Manasara (English translation)

by Prasanna Kumar Acharya | 1933 | 201,051 words

This page describes “the bodily ornaments and house-furniture (bhushana)” which is Chapter 50 of the Manasara (English translation): an encyclopedic work dealing with the science of Indian architecture and sculptures. The Manasara was originaly written in Sanskrit (in roughly 10,000 verses) and dates to the 5th century A.D. or earlier.

Chapter 50 - The bodily ornaments and house-furniture (bhūṣaṇa)

1-2. Now the description of all the bodily ornaments [viz., bhūṣaṇa] of the gods and the kings, and the articles of furniture will be stated fully but briefly in order according to rules.

3-4. The patrakalpa, the citrakalpa, the ratnakalpa, and the miśria [miśra?] (mixed): these are stated to be the four kinds of ornaments; they should be made by the wise (architect).

5. All those kalpa (types of ornaments) are fit for all the gods.

6. All those except the patrakalpa are suitable for the king called the Sārvabhauma (i.e., Cakravartin or universal monarch).

7. The ratnakalpa and the miśrakalpa are fit for the kings Adhirāja and Narendra.

8. The miśrakalpa is fit for all the other kings.

9. The ornaments adorned with leaves and creepers are known as the patrakalpa.

10-11. Those which are adorned with leaves, creepers, paintings, all jewels, and calyxes are known as the citrakalpa.

12. The ornaments adorned with flowers and jewels (? flowers made of jewels) are called the ratnakalpa.

18. Those which are adorned with leaves and (made of) jewels are known as the miśrakalpa.

14-16. The hāra (chain)[1] should be around the neck, the skandhamālā-avalambana (pendant) for the neck-chain, and for the arm[2] should be the keyura and kaṭaka (mid-armlets), the supūrima (up-armlet), the valayadāman (upper string armlet), the prakoṣṭha-valaya (wrist bangle), and maṇibandha-kalāpaka (string bracelet for the wrist).

17. The jewelled rings should be for all the fingers except the middle one.

18. The udarabandha (belly-band) should be round the middle belly, and above that should be the stana-sūtra (breast-string).

19. There should be one chain on the aide of the sacred thread, covering the breasts.

20-21. The pura-sūtra (front string) is known to be suspended front where the sacred thread is bound down to the kaṭi-sūtra (hip-chain).

22. The hāra (chain) should be suspended over the chest from the upper neck down to the (part above the) heart.

23. The valaya (armlet) should be put on the root of the arm, and the dāman (string bracelet) should be worn round the armpit, (kakṣa).

24. The pendant should be suspended from the root of the arm and should be connected with the keyūra and the kaṭaka (mid-armlets)

25. The keyūra and the kaṭaka should be worn round the middle of the length of arms.

26. Above that (middle-arm) should be worn the purima [pūrima?]; the crocodile (makara) ear-rings should be put on the ears.

27-28. The kaṭisūtra (hip-chain) should be put on the waist, along the breadth of which should be a belt (paṭṭikā) extending as far as the sex-organ whereon should be worn an ornament resembling the lion-face.

29. As an alternative there may be worn a jewelled hand projecting up to and covering the sex-organ.

30. Five sapphires suspended with chains should be put on along the sides and the middle (i.e., front part of the waist).

31-32. A piece of fine (silk) cloth of the yellow colour should suspend down to the ankle (nalaka), or a piece of akin or bark as a skirt may be worn down to the knee.

33. A belt should be put on round the knee-cap, and the feet should be ornamented with the net ornaments (jāla).

34. All the fingers except the fore-finger should be adorned with rings.

35. On the upper body should be worn the chain, etc., and the pendant may be optionally put on the two sides.

36. The string (dāman) should be suspended by the middle; this is known as the cinnavīra.[3]

37. These are said to be the ornaments for the gods and the Cakravartin (class of universal monarch).

38. Both the Cakravartin king and the god Viṣṇu should be adorned with the vanamālā (lit., wild-garland, made of wild flowers, etc.).

39. There should not be put on any chain above the Two breasts of the Adhirāja and the Narendra (classes of kings).

40. All other kings should leave out the keyūra and the kaṭahka (armlets).

41 -42. The part above the ankle of all the gods should be ornamented with the serpent (shaped) belt (kaṭaka), and the feet should be adorned with anklets (nūpura).

43-44. The crocodile (makara) ear-rings should be put on the ears; or there should be two gold rings (tāṭaṅka, on the ears), and the rest should be as before.

45. The ornaments of the body have thus been stated. The external decorations (i.e., articles of furniture for the house) will now be described.

46-56. I shall briefly describe the features (and measures) according to rules in order of the lamp-post (dīpadaṇḍa), the fan (vyajana), the mirror (darpaṇa), the baskets made of leaf (parṇa-mañjūṣā), etc., the palanquin (or swing, dolā), the balance for the kings to be weighed; the leaf-like seal (patra) and the pen (karṇa for kalama, i.e., lekhanī) for marking the commencement of a year, the cages for the musked deer (cat), the parrot (śuka), the cātaka bird (who lives on rain drops), the cakora bird (a kind of partridge said to be fed on moon-beams), and the duck (marāla), the nests for the pigeons, and the cages for the peacocks (nīlakaṇṭha), the nests for the francoline partridge (tittiri), the cages for the wag-tails (khañjarīṭa), the nests for the cock, the cages of the mungoose, the cages of sparrows (caṭaka) and boars (godhāra), and the cages for the tiger[4].

57-59. The nine kinds of height of the lamp-post; should begin from eleven or twelve aṅgulas and end at twenty-seven, or twenty-eight aṅgulas, the increment being by two aṅgulas.

60-63. As an alternative the height of the lamp-post may be measured in cubit in order. The nine kinds (of height) consisting of three in each of the smallest, and the other (the intermediate, and the largest) types, should begin from one cubit and end at two cubits, the increment being by three aṅgulas, or they may begin from one cubit and end at nine cubits, the increment being by one cubit.

64-67. According to some, the lamp-post in front of the house should be proportionate to the height of the building; the nine kinds (of height), consisting of three in each of the smallest, and the other types, should extend up to the entablature (prastara), platform (vedikā), the neck (grīva), beam (or pillar, daṇḍaka), nose (or vestibule, nāsikā), abacus (phalakā), lotus (padma), pitcher (ghaṭa), or up to the top of the pinnacle (stūpikā).

68-70. The width of the lamp-post should begin from one or two aṅgulas and end at five or six aṅgulas, the increment being by two or half an aṅgula; this measurement is said to be taken in the standard (mātra) aṅgula (of three-fourths inch).

71. Iṭ (the lamp-post) should be made of both wood and metal (iron), but the latter will be preferable.

72-74. The nine kinds of width, consisting of three in each of the smallest and other types, of the abacus (phalakā)-post (daṇḍa) at the bottom, are said to begin from one aṅgula and end at five aṅgulas, the increment being by half an aṅgula.

75-76. The width at the bottom being divided into three, four, five, six, seven, or eight (equal) parts, the width at the top should be one aṅgula less.

77. The lamp-post at the top should be like the forepart of the palm of the hand (pāṇyagra), and at the bottom it should be furnished with the lotus-seat (padmāsana).

78-79. It should end at the abacus (phalakā) at the top, and iṭ should be also adorned with the tenia (tāṭikā), etc., otherwise it may end at the pillar or pitcher (vāri), and at the top it should be furnished with a bud (kuḍmala).

80-81. The width of the lotus seat (padma, at the bottom) should be two, three, four, five, or six times the width of the lamp-post (daṇḍa).

82. The abacus (phalakā) should be thrice the (width of the) post, or the same as said for the lotus seat (padma).

83. All the pillars (aṅghrika) and the pitchers (vārikā) in the middle of the lamp-post (daṇḍa) should be constructed in pairs.

84. The movable lamp-post should be quadrangular, octagonal, or circular.

85-88. The width of the stationary lamp-post should be (also) measured in the standard (māna) aṅgula: the nine kinds of width of the stationary lamp-post are said to begin from three or four standard aṅgulas and end at nineteen or twenty aṅgulas, the increment being by two aṅgulas.

89. It (the stationary lamp-post) should be made of iron, wood, or stone.

90-91. The height of the aforesaid lamp-post (daṇḍa) being divided into three, four, five, or six equal parts, the measure of its thickness should be greater by one part.

92. At the bottom (of the stationary lamp-post) should be made a platform, lotus-seat, or pedestal.

93. The abacus and the other ornaments may be optionally furnished, or the (stationary) lamp-post māy be made straight (i.e., plain, without the upper ornaments).

94-95. Its bottom should be made quadrangular, octagonal, or

perfectly circular, the top should be similarly shaped, and the whole post should be made tapering from the bottom towards the top.

96. The post at the upper part should be measured and shaped as aforesaid at one’s discretion.

97. The measurement and the characteristic features of the fan-post will be described now.

98-99. The width of the (fan) post at the bottom should begin from six or seven aṅgulas and end at twelve or thirteen aṅgulas, the measurement being taken (as before) in the standard aṅgula.

100. It (the width at the top) as usual should be one or two aṅgulas less (than at the bottom).

101. Thus are described the bottom and the top; it should be a little thinner at the middle.

102. The post should be round and be furnished with the chain ornament (hārita) at the top.

103. The bottom should be shaped like a bud (kuḍmala), and furnished with some ornament like a lotus-seat.

104-105, Above that (the bottom) should be made the spiral (bhrama) post, and it should be of the same height as the main post, and its width should be one-third or one-fourth of the width of main post.

106. At its top the post should be furnished with the chain ornament and the lotus together with a small bud.

107. Such should be the fan-post made with wood or iron.

108. The fan should be furnished with a piece of leather made by the cobbler (carmakāra).

109. The two outer surfaces of the fan should be adorned with the images of Śrīrūpa (Viṣṇu) and others.

110. The wise (architect) should inscribe those (images) with colours and (melted) metallic substance.

111. Thus is described the fan. The mirror will be described now.

111-114. The nine kinds of width of the mirror are said to begin from five or six aṅgulas, and end at twenty-one or twenty-two aṅgulas, the increment being by two aṅgulas.

115-116. The rim of the mirror should begin from one yava, and end at nine yavas, the increment being by one yava[5].

117. The mirror should be quite circular with its rim a little raised.

118. The glass should be bright on the inner side, and the outer Bide should be covered with linings (rekhā, paintings).

119. The images of Lakṣmī and other female deities, as also creepers should be painted on the outer surface.

120. The length of the nail (kīla) at the bottom of the glass should be one-third (the thickness) of the mirror.

121-122. The lotus pattern should be made in conformity with the interspace up to a half of the (total) length, and the remainder should be the length of the nail, and its width should be one-third (of the length).

123. The width of the nail at its bottom should be one-sixteenth.

124. It (the whole mirror) should be made discreetly in conformity with its board (or abacus, phalakā) and its handle (lit., the post).

125- The brass founders should make that abacus at the corner of the mirror-mark.

126. The wise (architect) should get made its post of wood or iron (metal).

127-128, Its length should be equal to the (width of the) mirror, or greater by one-fourth one-half or three-fourths, or twice.

129. Its width should be one-fourth the width of the mirror.

130. The bottom should be furnished with the lotus-seat, and the top ornamented with the abacus (phalakā), etc.

131. The wise architect should adorn it with all ornaments.

132. Thus is described the mirror: this varies according to the castes (? colour).

133-135. The nine kinds of breadth (i.e., width), consisting of three in each of the smallest and the other (two) types of the leaf-baskets should begin from three or four aṅgulas and end at nineteen or twenty aṅgulas, the increment being by two aṅgulas.

136-138. Its height should be equal to the breadth, or greater by one-fourth, one-half, or three-fourths; it should be quadrangular, circular, or rectangular, and it should be made with iron or brass.

139-140. It (the basket) when made of wood should be one-half or one-fourth (aṅgula) in measure (of width), and the rule about the height is that it should be one-third or one-fourth (of the width).

141. There should be made one, two, or three chambers (in the wooden basket).

142. It should be discreetly bound with iron so that it may be sufficiently strong (and beautiful).

143-144. The height of the oil basket (taila-mañjūṣā) should be greater than the height of that (leaf) basket by one-fourth or one-half.

145. The rest should be made as before; this varies according to the colour and the shape.

146. The wisest (architect) should likewise make baskets for all ornaments.

147-149. The breadth of the cloth-basket (i.e., wardrobe) should begin from one cubit and end at two cubits, the increments being by three aṅgulas; optionally (i.e., preferably) the best measurer should measure this in the last (i.e., largest) size.

150. The height thereof should be equal to its breadth (and so on as before), and its shape too should be quadrangular, etc., as before.

151. The rest of the cloth-baskets, etc., should be made at one’s discretion.

152. The characteristic features of the swing (dolā) for gods and men will be described now.

153-154. The twenty-one kinds of height of the pillar thereof should begin from three cubits and end at eight cubits, the increment being by six aṅgulas.

155-156. The width of the pillar is desired to begin from five or six aṅgulas and end at thirteen or fourteen aṅgulas, the increment being by one aṅgula.

157. The pillars, as described before, should be adorned with some beautiful shapes.

158. It should be furnished with one or two walls (bhitti) with measure in conformity with the aforesaid.

159. The transom (vājana) should be made sufficiently strong from above one pillar to another.

160. With due regard to the strength two iron rings (valaya) should be attached to the transom.

161-162. The width of the board (phalakā) should begin from one span and end at twenty-one aṅgulas, the increment being by one aṅgula.

163-164. Its length should be greater than the breadth by one-fourth, one-half or three-fourths, or twice; and its thickness should be discreetly made (proportionate).

165. Mirrors should be fixed to the portico (bhadra) made at the front, the back, and the middle.

166. At the two sides should be made doors (vāraṇa) below which should be attached the axle (akṣa).

167. The swing boards (phalakā) should be attached below that, and the whole (awing) should be adorned with all ornaments.

168. The bar (argala) should be made of iron, and be furnished with ropes (rajju).

169. There should be a space of one cubit above the ground (vāstu) up to the swing board.

170. Above that (board) up to the transom (vājana) is stated to be the length of the bar (argala).

171. At the two ends of the bar (argala) there should be two projected parts (lit,, tops, agra) in order to connect the swing board with the rings (at the transom).

172. Thus is described the swing. The characteristic features of the balance (tulā) will be described (below).

173-174. The length of the scale-beam (tulā), consisting of the smallest, (the intermediate), and the largest types, should begin, from two cubits and end at three cubits, the increment being by three aṅgulas.

176-176. These are said to be the nine kinds (of length, fit) for the (balance beams of the nine) kings beginning from the Astragrāha and ending at the Sārvabhauma. The width thereof should be three or four aṅgulas.

177. The width (of the beam) should decrease by one part from the middle towards the (two) ends.

178. It should be (thus) made tapering from the middle towards the two ends whereat should be fixed two rings (valaya).

179. The length of the middle pivot (lit., tongue, jīhvā) should be equal to the (whole) length of the beam (daṇḍa).

180. The width of the tongue at the root should be one-third of the width of the beam.

181-183. The width at the forepart of the pivot (lit., tongue) should be one-eighth, or less by one-sixteenth, or one-half of that (i.e., less by one-thirty-second part than that at the bottom); otherwise it (the pivot or tongue) should be made tapering from the bottom towards the top which should be pointed like the end of the needle.

184. One-half of that (dimension) should be the upper pivot (lit., projection, bahala), and there should be furnished a small hole at the root thereof.

185. At its fore (i.e., upper) part it (the hole) should be nailed up to the arch (-like device) connecting the post on the (two) sides.

186. Therefrom (i.e., from the nail-joint) the height of the arch should be greater than the (lower) pivot (lit, tongue) by one-fourth.

187. A ring (valaya) should be fixed at the top (centre) of the arch in order to suspend (the balance therefrom).

188. The width of the scale (patra) is stated to be equal to the length of the tongue.

189. Its (of the scale the) surface should be made a little deep, circular in shape, and half an aṅgula in thickness.

190. Equal (in depth) to that (thickness) should be made eight or four holes (at equal distance) at the rim (lit., tip, oṣṭha) (in order to connect the scales with the beam).

191. It (the balance) should be furnished with two scales (pans) which should be made of iron.

192. The (whole) balance should be discreetly made of wood, or iron (metal).

193. The tongue and the arch should be always made of iron (metal).

194. The two (scales) should be connected to the ends of the beam with bar-like chains (argala) (through the holes at the rim of the scale).

195. Thus is described the balance, the rest should be made at one’s discretion.

196. The characteristic features of the middle palm-print (seal)[6] of the right hand of the kings are described (here).

197. The height of the leaf (-like seal) should be four aṅgulas, and the height of the pedestal (thereof) two aṅgulas.

198. The length of the handle (nāla, lit., stock) is stated to be twelve aṅgulas.

199. The breadth of the leaf-like seal (patra) should be two aṅgulas, and the breadth of the pedestal (pīṭha) the same (i.e., two aṅgulas).

200. The height of the face portion (vakra) is ascertained to be a half of the pedestal of the seal.

201. The breadth of the handle (nāla) should be half an aṅgula, and the handle should be firmly fixed to the pedestal.

202. The wise (architect) should make the rest (of the handle) pointed like a fine needle.

203-204. The width of the third part at the bottom should be one-half of the width of the handle (nāla), and the width of the third part above that should be one-third (of the handle).

205. The rudder-like pen (karṇa) which should be perfectly round should be fixed along the handle at the root of the leaf-like seal.

206. It should be beautifully decorated with gold lines which should be smooth but well marked (lit., like the erect hair on horripilation, pulaka).

207-209. Brahmā is the presiding deity of the leaf-like seal (patra), Viṣṇu of the pedestal (pīṭha), Rudra of the handle (nāla), and Sarasvatī of the pen (karṇa): these are the presiding deities; thus should be constructed the pen (karṇa)[7].

210. The nests and cages of all (domestic animals) may be made movable or stationary.

211-213. The nine kinds (of width), consisting of three in each of the smallest and the other two types, should begin from one cubit and end at forty-eight aṅgulas (i.e., two cubits), the increment being by these aṅgulas: these should be the width of the nests for the musked cat (deer)[8].

2 14-216. A half or three-fourths of that (width), equal to that, or greater than that by one-fourth or one-half: these should be the five kinds of height (thereof) known as the śāntika, etc.; this (height) should extend from the ground to the end of the entablature (prastara), the head (mastaka), or the pinnacle (śikhā).

217-219. The nine kinds (of width), consisting of three in each of the smallest and the other (two) types, should begin from nine aṅgulas and end at twenty-three aṅgulas, the increment being by two aṅgulas: these are said to be the width of the cages for parrots.

220. The height thereof should be made as before, with regard to all the varieties of the breadth.

221-223. The nine kinds (of width), consisting of the smallest and the other types, should begin from seven aṅgulas and end at twenty-three aṅgulas, the increment being by two aṅgulas: these should be the widths of the cages for the cātaka and the cakora (partridge) birds[9].

224-225. The length thereof is said to be two, three, or four times the breadth; and the height should be as before.

226. The same cage shaped in the daṇḍaka plan[10] will be fit for the ducks.

227. The same with square shape is suitable to be the cage for pigeons.

228-231. The nine kinds (of breadth), consisting of three in each of the smallest and the other types, should begin from twenty-five aṅgulas and end at seventy-three aṅgulas, the increment being by six aṅgulas: these should be the nine kinds of breadth of the cages for the peacocks. The width (i.e., length) should be equal to that (breadth), and the height should be as before.

232-235. The nine kinds (of breadth), consisting of three in each of the smallest and the other typos, should begin from five aṅgulas and end at twenty-one aṅgulas, the increment being by two aṅgulas: these should be the breadth of the cages for the female wag-tails. Its length should be equal to the breadth; it should be square in shape; and the height should be made as before.

236-239. The nine kinds (of breadth), consisting as before of the smallest and the other types, should begin from seven aṅgulas and end at twenty-three aṅgulas, the increment being by two aṅgulas: these are said to be the nine kinds of breadth of the cages for the male wagtails (khañjarīṭa); it should be square (lit., of four equal corners), and its height should be as before.

240-242. The nine kinds (of breadth), consisting of the smallest and the other types, should begin from fifteen aṅgulas and end at thirty-one aṅgulas, the increment being by two aṅgulas: these should be the breadth of the cages for the fowl (cock), and their height should be as before.

243-245. The nine kinds (of breadth), consisting of three in each of the smallest and the other types, should [?a?] gin from eleven aṅgulas and end at twenty-seven aṅgulas, the increment being by two aṅgulas; the breadth (width) of the cages for the mungoose should be made (thus) as aforesaid.

246-248. The cages for sparrows and francoline partridge should be made as said before (of equal dimensions); the aforesaid nine kinds of breadth should begin from nine aṅgulaś and end at twenty-five aṅgulas, and the height should be as before.

249. The same being a square of equal sides (breadth) is fit to be the cage for the boar (godhāra).

250-252. The nine kinds (of breadth), consisting of three in each of the smallest and the other types, should begin from one cubit and a half and end at three cubits and a half, the increment being by six aṅgulas: these are said to be the nine kinds of breadth of the cages for the tiger.

253. The height (thereof) should be as before, and it should be made quadrangular with sides of equal breadth.

254. It should be quadrangular; there should be a (square) wall (on each side), and it should be furnished with four columns (at the four corners).

255. The door should be made at the middle (of the side), and there should be a single panel (for the door).

256-257. The height should be divided into six equal parts, (of which) the pedestal (pāduka) should be one part, the height of the pillar (pāda) should be four parts, and the upper board (paṭṭikā) one part.

258-259. Or of the eight parts of the height, the height of the pedestal should bṣ one part, the height of the pillar six parts, and the upper board one part.

260. There should be four pieces of wood at the four corners connected with the bottom and the upper board at the top.

261. The base and the top of the pillars at the four corners should be consolidated with kankar.

262. Bars should be horizontally fixed at the top and the bottom of the pikes made with projection.

263. The width of the pillar should be one, two, three, or four aṅgulas.

264-265. The width (i.e., thickness) of the plinth of the upper board (paṭṭikā) should be discreetly made two, three, four, five, six, or seven aṅgulas.

266. The windows should be opened on the four sides from bop to bottom.

267. It should be furnished with bands (vetra) lengthwise, and be adorned with openings of the elephant-eye-shape.

268. The pillars may otherwise be quadrangular in shape; and the whole should be ornamented as aforesaid.

269. The same (structure) should be furnished with disc-shaped top.

270. All the nests (and cages) should be adorned with all ornaments.

271-273. The cages for the cātaha and the cakora birds (partridges) should be shaped in the daṇḍaka plan; two, three, four, five, or six small compartments should be made lengthwise; and the rest should be made as before, and they should be adorned with all ornaments.

274-277. The height of the cage for the parrots should be divided into eight parts, (of which) the pedestal should be one part, the height of the pillar four parts, the height of the upper board (paṭṭikā) one part, and the upper crest two parts; the rest should be made as before, and it should be adorned with all ornaments.

278. The same should be furnished with a front porch (bhadra), equal to, or one-half or three-fourths (in dimension).

279. There should be two or three pillars on the front furnished with entablatures[11].

280. The width of the middle band (nīvi, lit., a piece of cloth round the woman’s waist) should be four parts, and the surrounding balcony one part.

281. It should be furnished with pentroofs all round, and be adorned with sectional towers.

282-283. The same may optionally have a pinnacle (kūṭa) at the top, with an extra height of five parts (of which) the height of the spire (śikhā) should be two parts, and the height of the spherical roof (śikhara) three parts.

284. There should be four vestibules (nāsi) on the four sides adorned with all ornaments.

285. One or two parts at the bottom of the four sides should be furnished with porticos (bhadra).

286-287. The breadth of the portico should be one-third, three-fourths, or three-fifths of the breadth of the nest.

288. It should be adorned with all ornaments, and the rest should be made as before.

289. Such should be the cage for the parrot, or it may be made as said before (by the ancients).

290. The following (ornaments) should be suitable for the gods, the Brahmans, the Kṣatriyas (lit., kings), the Vaiśyas, and the Śūdras.

291-294. The anklets for the feet, crowns, small coins-(string), ear-rings, bracelets, girdles, strings, bangles, head-gears, bracelets with small bells, and ear-ornaments.

295-298. The keyūra and the tāṭaṅka (both armlets for the upper arm) in particular; ear-ornaments, crest jewels, small fillets, the garland of stars and the half chains, and the gold strings round the two breasts.

299-302. The jewel garland, the fine (silk) cloth, and the bark cloth; the gold jacket (dress, kañcuka), and the garland made of gold; the long (suspending) chain, the crest ornaments, etc., the ear-ornaments (pūrima), and the hair-pinnacle.

303-306. These are said to be the all kinds of ornaments, both for the daily and occasional use of Brahmā, Viṣṇu, Maheśa (Śiva), Śakra (Indra), all the gods of the quarters, the Kinnaras, the Gandharvaa and all other groups of gods, Durgā, Śacī, Gaurī, Cāmuṇḍā and other (demonesses), Sarasvatī, Gaṇapati, and Kārtikeya (born of six mothers).

307-308. These (ornaments) are also suited to all the kings, and the kings of kings (emperors), and to people of the four castes, and to their consorts.

309-310. And as for the cages of the birds, if they be made as aforesaid, it would increase prosperity, but if they be made otherwise, it would be the source of bad luck.

Thus in the Mānasāra, the science of architecture, the fiftieth chapter, entitled: “The description of the bodily ornaments and house-furniture.”

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

Compare line 22. A chain of 108 strings is called the hāra, and a half-chain of 64 strings is styled the ardhahāra (Bṛhatsaṃhitā, LXXXII, 32).

[2]:

Compare lines 23-26.

[3]:

This ornament is elsewhere described as passing over both shoulders and hips, crossing and fastening in the middle of the breast and the back (see Rao’s elements of Hindu Iconograpyhy, I. XXXI, M. F. A. Bulletin, no. 152, page 90, and Coomaraswamy, J. A. O. S., 4S, 3, page 255).

[4]:

The stables for the horse and the elephants are not included here as they have been referred to as forming parts of premises. The cow-sheds are not specified on the premises, nor are here happily included. No provision is made for dogs and several other domesticated animals also.

It should be noted that the bigger articles of furniture have been separately described. Cars and chariots are illustrated under chapter XLIII, bedsteads and swings under chapter XLIV, seats and royal thrones under chapter XLV. And the couches, etc., may be farther illustrated from the Buddhist texts:

Benches are made to accommodate three persons (Chullavagga, vi, 13-2). Divan is a separate piece of furniture (Chullavagga, vi, 14-1; Mahāvagga, v, 10-3). The āsandi variously translated as large couches, chair and cushions (ibid, vi, 14-1; v, 10-3), Couches are covered with canopies (Mahāvagga, v, 10-3). Mention is made of various chairs, namely, rectangular chairs (āsandaka), sofa with arms to it (sattaṅga), state chairs (bhadrapīṭha), cushioned chairs (piṭhikā [pīṭhikā?]), chair raised on a pedestal (etaka-padaka-pīṭha), chair with many legs (amalaka-vantika-pīṭha) cane-bottomed chair (koccha), and leaning board (phalaka).

Carpets, rugs, pillows, and curtains, etc., are also mentioned: “coverlets with long fleece, counterpanes of rainy colours, woollen coverlets marked with thick flowers, matresses, cotton coverlets dyed with figures of animals, rugs with long hair on one or both sides, carpets inwrought with gold or with silk, rich elephant housings, horse and carriage rugs, panther and antelope skins, large and crimson cushions” (Mahāvagga, v, 10-3); pillows of the size of man’s head and body; bolsters are of five kinds as stuffed with wool, cotton, bark, grass, and leaves; floor-cloth, mosquito-curtain, handkerchief, spittoon are also mentioned.

[5]:

Six, seven, and eight yavas make one aṅgula (see chapter II).

[6]:

Compare line 49; it looks like a seal made of the palm-print and renewed by the kings at the beginning of a new year.

[7]:

See lines 49, 196-209; the context seems to imply that there was a seallike device with fixed pen with which the kings used to make certain marks on the new year’s day in particular.

[8]:

The dimensions in this and several other cages appear to be too small to accommodate the ordinary type of animals for which the nests are meant.

[9]:

See page 500.

[10]:

See chapter IX, and the writer’s Dictionary, pp. 256, 183.

[11]:

Mattavāraṇī is a kind of entablature, of. chapter XVI.19, and see the writer’s Dictionary, p. 492.

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