Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary)

by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626

This page describes the non-living substratum (ajiva-adhikarana) which is verse 6.9 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 9 of the chapter Influx of Karmas and includes an extensive commentary.

Verse 6.9 - The non-living substratum (ajīva-adhikaraṇa)

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 6.9:

निर्वर्तनानिक्षेपसंयोगनिसर्गा द्विचतुर्द्वित्रिभेदाः परम् ॥ ६.९ ॥

nirvartanānikṣepasaṃyoganisargā dvicaturdvitribhedāḥ param || 6.9 ||

The non-living (ajīva) substratum (adhikaraṇa) comprises production (nirvartanā), placing (nikṣepa), combining (saṃyoga) and activation (nisarga) of two, four, two, and three kinds, respectively. (9)

Hindi Anvayarth:

अन्वयार्थ: [परम्] दूसरा अजीवाधिकरण आस्रव [निर्वर्तना द्वि] दो प्रकार की निर्वर्तना, [निक्षेप चतुः] चार प्रकार के निक्षेप [संयोग द्वि] दो प्रकार के संयोग और [निसर्गा त्रिभेदाः] तीन प्रकार के निसर्ग ऐसे कुल 11 भेदरूप है।

Anvayartha: [param] dusara ajivadhikarana asrava [nirvartana dvi] do prakara ki nirvartana, [nikshepa catuh] cara prakara ke nikshepa [samyoga dvi] do prakara ke samyoga aura [nisarga tribhedah] tina prakara ke nisarga aise kula 11 bhedarupa hai |

Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:

The non-living (ajīva) substratum (adhikaraṇa) is described next.

The word ‘param’–the rest–indicates that the sūtra refers to non-living (ajīva) substratum (adhikaraṇa) and not to be understood as subdivisions of the living (jīva) substratum.

‘Nirvartanā’ means execution or production. ‘Nikṣepa’ means placing.

‘Saṃyoga’ means combining. ‘Nisarga’ means activation.

The substratum ‘nirvartanā’ or production is of two kinds, production of the primary attributes (mūlaguṇa nirvartanā) and production of the secondary attributes (uttaraguṇa nirvartanā). The first is of five kinds, namely, production of the body, speech, mind, inhalation and exhalation. Making objects of wood, clay, etc., or pictures, comprise the second kind. The substratum ‘nikṣepa’ or placing is of four kinds. Placing things on the floor without examining for insects, etc., is apratyavekṣita nikṣepādhikaraṇa. Placing things without properly cleaning the floor is duṣpramuṣṭa nikṣepādhikaraṇa. Placing the books, the water-pot, the body, etc., quickly in a hurry is sahasā nikṣepādhikaraṇa. Placing things anywhere without care and not in an orderly fashion is anābhoga nikṣepādhikaraṇa. The substratum ‘saṃyoga’ or combining or mixing is of two kinds. Mixing food, drink, etc., inappropriately is bhaktapāna saṃyogādhikaraṇa. Handling and assembling together things and implements without proper discrimination is upakaraṇa saṃyogādhikaraṇa. The substratum ‘nisarga’ or activation is of three kinds. Activation of the body is kāyanisargādhikaraṇa. Activation of the speech is vacananisargādhi-karaṇa. Activation of the mind is manonisargādhikaraṇa.

The non-living (ajīva) substratum (adhikaraṇa) of influx (āsrava) is thus described.

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