Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 5.47.3

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उ॒क्षा स॑मु॒द्रो अ॑रु॒षः सु॑प॒र्णः पूर्व॑स्य॒ योनिं॑ पि॒तुरा वि॑वेश । मध्ये॑ दि॒वो निहि॑त॒: पृश्नि॒रश्मा॒ वि च॑क्रमे॒ रज॑सस्पा॒त्यन्तौ॑ ॥
उक्षा समुद्रो अरुषः सुपर्णः पूर्वस्य योनिं पितुरा विवेश । मध्ये दिवो निहितः पृश्निरश्मा वि चक्रमे रजसस्पात्यन्तौ ॥
ukṣā samudro aruṣaḥ suparṇaḥ pūrvasya yonim pitur ā viveśa | madhye divo nihitaḥ pṛśnir aśmā vi cakrame rajasas pāty antau ||

English translation:

“The showerer (of rain), the shedder of dew, the radiant and quick-going (car) has entered the region of the paternal east; the many-tinted and pervading (luminary) proceeds to both extremities of the firmament, (and so) preserves (the world).”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Many-tinted and pervading luminary: pṛṣṇir aśmā vicakrame rajaspatyantau: aśma = vyāpaka or sarvatra vyāpta, pervading; also, it means, a stone, an allusion to a pāṣāṇa, or stone, which in some ceremonies is plural ced in the āhavanīya fire; aśma may also imply a simile, the term of comparison being dropped, luptopamā vā aśmā sādṛśaḥ


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): pratiratha ātreyaḥ [pratiratha ātreya];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): viśvedevā:;
Chandas (meter): triṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

उ॒क्षा । स॒मु॒द्रः । अ॒रु॒षः । सु॒ऽप॒र्णः । पूर्व॑स्य । योनि॑म् । पि॒तुः । आ । वि॒वे॒श॒ । मध्ये॑ । दि॒वः । निऽहि॑तः । पृश्निः॑ । अश्मा॑ । वि । च॒क्र॒मे॒ । रज॑सः । पा॒ति॒ । अन्तौ॑ ॥
उक्षा । समुद्रः । अरुषः । सुपर्णः । पूर्वस्य । योनिम् । पितुः । आ । विवेश । मध्ये । दिवः । निहितः । पृश्निः । अश्मा । वि । चक्रमे । रजसः । पाति । अन्तौ ॥
ukṣā | samudraḥ | aruṣaḥ | su-parṇaḥ | pūrvasya | yonim | pituḥ | ā | viveśa | madhye | divaḥ | ni-hitaḥ | pṛśniḥ | aśmā | vi | cakrame | rajasaḥ | pāti | antau

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 5.47.3 English analysis of grammar]

ukṣā < ukṣan

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“bull; ukṣan [word].”

samudro < samudraḥ < samudra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“ocean; Samudra; sea; samudra [word]; four.”

aruṣaḥ < aruṣa

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“red; red.”

suparṇaḥ < suparṇa

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Garuda; Suparṇa; bird of prey; Suparṇa; suparṇa; Suparṇa; eagle.”

pūrvasya < pūrva

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“aforesaid(a); antecedent; previous(a); first; eastern; former(a); pūrva [word]; age-old; anterior; bygone; fore(a); predictive; firstborn; easterly; instrumental.”

yonim < yoni

[noun], accusative, singular, feminine

“vagina; vulva; uterus; beginning; origin; reincarnation; birthplace; family; production; cause; race; grain; raw material; birth; kind; caste; kinship; bed.”

pitur < pituḥ < pitṛ

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“father; Pitṛ; ancestor; parent; paternal ancestor; pitṛ [word]; forefather.”



“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

viveśa < viś

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“enter; penetrate; settle; settle.”

madhye < madhya

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“midst; center; cavity; inside; middle; center; waist; group; pulp; torso; time interval; area; series; madhya [word]; Madhya; noon; middle; middle age; span; belly.”

divo < divaḥ < div

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“sky; Svarga; day; div [word]; heaven and earth; day; dawn.”

nihitaḥ < nidhā < √dhā

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“put; fill into; stow; insert; ignite; insert; add; put on; establish; keep down.”

pṛśnir < pṛśniḥ < pṛśni

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“varicolored; dappled.”

aśmā < aśman

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“stone; aśmarī; rock; aśman [word]; adri; mineral; piṇḍatālaka; mountain.”



“apart; away; away.”

cakrame < kram

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“kram; step; go; continue; proceed; traverse; heat.”

rajasas < rajasaḥ < rajas

[noun], genitive, singular, neuter

“powder; menorrhea; dust; Rajas; atmosphere; rajas; pollen; passion; rajas [word]; sindūra; rust; tin; impurity; dark; sky.”

pāty < pāti <

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“protect; govern.”

antau < anta

[noun], accusative, dual, masculine

“end; last syllable; end; end; boundary; inside; border; death; anta [word]; edge; end; shore; limit; region; outskirt; destruction; boundary; limit; anta; termination; corner; conclusion; hem; end; ant; edge.”

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