Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 4.58.3

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

च॒त्वारि॒ शृङ्गा॒ त्रयो॑ अस्य॒ पादा॒ द्वे शी॒र्षे स॒प्त हस्ता॑सो अस्य । त्रिधा॑ ब॒द्धो वृ॑ष॒भो रो॑रवीति म॒हो दे॒वो मर्त्याँ॒ आ वि॑वेश ॥
चत्वारि शृङ्गा त्रयो अस्य पादा द्वे शीर्षे सप्त हस्तासो अस्य । त्रिधा बद्धो वृषभो रोरवीति महो देवो मर्त्याँ आ विवेश ॥
catvāri śṛṅgā trayo asya pādā dve śīrṣe sapta hastāso asya | tridhā baddho vṛṣabho roravīti maho devo martyām̐ ā viveśa ||

English translation:

“Four are his horns; three are his feet; his heads are two, his hands are seven; the triple-bound showerer (of benefits) roars aloud; the mighty deity has entered among men.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

This verse is preferentially applied to Agni, identified either with yajña or with Āditya; the four horns of the yajña are the four vedas; of Āditya, the four cardinal points of the horizon; the three feet of yajña are the three daily sacrifices; of Āditya, morning, noon, evening; the two heads of yajña are two particular ceremonies termed brahmaudanam and pravargya; of Āditya, day and night; the seven hands of yajña are the seven metres; of Āditya, the seven rays, or the six seasons and their aggregate, or the year, the seventh; the term vṛṣabha phalānām vaṛsitā, the rainer of rewards, applies to yajña and Āditya; so does roraite, he roars, implying the noise made by the repetition of the mantras of the vedas; the three bonds of yajña are: mantra, kalpa and brāhmaṇa, the prayer, the ceremonial; the rationale of Āditya, the three regions, earth, mid-air and heaven; another view is to limit vṛṣabha kāmānam varṣitā to yajña; the four horns are the priests: the hotā, udgātā, adhvaryu and brahmā; the three feet are the three vedas; the two heads the havirdhāna and pravargya rites; the hands are the seven priests, or seven metres; the three bonds the three daily sacrifices; Nirukta 13.7 applies the verse to yajña


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): vāmadevo gautamaḥ [vāmadeva gautama];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): agniḥ sūryo vā'po vā gāvo vā ghṛtaṃ;
Chandas (meter): bhurikpaṅkti ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

च॒त्वारि॑ । शृङ्गा॑ । त्रयः॑ । अ॒स्य॒ । पादाः॑ । द्वे इति॑ । शी॒र्षे इति॑ । स॒प्त । हस्ता॑सः । अ॒स्य॒ । त्रिधा॑ । ब॒द्धः । वृ॒ष॒भः । रो॒र॒वी॒ति॒ । म॒हः । दे॒वः । मर्त्या॑न् । आ । वि॒वे॒श॒ ॥
चत्वारि । शृङ्गा । त्रयः । अस्य । पादाः । द्वे इति । शीर्षे इति । सप्त । हस्तासः । अस्य । त्रिधा । बद्धः । वृषभः । रोरवीति । महः । देवः । मर्त्यान् । आ । विवेश ॥
catvāri | śṛṅgā | trayaḥ | asya | pādāḥ | dve iti | śīrṣe iti | sapta | hastāsaḥ | asya | tridhā | baddhaḥ | vṛṣabhaḥ | roravīti | mahaḥ | devaḥ | martyān | ā | viveśa

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 4.58.3 English analysis of grammar]

catvāri < catur

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“four; catur [word].”

śṛṅgā < śṛṅga

[noun], nominative, plural, neuter

“peak; horn; tusk; śṛṅga [word].”

trayo < trayaḥ < tri

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“three; tri/tisṛ [word].”

asya < idam

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”

pādā < pādāḥ < pāda

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“foot; one-fourth; beam; pāda; foot; foundation; pāda [word]; leg; leg; animal foot; step; foot; footfall; verse.”

dve < dvi

[noun], nominative, dual, neuter

“two; dvi [word]; second.”

śīrṣe < śīrṣa

[noun], nominative, dual, neuter

“head; battlefront; ear; front; śīrṣa [word]; tip; skull.”

sapta < saptan

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“seven; seventh.”

hastāso < hastāsaḥ < hasta

[noun], nominative, plural, masculine

“hand; hand; proboscis; hasta [word]; autograph.”

asya < idam

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“this; he,she,it (pers. pron.); here.”




baddho < baddhaḥ < bandh

[verb noun], nominative, singular

“bandh; tie; envelop; close; dress; wrap; bind; constipate; fixate; shape; paralyze; construct; bandage; compress; beset; oblige; strap; restrain; bind; gesticulate; wear; bar; bandh; connect; stud; mix; obstruct; write; restrain; bind; persecute; enclose; ligature; fill into; fasten.”

vṛṣabho < vṛṣabhaḥ < vṛṣabha

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“bull; Vṛṣabha; Vṛṣabha; best.”

roravīti < roro < √ru

[verb], singular, Present indikative


maho < mahaḥ < maha

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“great; abundant.”

devo < devaḥ < deva

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

martyāṃ < martya

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine




“towards; ākāra; until; ā; since; according to; ā [suffix].”

viveśa < viś

[verb], singular, Perfect indicative

“enter; penetrate; settle; settle.”

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