Vinaya Pitaka (4): Parivara

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...

Monks’ Analysis: on How Many Offences? (Pārājika)

Monks’ Pārājika 1

Prv.1.2:Bu-Pj.1 Indulging in sexual intercourse how many offences does one fall into? Indulging in sexual intercourse one falls into three offences: if one indulges in sexual intercourse with a body[1] that is not decayed there is an offence involving Defeat.[2] If one indulges in sexual intercourse with a body that is practically decayed there is a grave offence. If without touching the male organ one makes it enter an open mouth there is an offence of wrong-doing.[3] Indulging in sexual intercourse one falls into these three offences.

Monks’ Pārājika 2

Prv.1.2:Bu-Pj.2 Taking what has not been given how many offences does one fall into? Taking what has not been given one falls into three offences: if one takes as it were by theft something to the value of five māsakas[4] or more than five māsakas there is an offence involving Defeat.[5] If one takes … to the value of more than one māsaka or less than five māsakas there is a grave offence.[6] If one takes … to the value of a māsaka or less than a māsaka there is an offence of wrong-doing.[7] Taking what has not been given one falls into these three offences.

Monks’ Pārājika 3

Prv.1.2:Bu-Pj.3 BD.6.50 Intentionally depriving a human being of life … one falls into three offences: if he digs a pitfall on purpose for a (certain) man, thinking, “Falling into it he will die,” there is an offence of wrong-doing. If falling down into it a painful feeling arises (in the man), there is a grave offence. If he dies there is an offence involving Defeat.[8] Intentionally … he falls into these three offences.

Monks’ Pārājika 4

Prv.1.2:Bu-Pj.4 Laying claim (for oneself) to a non-existent, non-actual state of further-men … one falls into three offences: if, having evil desires, evil longings, he lays claim to a non-existent … there is an offence involving Defeat.[9] If he says, “The monk who lives in this vihāra is an arahant,” there is a grave offence for acknowledging (a conscious lie); there is an offence of wrong-doing for not acknowledging it.[10]

Concluded are the four Offences involving Defeat

Footnotes and references:

1.

sarīra is both physical frame and physical remains. Here really a corpse, a dead body, mata, as at Vin.3.29ff.

2.

Vin.3.37. In connection with what might be regarded as too great outspokenness in this Pārājika, I should like to draw attention to my remarks at BD.1, Introduction, p.xxxvii.

3.

Vin.3.37. In connection with what might be regarded as too great outspokenness in this Pārājika, I should like to draw attention to my remarks at BD.1, Introduction, p.xxxvii.

4.

See BD.1.71, BD.1.72 and notes.

8.

Vin.3.76. It seems that the thoughts attributed to the malefactor result in the offences being given in an ascending order of gravity, rather than, as is more usual, in a descending order.

9.

Vin.3.92; and below BD.6.55.

10.

Vin.3.99; and also Vin.5.99. “For not acknowledging” means he was not aware beforehand or while he was speaking that he was telling conscious lie, see Vin.3.100, Kaṅkhāvitaraṇī 34.