Nivartana, Nivartanā: 8 definitions

Introduction

Nivartana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (N) next»] — Nivartana in Purana glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Nivartana (निवर्तन).—30 daṇḍas by a daṇḍa of 7 hastas.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 283. 3, 14.
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous (N) next»] — Nivartana in Jainism glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Nivartanā (निवर्तना) refers to “production” and it is one of the factors making up the 108 kinds of adhikaraṇa (‘substratum’) of the non-living beings (ajīva). This substratum (instruments of inflow) represents the foundation or the basis of an entity.

Nivartanā is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Nivartanā (निवर्तना).—What is meant by production (nivartanā)? It means to create, to produce or to make. It is mainly of two types namely:

  1. of primary attributes,
  2. of secondary attributes.


Creating or making of body, speech, mind; beathing (inhalation and exhalation) are production of primary attributes. Creating or making of articles of wood, stone, clay or pictures etc. is called production of secondary attributes.

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Nivartana.—(IE 8-6; EI 21, 26, 28; CII 4), an area of land, which was not the same in different ages and localties. See Ind. Ep., pp. 409-10; also Matsya Purāṇa, 283. 14-15, represent- ing a gocarman as (2/3) of a nivartana (210×210 sq. cubits). (CITD), same as maṟuturu, the identification of the two being established by bilingual Sanskrit-Telugu inscriptions. Note: nivartana is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (N) next»] — Nivartana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nivartana (निवर्तन).—a.

1) Causing to return.

2) Turning back, ceasing.

-nam 1 Returning, turning or coming back, return; इह हि पततां नास्त्यालम्बो न चापि निवर्तनम् (iha hi patatāṃ nāstyālambo na cāpi nivartanam) Śānti.3.2.

2) Not happening, ceasing.

3) Desisting or abstaining from (with abl.)

4) Desisting from work, inactivity (opp. pravartana); Kām.1.28.

5) Bringing back; Amaru. 84.

6) Repenting, a desire to improve.

7) A measure of land (2 rods).

8) Averting, keeping back from (with abl.) विनिपातनिवर्तनक्षमम् (vinipātanivartanakṣamam) Ki.2.13.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nivartana (निवर्तन).—i. e. ni-vṛt + ana, I. adj. Disappearing, Mahābhārata 6, 2427. Ii. n. 1. Return, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 92, 4. 2. Ceasing, Mahābhārata 1, 8388. 3. Abstaining from (abl.), 1, 373. 4. Inactivity, Kām. Nītis. 1, 28. 5. Bringing back, [Amaruśataka, (ed. Calcutt.)] 84. 6. Turning off from (abl.), [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 203, 15.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nivartana (निवर्तन).—[adjective] the same; [neuter] return, cessation, desisting from ([ablative]); causing to return, bringing back from ([ablative]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Nivartana (निवर्तन):—[=ni-vartana] [from ni-vṛt] mfn. causing to turn back, [Ṛg-veda]

2) [v.s. ...] n. turning back, returning, turning the back id est. retreating, fleeing, [Atharva-veda; Mahābhārata] etc. (mṛtyuṃ kṛtvā nivartanam, making retreat equivalent to death id est. desisting from fighting only in death, [Mahābhārata vi, vii]; [wrong reading] kṛtvā mṛtyu-niv)

3) [v.s. ...] ceasing, not happening or occurring, being prevented, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] desisting or abstaining from ([ablative]), [Mahābhārata; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] desisting from work, inactivity (opp. to pra-vartana), [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra]

6) [v.s. ...] causing to return, bringing back ([especially] the shooting off and bringing back of weapons), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature]

7) [v.s. ...] turning back (the hair), [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

8) [v.s. ...] a means of returning, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda]

9) [v.s. ...] averting or keeping back from ([ablative]), [Vedāntasāra]

10) [v.s. ...] reforming, repenting, [Horace H. Wilson]

11) [v.s. ...] a measure of land (20 rods or 200 cubits or 40,000 Hastas square), [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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