Murugan, Murukan: 7 definitions

Introduction

Murugan means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Murugan: The Iconography of Murugan

Muruga, the second son of Siva and Parvati, is variously known as Subrahmanya, Shanmukha, Karttikeya, Skanda, Devasenapati, Śikhivahana Saravanabhava, etc. The cult of Muruga was a well developed one ever since the Cankam period in Tamilaham. The iconography of Subrahmanya is elaborated at length in the Kumaratantra and Śrītattvanidhi.

Source: DSpace at Pondicherry: Siddha Cult in Tamilnadu (shaivism)

Murugan (or Murukan) is also called Subrahmaṇya. He is the second son of Śiva. He is also called Skanda, Murukan, Kandasāmi, Supraya Kumāra, Saravana, Kārtikeya, Kāṅgeyan, Āṟumukha, Ṣanmukhan, Velāyuda, Sūra Samhāra Mūrti, Mailerivelan and Tārakājit. Murugan is praised as a great Siddha of Bāla-varga group. He rides on the peacock, the killer of serpents. ‘Serpent’ stands for the cycle of years or the cycle of births. ‘Peacock’ stands for the killer of time and thereby birth and death.

Each of the six faces of Murugan (Murukan) brings out various philosophical meanings namely,

  1. Diffuses radiance and dispels darkness,
  2. Casts a gracious look and grants boons,
  3. Guards the sacrifice of brāhmanas,
  4. Discovers the hidden truths and enlightens minds of sages,
  5. Destroys the enemies in fierce battles,
  6. Loves and enjoys Vaḷḷi.

The six abodes of Murukan are:

  1. Palani (Murukan obtaining the fruit of wisdom and appearing as ānṭi, a person owing nothing of his own);
  2. Svamimalai (Murukan teaching the meaning of praṇava to Śiva);
  3. Tiruchendur (Devasenāpati aspect and rendition of Sūrapadma),
  4. Thiruparankundram or Parankundram (Murukan’s marriage with Devasena),
  5. Tiruttani (Murukan’s marriage with Valli),
  6. Palamutircolai (Murukan’s holy darśana in the company of two wives).
Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Inner Circle IV

As the second son of Lord Śiva, Murugan the embodiment of skilful action, just as Gaṇeśa is the personification of wisdom. Skilful action (kuśala karma) is that which is direct at Ātmā bodha —self-realization. The several and collective human perfections are all personified in Murugan. When all the five senses and the mind as the co-ordinating factor are sublimated and directed towards enlightenment then one attains super-consciousness.

Lord Murugan was born from the Tejas or intense energy of Lord Śiva in order to relieve the gods of the oppression of Tārakāsura who had gained a boon of invincibility from Brahmā.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Murukan (Murugan) is the name of a deity depicted in various temples:

The Arunachaleswara Temple (Aruṇācaleśvar) in Thiruvannamalai (Tiruvaṇṇāmalai), [Śiva temple]: (a) Murukan is represented as seated in sukhāsana on his peacock. He is represented with four hands. (b) There is also the sannidhi for Murukan with his consorts Valli and Deivānai to the right of the entrance. Murukan is found standing,

The Jambukeswarar Temple in Tiruvānaikoyil (Thiruvanaikaval), [another Śiva temple].—(a) Murukan is found standing is vaiśākha-sthānaka with four hands. (b) Murukan is also found with six faces and six pairs of hands. Valli and Deivānai are found on either side of Murukan. (c) Murukan is also found standing in vaiśākha posture with two hands.

The Nellaiappar Temple at Tirunelveli, [another Śiva temple].—Murugan (Murukan) is represented as seated in sukhāsana with six pairs of hands. While depicting in Bharatanatyam, he is represented in aindra-maṇḍala. Valli and Deivānai (the wives of Murukan) are found on either side of Murukan.

The Kamakshi Amman Temple in Kanchipuram, [Goddess or Devī temple].—There is the sannidhi of Murukan at the entrance of the sannidhi of Arūpa Lakṣmī. Murukan is represented as seated with the left leg folded, which in dancing terms is called aindra-maṇḍala. In iconographic terms, this posture is called sukhāsana. He is represented with four hands.

The Meenakshi Temple in Madurai (or Madura), [another Goddess or Devī temple].—Murukan is represented as seated with the left leg folded and six pairs of hands and six heads. He is seated on a peacock, his vehicle. Usually the six pairs of hands hold different emblems.

The Subramanya Swamy Temple (or Subramaṇya Svāmi Temple) in Thiruparankundram or Parankundram (Paraṅkuṉṟam), [Murugan temple].—The sanctum of Murukan represents Murukan in sitting posture with sage Nārada (to the right of Murukan) and Deivānai (to the left of Murukan) near him. Sūrya and Candra are found above the sanctum of Murukan. Murukan is represented as seated with the left leg folded and the right leg hanging down. In dance, Murukan is depicted as aindra-sthānaka. He is represented with four hands. [...] When depicted in iconographic terms, Murukan is represented as seated in sukhāsana pose of the sitting posture.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Palani: Hinduism

The Names of Palani Lord Murugan

  1. Aranmakan
  2. Ārumukhan
  3. Ārumîn Kādalan
  4. Ārumugathamudhu
  5. Azhagan
  6. Bākuleyan
  7. Bala Subramanian
  8. Chetty
  9. Dandapani
  10. Dandāyudhapāni
  11. Devasenāpati
  12. Teyvayānai Kantan
  13. Ganapati Izhankilai
  14. Gangai Maindan
  15. Gangai Siruvan
  16. Gangeyan
  17. Gnāna Panditan
  18. Gauri Nandanan
  19. Guhan
  20. Guru
  21. Kadamban
  22. Kandan
  23. Kārttikeyan
  24. KatireShan
  25. Katir Kāmattu Îcan
  26. Kothandapani
  27. Kozhikkodiyon
  28. Kuzhandai
  29. Kulandai Velāyudhan
  30. Kumaran
  31. Muttaian
  32. Muttuk Kumaran
  33. Muttu Kumāraswāmi
  34. Pazhani Āndavar
  35. Pazhani Appan
  36. Pāvaki
  37. Sangat Talaivan
  38. Saravanan
  39. Saravana Bhavan
  40. Senaik Kāppon
  41. Senāpati
  42. Sendan
  43. Senthil Vadivelan
  44. Sevvel
  45. Seyon
  46. Sevarkodiyon
  47. Shanmukhan
  48. Shanmukha Nāthan
  49. Shanmukha Sundaram
  50. Shanmukha Vadivelan
  51. Shanmukha Velan
  52. Siddhan
  53. Shikivāhanar
  54. Silamban
  55. Shringaravelan
  56. Shivakumāran
  57. Sūr Thandinthon
  58. Sūr Pakaivan
  59. Subrahmaniyan
  60. Sundara Shanmukhan
  61. Kumarappan
  62. Kumāraswāmi
  63. Kumāra Vel
  64. Kumaresan
  65. Kundrakkudiyon
  66. Kundrenindhon
  67. Kuriñji Vendan
  68. Kuzhagan
  69. Māl Marugan
  70. Malaimakal Makan
  71. Manggai ūrdi
  72. Manoharan
  73. Mayil Vāhanan
  74. Mayon Marugan
  75. Murukan
  76. Muruga Vel
  77. Sundara Vadivelan
  78. Suresan
  79. Swāmi
  80. Swāmināthan
  81. Thanikāchalam
  82. Thārakar Serron
  83. Thakappanswāmi
  84. Vadivelan
  85. Valli Kantan
  86. Valli Manālan
  87. Vanaipaka-verindon
  88. Velan
  89. Vel
  90. Vishākan
  91. Yanaikkum Kuzhakan
Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Murugan is another name for Kartikeya and is often referred to as "Tamil Kadavul" (meaning "God of Tamils"). Extant Sangam literature works, dated between the 3rd century BCE and 5th century CE glorified Murugan, "the red god seated on the blue peacock, who is ever young and resplendent," as "the favoured god of the Tamils."

According to the Tirumurugarruppatai, Murugan was the presiding deity of the Kurinci region (hilly area).

According to the Tamil devotional work, Thiruppugazh, "Murugan never hesitates to come to the aid of a devotee when called upon in piety or distress".

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras

Murukan (Murugan) is the younger son of Śiva and Pāvatī. He is called by various names such as Subrahmaṇya, Kārtikeya, Skanda, Āṟumukha, Alakar (Aḷakar), and Palaniāṇṭi. In the temples erected for Murukan, the chief deity is Murukan surrounded by subsidiary images. In Śiva temples, the image of Murukan is fashioned as parivāra-deva or subsidiary image.

Murukan is considered as the god of beauty, knowledge, honesty, courage and obedience. Murukan is also considered a child god, but still the devotees come to Him and pray for protection, good qualities and courage. The śaktivel or the velāyudha that is held in the hand of Murukan is an important accessory. It is said that by holding this weapon, the three energies of Śakti namely the iccā-śakti (energy of desire), the jñāna-śakti (energy of wisdom), and the kriyā-śakti (energy of action) are within Murukan. The other attribute held in Murukan’s hand is the vajrāyudha. Two śūlas placed end to end make the vajra. It symbolizes the non-dual character of the Divine Being and also the fusion of Śiva and Pārvatī. Thus, the devotee feels fully satisfied after the darśana of the Lord because he feels that on seeing Murukan, he has seen the trinity and the three goddesses. Children pray to him for knowledge as He was the one to teach Brahmā and Śiva the meaning of the Oṃ praṇava mantra at Svāmimalai. He is the god of courage. He killed many Asuras. And He has a large number of devotees who worship with great love and devotion.

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