Yogadrstisamuccaya of Haribhadra Suri (Study)

by Riddhi J. Shah | 2014 | 98,110 words

This page relates ‘Four types of Yogins’ of the study on the Yogadrstisamuccaya: a 6th-century work on Jain Yoga authored by Haribhadra Suri consisting of 228 Sanskrit verses. The book draws from numerous sources on traditional Yoga. Three important topics are stipulated throughout this study: 1) nature of liberation, 2) a liberated soul, and 3) omniscience.—This section belongs to the series “Introduction to the Yogadrishtisamuccaya”.

Chapter 3.3 - The Four types of Yogins

There are four types of yogins.Haribhadrasūri enumerates them in his treatise Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya as follows[1] :

  1. Gotrayogin,
  2. Kulayogin,
  3. Pravṛttacakrayogin,
  4. Niṣpannayogin.

Haribhadrasūrihas made these categories in accordance with the eligibility of the yogins who should or should not study the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya.[2] Among these four categories the second and third categories of yogins are eligible to study the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya.[3]

1) Gotrayogin:

The gotrayogin [gotra-yogin] is a yogin for name sake only. He takes birth in one of the noble lands (i.e. fifteen karmabhūmis) in a family where the recent generation no longer inherits the spiritual legacy of the forefathers. For example, if he is born in a Jain family, he and his family members have nothing to do with Jainism. A gotrayogin is not mature enough to be benefited by listening or studying the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya. Therefore the study of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccayadoes not generate spiritual welfare to a gotrayogin.[4]

2) Kulayogin:

Kulayogin [kula-yogin] is the one who has taken birth in the race of yogins and follows the yogins’ code of conduct. It is called a dravyakulayogin. Moreover, a bhāvakulayogin is the one who has not taken birth in the race of yogins but willingly follows the code of conduct of yogins from within.[5] A kulayogin’s inner inclination for spirituality in the present birth is an indicative of his previous births spiritual practices. Such a kulayogin is capable of achieving his own spiritual growth by studying or listening to the treatise Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya. Therefore, a kulayogin is eligible to the study the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya.

Moreover, Haribhadrasūri mentions special qualities of a kulayogin as follows[6] :

  1. Since a kulayogin does not have strong adherence for anything, he never displays enmity towards anyone.[7]
  2. He has high regards for a preceptor, the God as well as a Brahmin.
  3. He is kind-hearted.[8]
  4. He is humble.[9]
  5. Due to the untied knot of attachment and aversion he possesses the right understanding.[10]
  6. Due to self-control he keeps his senses under control.[11]

3) Pravṛttacakrayogin:

The third pravṛttacakrayogin [pravṛttacakra-yogin] is the one who exerts himself actively in the performance of yogic practices. Haribhadrasūri says that a pravṛttacakrayogin possesses the first two types of yama namely icchāyama and pravṛttiyama and desires to obtain the last two viz. sthiratāyama and siddhiyama.[12]

Moreover, a pravṛttacakrayogin is characterized by meritorious qualities like the desire to listen the scriptural texts and other seven qualities.[13] He is in possession of the unfailing circumstance (yogāvañcaka) and acquired the remaining two of them (i.e. krīyāvañcaka and phalāvañcaka) as well through the first one. The authority on these matters entitles the eligibility to a pravṛttacakrayogin[14] to perform yogic practices. Therefore, a pravṛttacakrayogin is eligible for studying as well as listening to the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya.

4) Niṣpannayogin:

The fourth type of yogin namely niṣpannayogin [niṣpanna-yogin] is the one who has already achieved the state of ultimate bliss. He is called the accomplished one.

Whatever a niṣpannayogin is supposed to obtain, by the study of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya, has been already obtained by him. Therefore, he no more needs to study or hearto the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya.[15] Hence a niṣpannayogin is also not eligible for the study of Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya.

Thus, the first and last type of yogins among four types do not benefit by the study of the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya. The second and third types of yoginsare eligible to study it as it can help them to grow spiritually.[16]

Here, Haribhadrasūri has explained that two out of four types of yoginsare eligible to learn and hear the treatise Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya. Besides it Haribhadrasūri makes a respectful request to the learned ones who know the matter. He states that the present text should not be offered to an incompetent one by persons who know the matter.[17] He further clarifies his intention of making such a request. He says that the request, of not offering the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya to an incompetent one, is not made out of ill-will for an incompetent one. It is made to avoid unfortunate consequences. It is so because even the slightest disrespect shown for the present text results in great unfortunate consequences.[18]

Due to incapability of understanding the content of Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya, an incompetent one may disrespect the text. Disrespecting the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccayais to disregard the entire subject of Yoga. Therefore, Haribhadrasūri makes a request of not offering the present text to an incompetent one. Apart from this request,Haribhadrasūri also makes an assertion. He states that by following injunctions and prohibitions, with a mind free from jealousy and with a view to eliminating the hindrances that might obstruct the path of welfare the learned ones must diligently offer the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya to a competent one.[19] The usage of the word viraha, in the phrase mātsaryaviraheṇa is a characteristic mark of Haribhadrasūri. It indicates that Haribhadrasūri has composed the present text.

Footnotes and references:


ku lādiyogibhedena-gotra-ku la-pravṛttacakra-niṣpannalakṣaṇena caturdhā-catuṣprakārā yogino yataḥ sāmānyena,.............. || 208 ||
   –Auto-commentary on Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya (2010).


Haribhadrasūri says in the auto-commentary on verse two hundred and nine that teevā'sya-yogaśāstrasyaadhikāriṇo'rhāḥ. He has not clarified whether by the word yogaśāstra he means the text Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya or the scriptures on Yoga. Since Haribhadrasūri has used singular form that is yogaśāstrasya, we have interpreted it as the text Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya only.


ku lapravṛttacakrā ye ku layoginaḥ pravṛttacakrāśca ya ityarthaḥ, te evā'sya - yogaśāstrasya adhikāriṇo'rhāḥ |
yogino na tu sarve'pi sāmānyena | ... ||209||

   – Ibid.


gotrayogināmasiddhibhāvāt .... || 209 ||


ye yogināṃ ku le jātā-staddharmānugatāśca ye|
ku layogina ucyante
, gotravanto'pi nā'pare || 210 ||
...., taddharmānugatāśca yogidharmānugatāśca ye prakṛtyā'nye'pi, ku layogina ucyante iti gamyate dravyato bhāvataśca... || 210 ||
   –Auto-commentary on Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya (2010).


sarvatrā'dveṣiṇaścaite, gurūdevadvijapriyāḥ|
dayālavo vinītāśca
, bodhavanto yatendriyāḥ || 211 ||
   –Auto-commentary on Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya (2010).


sarvatrā'dveṣiṇaśvaite-tathā''grahābhāvena,... || 211 ||
–Auto-commentary on Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya (2010).


, tathā dayālavaḥ-prakṛtyā kliṣṭapāpābhāvena,... || 211 ||


, vinītāśca ku śalānubandhibhavyatayā,... |211 ||


, tathā bodhavanto granthibhedena,... || 211 ||


, yatendriyāścāritrabhāvena... || 211 ||


pravṛttacakrāstu punaḥryamadvayasamāśrayāḥ|
,.... || 212 ||
icchāyama-pravṛttiyamāśrayā ityarthaḥ, śeṣadvayarthinaḥ
sthirayama-siddhiyamadvayārthina ityuktaṃ bhavati,... || 212 ||
   –Auto-commentary on Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya (2010).


, ata evā''ha-śuśrūṣādiguṇānvitāḥ
śuśrūṣā-śravaṇa-grahaṇa-dhāraṇa-vijñāno-hāpoha-tattvābhiniveśaguṇayuktāḥ || 212 ||
   –Auto-commentary on Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya (2010).


ādyāvañcakayogāptyā, tadanyadgayalābhinaḥ|
ete'dhikāriṇo yoga-prayogasyeti tadvidaḥ || 213 ||

   –Auto-commentary on Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya (2010).


niṣpannayogināṃ tu siddhibhāvāditi || 209 ||
   –Auto-commentary on Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya (2010).


ku lapravṛttacakrā ye ku layoginaḥ pravṛttacakrāśca ya ityarthaḥ, te evā'sya-yogaśāstrasya adhikāriṇo'rhāḥ|.... || 209 ||


naitadvidastvayogyebhyo, dadatyenaṃ tathāpi tu|
haribhadra idaṃ prāha
, naitebhyo deya ādarāt || 226 ||
   –Auto-commentary on Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya (2010).


avajñeya kṛ tā'lpā'pi, yadanarthāya jāyate|
, na punarbhāvadoṣataḥ || 227 ||


itthaṃ caitadaṅgīkatarv yam| yata evamāha
yogyebhyastu prayatnena, deyo'yaṃ vidhinā'nvitaiḥ|
, śreyovighnapraśāntaye || 228 ||

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