Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes the nature of knowledge-obscuring and perception-obscuring karmas which is verse 6.10 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 10 of the chapter Influx of Karmas and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 6.10 - The nature of Knowledge-obscuring and Perception-obscuring Karmas

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 6.10:

तत्प्रदोषनिह्नवमात्सर्यान्तरायासादनोपघाता ज्ञानदर्शनावरणयोः ॥ ६.१० ॥

tatpradoṣanihnavamātsaryāntarāyāsādanopaghātā jñānadarśanāvaraṇayoḥ || 6.10 ||

Spite against knowledge–pradoṣa, concealment of knowledge–nihnava, non-imparting of knowledge out of envy–mātsarya, causing impediment to acquisition of knowledge–antarāya, disregard of knowledge–āsādana, and disparagement of true knowledge–upaghāta, lead to the influx (āsrava) of knowledge-obscuring (jñānāvaraṇa) and faith-obscuring (darśanāvaraṇa) karmas. (10)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [तत्प्रदोष निह्नव मात्सर्यान्तरायासादनोपघाताः] ज्ञान और दर्शन के सम्बन्ध में करने में आये हुये प्रदोष, निह्नव, मात्सर्य, अन्तराय, आसादन और उपघात ये [ज्ञानदर्शनावरणयोः] ज्ञानावरण तथा दर्शनावरण कर्मास्रव के कारण हैं।

Anvayartha: [tatpradosha nihnava matsaryantarayasadanopaghatah] jnana aura darshana ke sambandha mem karane mem aye huye pradosha, nihnava, matsarya, antaraya, asadana aura upaghata ye [jnanadarshanavaranayoh] jnanavarana tatha darshanavarana karmasrava ke karana haim |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

Influx (āsrava) of karmas, in general, has been explained. Now the causes of influx of specific karmas must be described. What causes influx of the first two kinds of karmas–knowledge-obscuring (jñānāvaraṇa) and faith-obscuring (darśanāvaraṇa)?

When someone is giving an exposition of true knowledge, which is the means to the attainment of liberation, another person is spiteful and malignant in his attitude towards it. This is spite (pradoṣa). A person seeking knowledge approaches a learned man. But the learned man for some reason or other conceals his knowledge saying that he is ignorant. This is concealment (nihnava) of knowledge. A man is learned. And knowledge is a worthy gift to be given. But out of envy he does not teach others. This is envy (mātsarya). Impediment (antarāya) is placing obstacles in the way of a person acquiring knowledge. Disregard (āsādana) is renouncing by word or deed knowledge taught by another. Blaming true knowledge or calling it false is disparagement (upaghāta). What is the difference between disregard (āsādana) and disparagement (upaghāta)? Lack of veneration or non-appreciation of true knowledge is disregard (āsādana). But disparage-ment (upaghāta) is condemning true knowledge as false with the idea of destroying it. Thus there is difference between the two. The word ‘tad’–‘that’–in the sūtra refers to knowledge and perception. But it is contended that these are not the subjects under discussion, nor have these been mentioned. How, then, can these be indicated by ‘that’?

The reply is that it can be done from the point of view of the question. ‘What causes influx of knowledge-and perception-obscuring karmas?’ is the question. So, from the point of view of the question, ‘that’ refers to knowledge and perception. It means spite, etc., towards the learned possessed of knowledge and perception, and their means, as these are the basis of knowledge and perception. These (spite, etc.) are the causes of knowledge-and perception-obscuring karmas. It is seen that the same cause can produce several effects. In the same manner, spite, etc., can cause the influx of both knowledge-and perception-obscuring karmas. Or spite, etc., relating to knowledge cause the influx of knowledge-obscuring karmas. And those relating to perception cause the influx of karmas which obscure perception.

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