Sanskrit quote nr. 27 (Maha-subhashita-samgraha)

Sanskrit text:

अकर्मशीलं च महाशनं च लोकद्विष्टं बहुमायं नृशंसम् ।
अदेशकालज्ञमनिष्टवेषम् एतान् गृहे न प्रतिवासयीत ॥

akarmaśīlaṃ ca mahāśanaṃ ca lokadviṣṭaṃ bahumāyaṃ nṛśaṃsam |
adeśakālajñamaniṣṭaveṣam etān gṛhe na prativāsayīta ||

⎼⎼⏑¦⎼⎼⏑¦⏑⎼⏑¦⎼⎼¦¦⎼⎼⏑¦⎼⎼⏑¦⏑⎼⏑¦⎼⎼¦¦
⎼⎼⏑¦⎼⎼⏑¦⏑⎼⏑¦⎼⎼¦¦⎼⎼⏑¦⎼⎼⏑¦⏑⎼⏑¦⎼⎼¦¦

Meter name: Upajāti (Indravajrā and Upendravajrā); Type: Akṣaracchanda (sama); 11 syllables per quarter (pāda).

Primary English translation:

“One who is lazy, who eats much, who is hated by the people, who is crafty and cruel, who knows neither time nor place, who dresses in an undesirable way—these are not to be lodged in one’s home.”

(translation by Raghu Vira; notes: In Sārasamuccaya)

Secondary translations:

“One who does improper acts, one who eats excessively, one who is hated by men, one who is very deceitful, one who is cruel, one who does not know the suitability of time and place, one who dresses indecently - these six should not be allowed a shelter in one’s house.”

(translation by M. N. Dutt)

“Wer träge, gefrässig, den Leuten verhasst, ein Betrüger und boshaft ist, weder Ord noch Zeit kennt (d. i. auf dieselben keine Rücksicht nimmt) und widerliche Kleider trägt, den soll man nicht im Hause beherbergen.”

(translation by Otto Böhtlingk)

Index

  1. Introduction
  2. Glossary of terms
  3. Analysis of Sanskrit grammar
  4. Sources
  5. Authorship
  6. About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

Presented above is a Sanskrit aphorism, also known as a subhāṣita, which is at the very least, a literary piece of art. This page provides critical research material such as an anlaysis on the poetic meter used, an English translation, a glossary explaining technical terms, and a list of resources including print editions and digital links.

Glossary of Sanskrit terms

Note: Consider this as an approximate extraction of glossary words based on an experimental segmentation of the Sanskrit verse. Some could be superfluous while some might not be mentioned.

Akarman (अकर्मन्): defined in 1 categories.
Shil (sil, śīl, शील्): defined in 1 categories.
Shila (sila, śīla, शील): defined in 9 categories.
Ca (च): defined in 3 categories.
Mahashana (mahasana, mahāśana, महाशन): defined in 2 categories.
Loka (लोक): defined in 12 categories.
Dvishta (dvista, dviṣṭa, द्विष्ट): defined in 1 categories.
Bahumaya (bahumāya, बहुमाय): defined in 1 categories.
Nrishamsa (nrsamsa, nṛśaṃsa, नृशंस): defined in 4 categories.
Adeshakala (adesakala, adeśakāla, अदेशकाल): defined in 1 categories.
Jna (jña, ज्ञ): defined in 2 categories.
Anishta (anista, aniṣṭa, अनिष्ट): defined in 5 categories.
Vesha (vesa, veṣa, वेष): defined in 6 categories.
Eta (एत): defined in 3 categories.
Grih (grh, gṛh, गृह्): defined in 1 categories.
Griha (grha, gṛhā, गृहा): defined in 5 categories.
Na (न): defined in 5 categories.

Defined according to the following glossaries/dictionaries: Sanskrit, Buddhism, Hinduism, Pali, Purana, Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy), Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism), Theravada (major branch of Buddhism), Marathi, Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar), Jainism, Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy), Kosha (encyclopedic lexicons), Itihasa (narrative history), Dharmashastra (religious law), Vastushastra (architecture)

Analysis of Sanskrit grammar

Note: this is an experimental feature and only shows the first possible analysis of the Sanskrit verse. If the system was successful in segmenting the sentence, you will see of which words it is made up of, generally consisting of Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles and Indeclinables. Click on the link to show all possible derivations of the word.

  • Line 1: “akarmaśīlaṃ ca mahāśanaṃ ca lokadviṣṭaṃ bahumāyaṃ nṛśaṃsam”
  • akarma -
  • akarman (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    akarma (compound)
    akarman (noun, neuter); (5 der.)
    akarma (compound)
    akarma (adverb)
    akarma (nominative single)
    akarma (vocative single)
    akarma (accusative single)
  • śīlam -
  • śīla (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    śīlam (adverb)
    śīlam (accusative single)
    śīla (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    śīlam (adverb)
    śīlam (nominative single)
    śīlam (accusative single)
    śīlā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    śīlam (adverb)
    śīl (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    śīlam (accusative single)
  • ca -
  • ca (indeclinable conjunction); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable conjunction)
    ca (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    ca (vocative single)
    ca (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    ca (vocative single)
  • mahāśanam -
  • mahāśana (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    mahāśanam (adverb)
    mahāśanam (accusative single)
    mahāśana (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    mahāśanam (adverb)
    mahāśanam (nominative single)
    mahāśanam (accusative single)
    mahāśanā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    mahāśanam (adverb)
  • ca -
  • ca (indeclinable conjunction); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable conjunction)
    ca (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    ca (vocative single)
    ca (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    ca (vocative single)
  • loka -
  • loka (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    loka (vocative single)
  • dviṣṭam -
  • dviṣṭa (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    dviṣṭam (adverb)
    dviṣṭam (accusative single)
    dviṣṭa (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    dviṣṭam (adverb)
    dviṣṭam (nominative single)
    dviṣṭam (accusative single)
    dviṣṭā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    dviṣṭam (adverb)
    dviṣ (verb class 2); (1 der.)
    dviṣṭam (imperative active second dual)
  • bahumāyam -
  • bahumāya (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    bahumāyam (adverb)
    bahumāyam (accusative single)
    bahumāya (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    bahumāyam (adverb)
    bahumāyam (nominative single)
    bahumāyam (accusative single)
    bahumāyā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    bahumāyam (adverb)
  • nṛśaṃsam -
  • nṛśaṃsa (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    nṛśaṃsam (adverb)
    nṛśaṃsam (accusative single)
    nṛśaṃsa (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    nṛśaṃsam (adverb)
    nṛśaṃsam (nominative single)
    nṛśaṃsam (accusative single)
    nṛśaṃsā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    nṛśaṃsam (adverb)
  • Line 2: “adeśakālajñamaniṣṭaveṣam etān gṛhe na prativāsayīta”
  • adeśakāla -
  • adeśakāla (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    adeśakāla (vocative single)
  • jñam -
  • jña (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    jñam (adverb)
    jñam (accusative single)
    jña (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    jñam (adverb)
    jñam (nominative single)
    jñam (accusative single)
    jñā (noun, feminine); (2 der.)
    jñam (adverb)
    jñam (adverb)
  • aniṣṭa -
  • aniṣṭa (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    aniṣṭa (vocative single)
    aniṣṭa (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    aniṣṭa (vocative single)
  • veṣam -
  • veṣa (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    veṣam (adverb)
    veṣam (accusative single)
    veṣa (noun, neuter); (3 der.)
    veṣam (adverb)
    veṣam (nominative single)
    veṣam (accusative single)
    veṣā (noun, feminine); (1 der.)
    veṣam (adverb)
  • etān -
  • eta (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    etān (accusative plural)
    eṣa (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    etān (accusative plural)
  • gṛhe -
  • gṛh (noun, masculine); (1 der.)
    gṛhe (dative single)
    gṛh (noun, neuter); (1 der.)
    gṛhe (dative single)
    gṛhā (noun, feminine); (4 der.)
    gṛhe (nominative dual)
    gṛhe (vocative single)
    gṛhe (vocative dual)
    gṛhe (accusative dual)
  • na -
  • na (indeclinable particle); (1 der.)
    (indeclinable particle)
    na (noun, masculine); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    na (vocative single)
    na (noun, neuter); (2 der.)
    (compound)
    na (vocative single)
  • Cannot analyse prativāsayīta

Sources

This quote is contained within the following Sanskrit literary sources:

Mahābhārata (V. S. Sukhtankar: 5.37.31; Nimachand Siromani: 5.1368; M. N. Dutt: 5.37.35): The largest epic poem in the world, consisting of 100,000 verses. It contains the history of ancient India and the exploits of its heroes, such as the fate of the Kauravas and the Pāṇḍavas. It is also famous for its inclusion of the Bhagavadgītā, a conversation between Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukṣetra. The book was written by Vyāsa.
More info

Indische Sprüchen 5: Collection of Sanskrit subhāṣitas (proverbial verses) with German translation. The book was written by Otto Böhtlingk in 1870.
More info

Sārasamuccaya 238: An old Javanese commentary on a series of Dharmaśāstra verses (originally in Sanskrit). The book was compiled by Vararuci.
More info

Authorship

Vyāsa is the author of the Mahābhārata. He is traditionally accepted as author of the vedas, the purāṇas and the mahābhārata. He was also known as Vedavyāsa or Kṛṣṇa-dvaipāyana.

Otto Böhtlingk (1815) is the author of the Indische Sprüchen.

Vararuci is the compiler of the Sārasamuccaya, into which he included this quote. He is an unknown author of literature and poetic works, who was according to legend, one of the “nine jewels” of the court of Vikramāditya of Ujjayinī. One of his works is called the the Satagāthā which was included in the Tanjur.

About the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha

This quote is included within the Mahāsubhāṣitasaṃgraha (महासुभाषितसंग्रह, maha-subhashita-samgraha / subhasita-sangraha), which is a compendium of Sanskrit aphorisms (subhāṣita), collected from various sources. Subhāṣita is a genre of Sanskrit literature, exposing the vast and rich cultural heritage of ancient India.

It has serial number 27 and can be found on page 5. (read on archive.org)

Sanskrit is the oldest living language and bears testimony to the intellectual past of ancient India. Three major religions (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism) share this language, which is used for many of their holy books. Besides religious manuscripts, much of India’s ancient culture has been preserved in Sanskrit, covering topics such as Architecture, Music, Botany, Surgery, Ethics, Philosophy, Dance and much more.

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