Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Formal Meeting (Saṅghādisesa) 3

BD.1.214 Bu-Ss.3.1.1 … at Sāvatthī in the Jeta Grove in Anāthapiṇḍika’s park. At that time the venerable Udāyin lived in the jungle. The venerable one’s dwelling was lovely, good to look upon, beautiful. At that time many women came to the park[1] in order to see the dwelling. Then those women approached the venerable Udāyin, and having approached him, they said to the venerable Udāyin:

“Honoured sir, we want to see the master’s dwelling.”

Then the venerable Udāyin, showing these women his dwelling and pointing out[2] the privies to them, spoke in praise, spoke in blame and begged and implored and asked and questioned and described and exhorted and abused. Those Vin.3.128 women who had little fear of blame,[3] who were sly and who had no shame mocked at the venerable Udāyin, called out to him, laughed at him, made fun of him.[4] But those women who had shame, upon departing complained to the monks, saying:

“Honoured sirs, this is not suitable, it is not fitting, we should not wish this spoken about even by our husbands, to say nothing of master Udāyin.”[5]


Bu-Ss.3.1.2 Then those who were modest monks became annoyed, vexed and angry and said:

BD.1.215 “How can the venerable Udāyin offend women with lewd words?” Then these monks told this matter to the lord. Then the lord on this occasion and in this connection had the company of monks convened and questioned the venerable Udāyin, saying:

“Is it true as is said, Udāyin, that you offended women with lewd words?”

“It is true, lord,” he said.

The enlightened one, the lord, rebuked him, saying:

“It is not suitable, foolish man, it is not proper, it is not becoming, it is not worthy of a recluse, it is out of place, it is not to be done. How can you, foolish man, offend women with lewd words? Foolish man, is not dhamma uttered in various ways by me for the sake of passionlessness, not for the sake of passion … proclaimed for the allaying of the flames of pleasures of the senses? It is not, foolish man, for the benefit of unbelievers … and thus, monks, this course of training should be set forth:

Whatever monk, affected by desire[6], with perverted heart,[7] should offend a woman with lewd words concerned with unchastity, as, for example, a youth to a young woman, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.”


Bu-Ss.3.2.1 Whatever means: he who …

Monk means: … this is how monk is to be understood in this meaning.

Affected by desire means: infatuated, full of desire, physically in love with.[8]

Perverted means: the perverted heart is impassioned, the perverted heart is corrupt, the perverted heart is erring. And in this meaning it is understood that the perverted heart is impassioned.[9]

Woman means: a human woman, not a female yakkha, not a female departed one, not a female animal[10]; she is BD.1.216 intelligent, competent to know good and bad speech, what is lewd and what is not lewd.[11]

Lewd speech means: speech connected with privies and with unchastity.

Should offend[12] means: it is called a transgression.[13]

As, for example, a youth to a young woman means: a lad to a young girl, a boy of tender age to a girl of tender age, a male enjoying sense-pleasures to a female enjoying sense-pleasures. Vin.3.129

Concerned with unchastity means: connected with unchaste things.[14]

A formal meeting of the Order means: … because of this it is called a formal meeting of the Order.


Bu-Ss.3.3.1 Pointing out the two privies he speaks in praise, and he speaks in blame, and he begs, and he implores, and lie asks, and he questions, and lie describes, and he exhorts, and he abuses.

He speaks in praise means: he extols, he praises, he commends …

He speaks in blame means: he curses, he reviles, he finds fault with …

He begs means: he says, “give to me, you are worthy to give to me.”

He implores means: he says, “When will your mother be reconciled?[15] When will your father be reconciled? When will your devatās be reconciled? When will there be a good opportunity, a good time, a good moment? When shall I have sexual intercourse with you?”

He asks means: he says, “How do you give to your husband? How do you give to a paramour?”

BD.1.217 He questions means: he says, “They say that as you give to your husband so you give to your paramour.”

He describes means: having asked, he says: “Give thus, giving thus you will become dear and beloved to your husband.”

He exhorts means: not having asked, he says: “Give thus, giving thus you will become dear and beloved to your husband.”

He abuses means: he says, “You are without sexual characteristics, you are defective in sex, you are bloodless, your blood is stagnant, you are always dressed, you are dripping, you are a deformed woman,[16] you are a female eunuch, you are a man-like woman, your sexuality is indistinct, you are a hermaphrodite.[17]


Bu-Ss.3.3.2 If it is a woman, if he is infatuated thinking her to be a woman, and if the monk, pointing out the two privies to a woman, speaks in praise, speaks in blame … abuses, it is an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.

If there are two women, if he is infatuated thinking them to be women, and if the monk pointing out the two privies to the two women … it is an offence entailing two formal meetings of the Order.

If it is a woman and an eunuch, if he is infatuated thinking them both to be women, and if the monk pointing out the two privies to both … there is an offence of wrong-doing with an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.


Bu-Ss.3.3.3 If there is a woman, if he is infatuated thinking her to be a woman, and if the monk leaving out (talk on) the two privies to the woman, pointing out (any part) from below the collar bone to above the knee,[18] speaks in praise, and speaks in blame Vin.3.130 … and abuses, there is a grave offence.

BD.1.218 If there are two women … there are two grave offences.

If there are a woman and an eunuch … there is an offence of wrong-doing together with a grave offence.


Bu-Ss.3.3.4 If there is a woman, if he is infatuated thinking her to be a woman, and if the monk, pointing out (any part) from below the collar bone to above the knee to the woman, speaks in praise, speaks in blame … abuses, there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If there are two women … there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there are a woman and an eunuch … there are two offences of wrong-doing.


Bu-Ss.3.3.5 If there is a woman, if he is infatuated thinking her to be a woman, if the monk, pointing out an article of clothing[19] to the woman, speaks in praise … there is an offence of wrong-doing.

If there are two women … there are two offences of wrong-doing.

If there are a woman and an eunuch … there are two offences of wrong-doing.


Bu-Ss.3.3.6 There is no offence if he is aiming at (explaining) the meaning,[20] if he is aiming at (explaining) dhamma,[21] if he is aiming at (explaining) the teaching, if he is mad, if he is a beginner.[22]

Bu-Ss.3.4.1 Red, thick and short, matted, shaggy and long, sown,
I hope the way is at an end, faith, about a gift, about work.

BD.1.219 At one time a certain woman was wearing a newly dyed blanket. A certain monk, being infatuated, said to this woman: “Sister, is that red thing yours[23]?” She did not understand and said:

“Yes, master, it is a newly dyed blanket.”

He was remorseful and said; “What now if I have fallen into an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order?” He told this matter to the lord, who said:

“Monk, it is not an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order, it is an offence of wrong-doing.”


Bu-Ss.3.4.2 At one time a certain woman was wearing a rough blanket … said:

“Sister, is that thick, short hair[24] yours?” She did not understand and said:

“Yes, master, it is a rough blanket ”… “ … offence of wrong-doing.”


Bu-Ss.3.4.3 At one time a certain woman was wearing a newly woven[25] blanket … and said:

“Sister, is that your matted hair[26]?” She did not understand and said:

“Yes, master, it is a newly woven blanket.” He was remorseful … “… offence of wrong-doing.”


Bu-Ss.3.4.4 At one time a certain woman was wearing a rough blanket … and said:

“Sister, is that stiff[27] hair yours?” …

“Yes, master, it is a rough blanket”… “… offence of wrong-doing.


Bu-Ss.3.4.5 At one time a certain woman was wearing a mantle … and said:

BD.1.220 “Sister, is that long hair yours?”… “… offence of wrong-doing.” Vin.3.131


Bu-Ss.3.4.6 At one time a certain woman came along having had a field sown.[28] A certain monk being infatuated said to this woman:

“Well, sister, has there been some sowing[29]?” She, not understanding, said:

“Yes, master, only I have not closed[30] the furrow.”

He was remorseful … “Monk, there is no offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order, there is an offence of wrong-doing.”


Bu-Ss.3.4.7 At one time a certain monk seeing a female wanderer[31] on the road, and being infatuated, said to this female wanderer:

“I hope, sister, that there is a way at the end?”[32]

She, not understanding, said:

“Yes, monk,[33] you will follow it.” He was remorseful … “… grave offence.”


Bu-Ss.3.4.8 At one time a certain monk, being infatuated, said to a certain woman:

“You are faithful, sister, but you do not give to us what you give to your husband.”

“What is that, sir?” she said.

BD.1.221 “Sexual intercourse,” he said. He was remorseful … “… an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.”


Bu-Ss.3.4.9 At one time a certain monk, infatuated, said to a certain woman:

“You are faithful, sister, for you do not give us the highest gift.”

“What is the highest gift, sir?” she said.

“Sexual intercourse,” he said. He was remorseful … “… an offence entailing a formal meeting of the Order.”


Bu-Ss.3.4.10 At one time a certain woman was doing some work. A certain monk, infatuated, said to this woman:

“Stand, sister, I will work” … “sit, sister, I will work … lie down, sister, I will work.” She, not understanding … “… an offence of wrong-doing.”

Told is the Third Offence entailing a Formal Meeting of the Order

Footnotes and references:

1.

Oldenberg, Vin.3.274, suggests araññaṃ agamaṃsu.

2.

ādissa = apadisitvā, Vin-a.546.

3.

chinnikā = chinnaottappā, Vin-a.546.

4.

uppaṇḍentī ti paṇḍako ayaṃ nāyaṃ puriso ti.

5.

Kiṃ pan’ ayyena Udāyinā

6.

See above, BD.1.201, n.1.

7.

See above, BD.1.201, n.2.

8.

Cf. above, BD.1.202.

9.

Cf. above, BD.1.202.

10.

Cf. above, BD.1.202.

11.

= below, BD.1.337

12.

obhāseyyā ti avabhāseyya … asaddhammavacanaṃ vadeyya.

13.

Cf. above, BD.1.202, in explanation of kāyasaṃsagga.

14.

It is difficult to render into English the slight difference of meaning in the Pali: methunupasaṃhitāhī ti methunadhammapaṭisaṃyuttāhi. Cf. below, BD.1.226.

15.

Vin-a.548, “on the reconciliation of your mother I will indulge in sexual intercourse.”

16.

sikharaṇī—i.e., probably with certain defects of the pudendum.

17.

For these abnormalities, cf. same list at Vin.2.271.

18.

Cf. Vin.4.213.

19.

Kāyapaṭibaddha, Vin-a.549 says, “a garment or a flower or an ornament,” so here not necessarily article of dress. Cf. above, BD.1.207.

20.

atthapurekkhāra dhammapurekkhāra. Attha and dhamma taken together are sometimes rendered “the letter and the spirit” as at AN.i.69; cf. “not-dhamma and not-aim” at GS.5.155. Vin-a.549 says of attha°, “telling the meaning of the words or reciting the commentary,” and of dhamma°, “teaching or reciting the text (pāḷi).

21.

See previous note.

22.

Vin-a.549 again says, Udāyin was the beginner.

23.

lohita is both “blood” and “red.”

24.

Vin-a.550, kakkasaloman ti rassalomaṃ bahulomaṃ.

25.

āvuta seems to be derived from āvayati = ā + , to weave, a root which has been merged in ā + vṛ (āvarati), to string on, to fix on. Āvuta as “woven” is not given in the Pali-English Dictionary

26.

Vin-a.550, ākiṇṇaloman ti jaṭitalomaṃ.

27.

Vin-a.550, kharaloman ti thaddhalomaṃ.

28.

Note here the play of the three conjugations: (1) double causative, vapāpetvā, having had the sowing done, or having superintended it, (2) simple causative, vāpitaṃ, (3) radical verb paṭi + vuttaṃ = Sanskrit praty-upta, as noted by Oldenberg, Vin.3.274, and by Geiger, Pali Grammar p.72, Pali Grammar p.147, and not prati-vac, as given in Pali-English Dictionary Vapāpeti, vutta and vāpita are given under vapati, to sow. Buddhaghosa at Vin-a.550, who naturally attaches the word to vap, to sow, has two explanations; one for udakavappa, another for thūlavappa.

29.

See previous note.

30.

See previous note.

31.

paribbājikā. At Vin.4.92 it is a pācittiya for a monk to give food to one, at Vin.4.285 for a nun to give a robe to one.

32.

Under saṃsīdati the Pali-English Dictionary, referring to this passage, takes it to mean that the way (magga) is at an end. Buddhaghosa at Vin-a.550 has another explanation; indeed, without him we could not understand these puns.

33.

Note that the female wanderer addresses the monk as bhikkhu, while laywomen say ayya, master, or bhante, honoured sir.

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