The Malaya dynasty ruled over Malayavani or Malayades with its capital at Mashapuri popularly known as Maddunpura for more than two and a half centuries from the beginning of the 11th to the close of the 13th Century A.D. About a dozen, rulers of the dynasty are known and there were long gaps between the reigns. The Malayas, claiming solar descent, were never an independent or great power. They owed allegiance to the Chalukyas of Vengi, the Chalukyacholas and the Chalukyas of Pithapur. The Malaya kingdom had a long tenure of life like that of the Haihayas of Konamandala and was situated in the fertile tract in Vengi watered by the Gantami (i.e. the Godavari). The Malayas had political relations with the Kona Haihayas, the rulers of Vengi and other local rulers besides their suzercm lords. Malayamu, or Malayamuna is prefixed to the names of the rulers signifying, the country over which they held sway.
In the first half of the IIth Century A.D. Kalinga was ruled over by Vajrahasta IV (A.D. 983-1017) and his sons Kamamava V (A.D. 1017) Gundama II (A.D. 1017-1019) and Madhukanarnava VI (A.D. 1019-1038) the Western Chalukya kingdom by Satyasraya (997-1008), Vikramaditya V (1008-1014), Ayyana II (A.D. 1014-1015) and Jayasimha III (A.D. 1015-1042), the Eastern Chalukya kingdom by Saktivarmart
(A.D. 999-1011), Vimaladitya (A.D. 1011-1022) and Raja-rajandrendra I (1022-1063 A.D.) and the Chola empire by Rajaraja the Great (955-1014 A.D.) and Rajendra I (A.D. 1022-1044). The condition of Vengi in this period, in the words of Professor Sastri was as follows. “After more than three «centuries of rule in Vengi, the Eastern Chalukyas had become an old and decrepit race and their kingdom was falling a prey to disputed successions and anarchy. The coming of the Chola brought fresh blood into the family and became a source of strength to this declining dynasty which sustained for nearly a century by the Cholas in a position of respected though subordinate alliance soon after, more than repaid the debt by contributing largely to the continuance of the Chola empire under Kulottunga I and his successors the Chola-chalukyas as they are some times called.
Location of Malayamme
Generally Malayas refers to the southern portion of the Western Ghats south of the gauveri called the Travancore Hill and Malayakhandam applies to Tranancore. But Malaya desa of the inscriptions in Telugu country from early times, refers to a different locality altogether. One of the Vishnu-kundm titles is Trikutamalayadaipati. The inscriptions of the Malaya dynasty say that the Malayas ruled over a tract wastered by the Gautami (i.e., the Godavari) and called Malayavani and were the lords of Madduripura. The localities in which the Malaya records are found, confirm the location of Malaya on the west of the Godavari. Bengarunantivishaya of the Malaya c.p. grant must have formed part of the Malayadesa. Rajah mundry probably formed the eastern bound of the Malaya kingdom. Approximately Malaya corresponds to the modern Kovur, Nidadavole and part of Ellore Taluqs the west Godavari district.
Sources, Origin and Rise of the Dynasty
A few stone records and two copper plate grants form the entire material for the history of the dynasty. The records of the Chalukyas of Pithapur and the Konas supply some details about the Malayas.
For the early history of the Malayas, the c.p. grant of A.D. 1018 is the only source of information. The Malaya family is said to have obtained regality from Ramabhattaraka of Suryavamsa (Rama, son of Dasaratha). They were the lords of Malaya, Madupura, the supporters of the Brahmins of Vengipura, and had on their banner a Garuda bird and a mirror. The names of the early members are not known In A.D. 1018 the Malaya kings, Kamaiju, Eramarajn, Immadi Bedangaraju, Sodaparaju, Kaliyuga kannaraju and Maravala garuda made a grant. The inter-relationship between these six Malaya kings is not apparent from the c.p. grant and the statement that they had from different families is wrong.
The early Malaya kings were subordinate to the Chalukyas of Vengi. The legened Sribhuvipamalla, evidently a mistake for Snbhuvanamallaon the seal of the Malaya c.p. grant, confirms this, for the prasasti of the Chalukyas of Vengi has the epithet Tribhuvanamalla and their records end with Tribhu-vanamkusa. The Chalukyan rulers at the time were Saktivar-man and Vimaladitya to whom the Malayas owed allegiance.