.3.94 MS.610 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I have realised the first jhāna,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled … in misrepresenting his sentiment (of what is true).

MS.615 As the first jhāna has been expouded in detail, so all (below) should be expanded.

Other individual attainments

Bu-Pj.4.4.4 MS.616 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the second jhāna … the third jhāna … the fourth jhānaBD.1.164 I am attaining … I have attained … I obtain … I master … I have realised the fourth jhāna,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled …

Bu-Pj.4.4.5 MS.617 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the emptiness emancipation … the signless emancipation … the desireless emancipation[7] … I am attaining … I have attained … I obtain … I master … I have realised the desireless emancipation,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled …

MS.618 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the emptiness samādhi … the signless samādhi … the desireless samādhi … I am attaining … I have attained … I obtain … I master … I have realised the desireless samādhi,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled …

MS.619 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the emptiness attainment[8] … the signless attainment … the desireless attainment … I am attaining … I have attained … I obtain … I master … I have realised the desireless attainment,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled …

MS.620 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the three true knowledges … I have realised the three true knowledges,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled …

MS.621

For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the four focuses of mindfulness … the four right efforts … the four bases of psychic potency … I have realised the four bases of psychic potency,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled …

MS.622 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the five faculties … the five powers … I have realised the five powers,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled …

MS.623 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the seven factors of awakening … I have realised the seven factors of awakening,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled …

MS.624 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the noble eightfold pathI have realised the noble eightfold path,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled …

MS.625 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the fruit of stream-entry … the fruit of once-returning … BD.1.165 the fruit of non-returning … arahantshipI have realised arahantship,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled …

Vin.3.95 MS.626 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I have given up sense desire, I have renounced sense desire, I have let go of sense desire, I have abandoned sense desire, I have relinquished sense desire, I have forsaken sense desire, I have thrown aside sense desire … I have given up anger, I have renounced anger, I have let go of anger, I have abandoned anger, I have relinquished anger, I have forsaken anger, I have thrown aside anger … I have given up confusion, I have renounced confusion, I have let go of confusion, I have abandoned confusion, I have relinquished confusion, I have forsaken confusion, I have thrown aside confusion,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled …

MS.629 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “my mind is free from the hindrance of sense desire,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled …

MS.630 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “my mind is free from the hindrance of anger … confusion,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled … when seven conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied he knows he is going to lie; while lying, he knows he is lying; after he has lied, he knows he has lied; in misrepresenting his view (of what is true); in misrepresenting his belief (of what is true); in misrepresenting his acceptance (of what is true); in misrepresenting his sentiment (of what is true).

MS.632 The simple (permutations series) is finished.

Combinations of two attainments

Bu-Pj.4.4.6 MS.633 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the first jhāna and the second jhāna … the first jhāna and the third jhāna … the first jhāna and the fourth jhāna … the first jhāna and the emptiness emancipation … the first jhāna and the signless emancipation … the first jhāna and the desireless emancipation … the first jhāna and the emptiness samādhi … the first jhāna and the signless samādhi … the first jhāna and the desireless samādhi … the first jhāna and the emptiness attainment … the first jhāna and the signless attainment … the first jhāna and the desireless attainment … the first jhāna and the three true knowledges … the first jhāna and the four focuses of mindfulness … the first jhāna and the four right efforts … the first jhāna and the four bases of psychic potency … the first jhāna and the five faculties … the first jhāna and the five Vin.3.96 powers … the first jhāna and the seven factors of awakening … the first jhāna and the noble eightfold path … the first jhāna and the fruit of stream-entry … the first jhāna and the fruit of once-returning … the first jhāna and the fruit of non-returning … the first jhāna and arahantship … the first jhāna and I have given up sense desire, renounced it, let it go, abandoned it, relinquished it, forsaken it, thrown it aside … the first jhāna and I have given up anger, renounced it, let it go, abandoned it, relinquished it, forsaken it, thrown it aside … the first jhāna and I have given up confusion, renounced it, let it go, abandoned it, relinquished it, forsaken it, thrown it aside … the first jhāna and my mind is free from the hindrance of sense desire … the first jhāna and my mind is free from the hindrance of anger … the first jhāna and my mind is free from the hindrance of confusion … I am attaining the first jhāna and my mind is free from the hindrance of confusion … I have attained BD.1.166 the first jhāna and my mind is free from the hindrance of confusion … I obtain the first jhāna and my mind is free from the hindrance of confusion … I master the first jhāna and my mind is free from the hindrance of confusion … I have realised the first jhāna and my mind is free from the hindrance of confusion,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled … when seven conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied, he knows he is going to lie; while lying, he knows he is lying; after he has lied, he knows he has lied; in misrepresenting his view (of what is true); in misrepresenting his belief (of what is true); in misrepresenting his acceptance (of what is true); in misrepresenting his sentiment (of what is true).

MS.647 The permutation of one part is finished.

Bu-Pj.4.4.7 MS.648 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the second jhāna and the third jhāna … the second jhāna and the fourth jhāna … the second jhāna and my mind is free from the hindrance of confusion,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled …

MS.652 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the second jhāna and the first jhāna … I have realised the second jhāna and the first jhāna,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled … when seven conditions are fulfilled …

MS.653 The contracted permutation is finished.

Bu-Pj.4.4.8 MS.654 Thus each item is to be dealt with in the same way as the contracted permutation.

MS.655 In brief:

MS.659 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “my mind is free from the hindrance of confusion and I attained the first jhāna … the second jhāna … the third jhāna … the fourth jhānaVin.3.97 the emptiness emancipation … my mind is free from the hindrance of confusion and it is free from the hindrance of anger,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled … when seven conditions are fulfilled …

MS.671 That which is based on one item is finished.

Bu-Pj.4.4.9 MS.672 The (sections) based on two items, three items, four items, five items, six items, seven items, eight items, nine items and ten items is to be given in detail in the same way as the (section) based on one item. This is the section based on all items:

Combination of all attainments

BD.1.167 MS.674 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “I attained the first jhāna and the second jhāna and the third jhāna and the fourth jhāna and the emptiness emancipation and the signless emancipation and the desireless emancipation and the emptiness samādhi and the signless samādhi and the desireless samādhi and the emptiness attainment and the signless attainment and the desireless attainment and the three true knowledges and the four focuses of mindfulness and the four right efforts and the four bases of psychic potency and the five faculties and the five powers and the seven factors of awakening and the noble eightfold path and the fruit of stream entry and the fruit of once-returning and the fruit of non-returning and arahantship … I am attaining … I have attained … and I have given up sense desire, renounced it, let it go, abandoned it, relinquished it, forsaken it, thrown it aside; and I have given up anger, renounced it, let it go, abandoned it, relinquished it, forsaken it, thrown it aside; and I have given up confusion, renounced it, let it go, abandoned it, relinquished it, forsaken it, thrown it aside; and my mind is free from the hindrance of sense desire; and my mind is free from the hindrance of anger; and my mind is free from the hindrance of confusion,” there is an offence entailing expulsion when three conditions are fulfilled … when seven conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied, he knows he is going to lie; while lying, he knows he is lying; after he has lied, he knows he has lied; in misrepresenting his view (of what is true); in misrepresenting his belief (of what is true); in misrepresenting his acceptance (of what is true); in misrepresenting his sentiment (of what is true).

MS.675 Section based on all items is finished.

Meaning to say one thing, but saying something else

Bu-Pj.4.5.1 MS.676 For one who deliberately lies, meaning to say, “I attained the first jhāna,” while actually saying,[9] “I attained the second jhāna,” when the listener understands there is an offence entailing expulsion when there are three characteristics; BD.1.168 when the listener does not understand there is a serious offence when three conditions are fulfilled … For one who deliberately lies, meaning to say, “I attained the first jhāna,” while actually saying, “I attained the third jhāna … the fourth jhāna” … there is a serious offence when three conditions are fulfilled … For one who deliberately lies, meaning to say, “I attained the first jhāna,” while actually saying, “my mind is free of the hindrance of confusion” … there is a serious offence when three conditions are fulfilled … when seven conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied … in misrepresenting his sentiment (of what is true).

MS.680 The permutation of one part based on one expanded item is finished.

Bu-Pj.4.5.2 Vin.3.98 MS.681 For one who deliberately lies, meaning to say, “I attained the second jhāna,” while actually saying, “I attained the third jhāna … the first jhāna” … there is a serious offence when three conditions are fulfilled … when seven conditions are fulfilled …

MS.684 The contracted permutation based on one expanded item; the root in brief.

Bu-Pj.4.5.3 MS.685 For one who deliberately lies, meaning to say, “My mind is free of the hindrance of confusion,” while actually saying, “I attained the first jhāna” … there is a serious offence when three conditions are fulfilled … For one who deliberately lies, meaning to say, “My mind is free of the hindrance of confusion” … while actually saying, “My mind is free of the hindrance of anger” … there is a serious offence when three conditions are fulfilled … when seven conditions are fulfilled …

MS.687 The (section) based on one expanded item is finished

Bu-Pj.4.5.4 BD.1.169 The (sections) based on two items, three items … ten items are to be done just so. This is the (section) based on all items:

MS.688 For one who deliberately lies, meaning to say, “I attained the first jhāna … and my mind is free of the hindrance of anger,” while actually saying, “My mind is free of the hindrance of confusion,” when the listener understands there is an offence entailing expulsion when there are three characteristics; when the listener does not understand there is a serious offence when three conditions are fulfilled … when seven conditions are fulfilled … For one who deliberately lies, meaning to say, “I attained the second jhāna and the third jhāna and the fourth jhāna and the emptiness emancipation … and arahantship and I have given up sense desire, renounced it, let it go, abandoned it, relinquished it, forsaken it, thrown it aside; and I have given up anger … and I have given up confusion … and my mind is free from the hindrance of sense desire … of anger … of confusion,” while actually saying, “I attained the first jhāna,” when the listener understands there is an offence entailing expulsion when there are three characteristics; when the listener does not understand there is a serious offence when three conditions are fulfilled … when seven conditions are fulfilled … For one who deliberately lies, meaning to say, “I attained the third jhāna and the fourth jhāna … and my mind is free from the hindrance of confusion and I attained the first jhāna,” while actually saying, “I attained the second jhāna” … there is a serious offence when three conditions are fulfilled … when seven conditions are fulfilled … For one who deliberately lies, meaning to say, “My mind is free from the hindrance of confusion and I attained the first jhāna and the second jhāna and the third jhāna and the fourth jhāna … and my mind is free from the hindrance of sense desire,” while actually saying, “My mind is free from the hindrance of anger,” when the listener understands there is an offence entailing expulsion when there are three characteristics; when the listener does not understand there is a serious offence when three conditions are fulfilled … when seven conditions are fulfilled …

MS.692 The section based on all expanded items is finished. The expanded permutation is finished.

Gross hinting

Bu-Pj.4.6.1 BD.1.170 Vin.3.99 MS.693 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “he who lived in your dwelling attained the first jhāna … is attaining … has attained … obtains the first jhāna … masters the first jhāna … has realised the first jhāna,” when the listener understands there is a serious offence when three conditions are fulfilled; when the listener does not understand there is an offence of bad conduct when three conditions are fulfilled … when seven conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied … in misrepresenting his sentiment (of what is true) … For one who deliberately lies, saying, “he who lived in your dwelling attained the second jhāna … the third jhāna … the fourth jhāna … the emptiness emancipation … arahantship … is attaining arahantship … has realised arahantship” … bad conduct when three conditions are fulfilled … For one who deliberately lies, saying, “he who lived in your dwelling, that monk has given up sense desire … has given up anger … has given up confusion, renounced it, let it go, abandoned it, relinquished it, forsaken it, thrown it aside; that monk has a mind free from sense desire … free from anger … free from confusion” … bad conduct when three conditions are fulfilled … For one who deliberately lies, saying, “he who lives in your dwelling attained the first jhāna in an empty dwelling … the second jhāna … the third jhāna … the fourth jhāna … is attaining … has attained … obtains the fourth jhāna in an empty dwelling … masters … has realised the fourth jhāna in an empty dwelling” … bad conduct when three conditions are fulfilled … when seven conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied … in misrepresenting his sentiment (of what is true).

MS.699 The remainder should be expanded in the same way.

Bu-Pj.4.6.2 MS.700 For one who deliberately lies, saying, “he who made use of your dwelling … who made use of your robes … who made use of your almsfood … who made use of your lodgings … who made use of your medicinal requisites for the BD.1.171 sick … who has made use of your dwelling … who has made use of your robes … who has made use of your almsfood … who has made use of your lodgings … who has made use of your medicinal requisites for the sick … because of whom you gave a dwelling … because of whom you gave robes … because of whom you gave almsfood … because of whom you gave lodgings … because of whom you gave medicinal requisites for the sick … he attained the fourth jhāna in an empty dwelling … he has realised the fourth jhāna in an empty dwelling,” when the listener understands there is a serious offence; when the listener does not understand Vin.3.100 there is an offence of bad conduct when three conditions are fulfilled … when seven conditions are fulfilled: before he has lied, he knows he is going to lie; while lying, he knows he is lying; after he has lied, he knows he has lied; in misrepresenting his view (of what is true); in misrepresenting his belief (of what is true); in misrepresenting his acceptance (of what is true); in misrepresenting his sentiment (of what is true).

MS.703 The abbreviated fifteen are finished.

Footnotes and references:

1.

This definition = that given above, BD.1.159. From here to end of Bu-Pj.4.4.1 below = Vin.4.25–26.

2.

Vin-a.493 says that void means void of passion, hatred and confusion. “Signless” and “in which there is no hankering” are also explained with reference to these three. At Ps.ii.35 the long homily begins: “Monks, there are these three kinds of freedom: that of the void, that of the signless, that in which there is no hankering.” Cf. SN.iv.295 (where appaṇihīta is translated “aimless”) Cf. Vism.658, Atthasālinī 223, where in the translation appaṇihīta is rendered “unhankered” and “undesired” respectively. At Mil.333, Mil.337 the translation is given as “the freedom (or concentration) in which no low aspirations remain.” In translation of Ds.351, Ds.507ff. appaṇihīta is rendered “unaimed at.”

3.

This is the usual order in which these thirty-seven things helpful to enlightenment, as they are called in the Commentaries, appear. But another order is sometimes given. See Mrs. Rhys Davids, Sakya 395 and KS.V., vi.ff.

4.

Cf. SN.iv.251, where the definition of nibbāna is ragakkhaya, dosakkhaya, mohakkhaya (instead of pahāna, as above) = SN.iv.252 in definition of arahatta. Vin-a.494 says, “passion and hatred are destroyed by the third Way, confusion by the fourth Way.”

5.

Here are three tenses of the verb bhaṇati: bhaṇissaṃ, bhaṇāmi, bhaṇitaṃ. Cf. Vin.4.2ff. to end of Bu-Pj.4.4.2 below. Cf. MN.i.414 where Gotama speaks to Rahula on “conscious lying.” This Rahulovada is famous as being alluded to in an Asoka Edict; see Hultzsch, Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum, vol.i, 1925, p.172, p.173.

6.

These four psychological modalities are added to the three tenses of the verb bhaṇati. They are diṭṭhi, khanti, ruci, bhāva, which I have translated as opinion, approval, pleasure, intention, respectively. They are, as it were, added on to the three modes of the verb, thus making seven constituents. Buddhaghosa at Vin-a.400 points out a contradiction in the Parivara (Vin.5.136), which attributes eight aṅga (literally limbs, thus constituents) to a lie, for it adds (vinidhaya-) saññaṃ, knowledge, to the above seven. These expressions also occur at Vin.2.295; Vin.4.2ff. Cf. also Vb.245 where these with ādāya, a casually taken-up belief (cf. Vin.1.70), instead of bhāva are given in definition of idha, here, now. And cf. Mnd.64f. where laddhi, a religious belief, view, especially an heretical view, is substituted for bhāva. Three of these terms occur below at BD.1.305.

7.

See above, BD.1.161.

9.

vattukama, cf. Vism.522 = Vb-a.130. Oldenberg says, Vin.3.272, “the MSS. constantly read vatthukāmo, vatthuvisārakassa” (below). “I have no doubt that I was right in correcting vattuk°, vattuv°.” This is borne out by Vin-a.500f.