Nivarana, Nīvaraṇa, Nivāraṇa, Nivaraṇa: 26 definitions


Nivarana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Nivaran.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Nivarana in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Nivāraṇa (निवारण) refers to “removing (distress)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.22 (“Description of Pārvatī’s penance”).—Accordingly, as Pārvatī thought to herself: “[...] In the Śāstras and the Vedas, lord Śiva is always sung in praise by the sages as the bestower of welfare, omniscient, all-pervading and all-seer. The lord is the bestower of all riches, the moulder of fine emotions, the bestower of the desires of devotees and the remover of their distress [i.e., sarvakleśa-nivāraṇa]. If I am devoted to the bull-bannered lord, discarding all desires, may He be pleased with me. [...]”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Nivāraṇa (निवारण) refers to the “prevention” (of all suffering), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 19.85cd-87, while describing the ritual that protect the king and his kingdom]—“This [pūjā] should prevent all suffering (sarvaduḥkha-nivāraṇa) to arise in [the one who performs it]. [The Mantrin] should perform [it] for his devoted wives, children, and his devoted pupils; he should not practice it otherwise. [When he conducts the pūjā, he should do so] on behalf of kings and their offspring because, the king is always the head [of the family] of all stages of life [i.e., the king is always the head of all families in the kingdom, regardless of the status of his subjects]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

Nīvarana (“hindrances”) are 5 qualities which are obstacles to the mind and blind our mental vision. In the presence of them we cannot reach neighbourhood-concentration (upacāra-samādhi) and full concentration (appanā-samādhi), and are unable to discern clearly the truth. They are:

  1. sensuous desire (kāmacchanda),
  2. ill-will (vyāpāda),
  3. sloth and torpor (thīna-middha),
  4. restlessness and scruples (uddhacca-kukkucca), and
  5. skeptical doubt (vicikicchā).

In the beautiful similes in A.V.193, sensuous desire is compared with water mixed with manifold colours, ill-will with boiling water, sloth and torpor with water covered by moss, restlessness and scruples with agitated water whipped by the wind, skeptical doubt with turbid and muddy water. Just as in such water one cannot perceive one's own reflection, so in the presence of these 5 mental hindrances, one cannot clearly discern one's own benefit, nor that of others, nor that of both.

Regarding the temporary suspension of the 5 hindrances on entering the first absorption, the stereotype sutta text (e g. A.IX.40) runs as follows:

"He has cast away sensuous desire; he dwells with a heart free from sensuous desire; from desire he cleanses his heart.

"He has cast away ill-will; he dwells with a heart free from ill-will, cherishing love and compassion toward all living beings, he cleanses his heart from ill-will.

"He has cast away sloth and torpor; he dwells free from sloth and torpor; loving the light, with watchful mind, with clear consciousness, he cleanses his mind from sloth and torpor.

"He has cast away restlessness and scruples; dwelling with mind undisturbed, with heart full of peace, he cleanses his mind from restlessness and scruples.

"He has cast away skeptical doubt; dwelling free from doubt, full of confidence in the good, he cleanses his heart from doubt.

"He has put aside these 5 hindrances, and come to know these paralysing defilements of the mind. And far from sensual impressions, far from unwholesome things, he enters into the first absorption, etc."

The overcoming of these 5 hindrances by the absorptions is, as already pointed out, a merely temporary suspension, called 'overcoming through repression' (vikkhambhana-pahāna). They disappear forever on entering the 4 supermundane paths (s. ariyapuggala), i.e. skeptical doubt on reaching Sotāpanship; sensuous desire, ill-will and mental worry on reaching Anāgāmiship; sloth, torpor and restlessness on reaching Arahantship.

For their origination and their overcoming, s. A. I, 2; VI, 21; S. XLVI, 51. See The Five Mental Hindrances, by Nyanaponika Thera (WHEEL 26).

Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas

Nivarana (or Hindrances) are another group of defilements. There are six nirvaranas:

  1. sensuous desire (kamacchanda),
  2. ill-will (vyapada),
  3. sloth and torpor (thina-middha),
  4. restlessness and regret (uddhacca-kukkucca),
  5. doubt (vicikiccha),
  6. ignorance (avijja).
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Nīvaraṇa (नीवरण, “obstacles”) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII). Accordingly, “having thus condemned the five sensual desires, it is necessary to remove the five obstacles (nīvaraṇa)”. Note: In order to succeed in the first stage of meditation, it is not enough to keep way from desires.

It is also necessary to stay away from bad dharmas; the latter constitute the five obstacles to dhyāna, which are

  1. envy (kāmacchanda-nīvaraṇa),
  2. malevolence (vyāpāda-nīvaraṇa),
  3. laziness-torpor (styānamiddha-nīvaraṇa),
  4. excitement and regret (auddhatyakaukṛtya-nīvaraṇa),
  5. doubt (vicikitsā-nīvaraṇa).

If he has been able to reject the five sense objects (kāmaguṇa) and remove the five obstacles (nīvaraṇa), the ascetic practices the five dharmas:

  1. aspiration (chanda),
  2. exertion (vīrya),
  3. mindfulness (smṛti),
  4. clear seeing (saṃprajñāna),
  5. concentration of mind (cittaikāgratā).

By practicing these five dharmas, he acquires the first dhyāna furnished with five members (pañcāṅga-samanvāgata).

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Nivāraṇa (निवारण) refers to the “averting (of Nāgas)” (for the sake of all crops), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [After the Brahmin Viṣṇudatta summoned and enraged a Nāga]: “Then Vajrapāṇi, the great leader of Yakṣas, addressed the Bhagavān, ‘Look, Bhagavān, clearly all crops have been destroyed by the harmful Nāga. How will there be shelter for all beings in the last time, in the last age, after you have departed? Therefore let the Bhagavān speak about the protection of crops and the averting of Nāgas (nāga-nivāraṇa) for the sake of all crops. [Thus] all crops will be provided, protected and increased’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Nīvaraṇa (नीवरण) is the name of a Bodhisattva mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Nīvaraṇa).

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Nivāraṇa (निवारण) or Pañcanivāraṇa refers to the “five hindrances” according to the Saṃvaramaṇḍala of Abhayākaragupta’s Niṣpannayogāvalī, p. 45 and n. 145; (Cf. Cakrasaṃvaratantra, Gray, David B., 2007).—Note: The kartika, "flaying knife", symbolizes cutting away the pañca-nivāraṇa, "The Five Hindrances":

  1. kāmacchanda, "sensual desire",
  2. vyāpāda, "evil intent",
  3. styānamiddha, "laziness-lethargy",
  4. auddhatyakaukṛitya, "restlessness-regret",
  5. vicikitsā, "indecision".
Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Nivāraṇa (निवारण) refers to “stopping” (Yama), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Where this wicked Yama is not stopped [com.nivāraṇa—‘in regard to stopping’] by the 30 [gods] even with a hundred counteractions, what should one say of [Yama being stopped] there by the insects of men? O fool, sentient beings, having begun from the womb, are continually led by [their own] action to Yama’s abode by means of uninterrupted journeys”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Nivarana in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

nivāraṇa : (nt.) prevention; warding off; refusal. || nīvaraṇa (nt.), obstacle or hindrance (to the progress of mind).

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Nivaraṇa, see vi°. (Page 372)

— or —

Nivāraṇa, (nt. & adj.) (fr. nivāreti) warding off, keeping back, preventing; refusal Sn. 1034, 1035, 1106 (=Nd2 363 āvāraṇa rakkhaṇa gopana); DhsA. 259; PvA. 102, 278; Sdhp. 396. (Page 372)

— or —

Nīvaraṇa, (nt. occasionally m.) (Sk. *nivāraṇa, nis+ varaṇa of vṛ (vṛṇoti), see nibbuta & cp. nivāraṇa) an obstacle, hindrance, only as tt. applied to obstacles in an ethical sense & usually enumerated or referred to in a set of 5 (as pañca nīvaraṇāni and p. āvaraṇāni), viz. kāmacchanda, (abhijjhā-)vyāpāda, thīna-middha, uddhaccakukkucca, vicikicchā i.e. sensuality, ill-will, torpor of mind or body, worry, wavering (cp. Dhs. trsl. p. 310): D. I, 73 (°e, Acc. pl.), 246; II, 83, 300; III, 49 sq. , 101, 234, 278; S. II, 23; III, 149; V, 60, 84 sq. , 93 sq. , 145, 160, 226, 327, 439; M. I, 60, 144, 276; III, 4, 295; A. I, 3, 161; III, 16, 63, 230 sq.; 386; IV, 457; V, 16, 195, 322; Sn. 17; Nd1 13; Nd2 379; Ps. I, 31, 129, 163; Pug. 68; Dhs. 1059, 1136, 1495; Vbh. 199, 244, 378; Nett 11, 13, 94; Vism. 146, 189; DA. I, 213; Sdhp. 459, 493 and passim. ‹-› Other enumerations are occasionally found e.g. 10 at S. V, 110; 8 at M. I, 360 sq.; 6 at Dhs. 1152. (Page 376)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nivāraṇa (निवारण).—n (S) Turning back; and fig. prohibiting, preventing, precluding, averting, warding off &c. 2 or nivāraṇapatra n (S) A prohibitory note, from his employer, to one employed to demand payment of debts.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nivāraṇa (निवारण).—m Turning back. Prohibiting.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nivāraṇa (निवारण).—

1) Keeping off, preventing, warding off; दंशनिवारणैश्च (daṃśanivāraṇaiśca) R.2.5.

2) Prohibition, impediment.

Derivable forms: nivāraṇam (निवारणम्).

See also (synonyms): nivāra.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Nivaraṇa (निवरण).—see nīvaraṇa.

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Nivāraṇa (निवारण).—nt., see s.v. nīvaraṇa.

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Nīvaraṇa (नीवरण).—nt. (also written nīvā° in text with one ms. Mahāvastu ii.143.16, but v.l. nīva°, metrical(ly) indifferent; niva° Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 75.2, but Kashgar recension nīva°; niva° v.l. for nivā° Mahāvyutpatti 6511; niva° also Divyāvadāna 567.19; Śikṣāsamuccaya 280.13; Bodhisattvabhūmi 9.1; 218.19, 20; Gaṇḍavyūha 491.22; Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 49.7; nivā° Mahāvyutpatti 6511, with v.l. niva°, also according to Mironov nivā° for nīva° Mahāvyutpatti 2146), (1) (= Pali nīvaraṇa), disturbance, trouble, interference: in ordinary worldly sense, prītiprāmodyajāto nirupādāno vigata-nivaraṇo 'bhayaprāpto Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 75.2; in beginning a story (verse), nīvaraṇāni vijahitva ekāgreṇa manasā mama śṛṇotha Mahāvastu ii.33.7, getting rid of hindrances (to attention) listen to me with intent minds, and similarly nīvaraṇaṃ vijahitvā…iii.133.6 (verse); usually, as in Pali, hindrance or obstruction to a religious life, ‘besetting sin’ (Childers); Tibetan regularly sgrib pa = darkness, also sin; there are five such, listed Abhidharmakośa LaV-P. v.98 (in accord with Pali, see Childers, [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary]) as kāmacchanda, vyāpāda, styāna- middha, auddhatya-kaukṛtya, and vicikitsā: Mahāvyutpatti 651; 2146; 6511 (here, for nivāraṇa, Tibetan chod pa, covering over, is alternative to the usual sgrib pa); nīvaraṇa-kaṭhina- granthi (read °thī, metrical(ly) required) Lalitavistara 371.18 (verse), having the hindrances as its hard bulb (of avidyā, compared to a plant); °ṇa-vanānī (so with v.l. for °rī) dagdhā me kuśala- mūlatejena Lalitavistara 372.1; °ṇa-kapāṭāni ca pañca mayeha pradāritā sarvaṃ (text °va; or °ve, v.l.) Lalitavistara 376.13; nivaraṇa-kavāṭa-nirbhedana-tāyai Gaṇḍavyūha 491.22; vigata-nīva- raṇa (adj. [bahuvrīhi]) Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 123.11; apagata-nī° Daśabhūmikasūtra 56.26; manda- ni° Bodhisattvabhūmi 9.1; pañca nīvaraṇāni Mahāvastu i.147.15; °ṇā pañca ceta- sāvaraṇā (mss. °ṇāṃ; = cetas', for cetasaḥ, āv°) i.248.1; °raṇāpagataṃ cittaṃ ii.143.16; nāsti °ṇāni ca iii.401.12, said of Buddha; (Sukhāvatyāṃ…) sarvaśo °ṇa-śabdo nāsti Sukhāvatīvyūha 40.8; °ṇānāṃ viṣkambhanatā Śikṣāsamuccaya 191.7; mukto…śalyair nivaraṇais tathā Divyāvadāna 567.19; -middha- nivaraṇa-vigatena Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 49.7; avidyā-nivaraṇāvṛtāḥ Śikṣāsamuccaya 280.12—13; °ṇa-prahāṇāya Bodhisattvabhūmi 218.19; also 20; see also vi-nīvaraṇa; (2) a high number: Mahāvyutpatti 7971 = Tibetan sgrib pa, as for meaning 1; in Lalitavistara corruptly niravadya, q.v.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nivāraṇa (निवारण).—n.

(-ṇaṃ) 1. Hindering, opposing. 2. An impediment. 3. Contemning, holding light or worthless. E. ni prefix, vṝ to screen, ṇic-bhāve-lyuṭ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nivāraṇa (निवारण).—i. e. ni-vṛ + ana, I. adj. Keeping off, Mahābhārata 3, 12454. Ii. n. 1. Keeping off, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 23, 40. 2. Preventing, Mahābhārata 2, 2002. 3. Prohibition, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 1, 5, 45.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nivāraṇa (निवारण).—[adjective] & [neuter] keeping back, warding off ([accusative] or —°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nivaraṇa (निवरण):—[=ni-varaṇa] [from ni-vṛ] n. hindrance, disturbance, trouble, [Saddharma-puṇḍarīka] (cf. sarva-niv-viṣkambhin).

2) Nivāraṇa (निवारण):—[=ni-vāraṇa] [from ni-vṛ] mfn. = [preceding] mfn., [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Suśruta]

3) [v.s. ...] n. keeping back, preventing, hindering, opposing, refuting, [ib.; Pañcatantra; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

4) Nīvaraṇa (नीवरण):—[=nī-varaṇa] n. an obstacle (= ni-v°, p. 559), [Sukhāvatī-vyūha i].

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nivāraṇa (निवारण):—[ni-vāraṇa] (ṇaṃ) 1. n. Idem.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Nivāraṇa (निवारण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Ṇivāraṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Nivarana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Nivarana in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Nivāraṇa (निवारण) [Also spelled nivaran]:—(nm) prevention, preclusion; redress; deterrence, determent; ~[rya] preventible, fit to be precluded; also ~[raṇīya] (a).

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Ṇivāraṇa (णिवारण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Nivāraṇa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Nivāraṇa (ನಿವಾರಣ):—[noun] = ನಿವಾರಣೆ [nivarane].

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Nīvaraṇa (ನೀವರಣ):—[noun] that which prevents, hinders.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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