Vinaya Pitaka (1): The Analysis of Monks’ Rules (Bhikkhu-vibhanga)

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 345,334 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Bhikkhu-vibhanga: the first part of the Suttavibhanga, which itself is the first book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of rules for Buddhist monks. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (first part, bhikkhu-vibhanga) contains many...

Monks’ Expulsion (Pārājika) 2: Permutations

Permutations part 1

Summary

Bu-Pj.2.4.1 MS.230 Being in the earth, being on firm ground, being in BD.1.76 the air, being above ground, being in water, being in a boat, being in a vehicle, carried as a burden, being in a park, being in a monastic dwelling, being in a field, being on a plot of land, being in a village, being in the wilderness, water, tooth-wood, forest tree, goods being carried, deposit, customs station, a living being, footless, two-footed, four-footed, many-footed, a spy, a keeper of entrusted property, a mutually agreed theft, an arranged action, the making of a sign.

Exposition

Bu-Pj.2.4.2 MS.231 Being in the earth means: the goods are put down into the earth, buried, covered. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I will take the goods that are in the earth,” and he seeks for a companion,[1] or he seeks for a hoe or a basket, or he goes (to the goods),[2] there is an BD.1.77 offence of bad conduct.[3] Vin.3.48 If he breaks a piece of wood or a slender tree[4] growing there, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he digs up the soil or removes it or lifts it up, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he touches the container,[5] there is an offence of bad conduct. If he makes it quiver,[6] there is a serious offence. If he moves it from its base,[7] there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Putting his own vessel into (the container)[8], if he touches something worth five māsakas or more than five māsakas, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he makes it quiver, there is a serious offence.[9] If he makes it enter his own vessel[10] or takes it with his fist,[11][12] there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If, intending to steal, he touches goods held together by a string,[13] or a bracelet,[14] a necklace BD.1.78 ,[15] an ornamental girdle,[16] a robe, or a turban, there is an offence of bad conduct.

If he makes it quiver, there is a serious offence. If, grasping it at the top,[17] he pulls it, there is a serious offence. If while stroking it, he lifts it,[18] there is a serious offence. If he removes the goods even as much as a hairʼs breadth over the rim of the container, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If, intending to steal, he drinks, in one undertaking,[19] ghee, oil, honey or molasses[20] to the value of five māsakas or more than five māsakas, there is an offence entailing expulsion. In this case, if he destroys it, throws it away, burns it or renders it useless, there is an offence of bad conduct.

Bu-Pj.2.4.3 MS.232 Being on firm ground[21] means: the goods are put down on the firm ground. If, intending to steal and thinking, “I will steal the goods which are on the firm ground,” he either searches for a companion, or goes himself, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he touches them, BD.1.79 there is an offence of bad conduct. If he makes them quiver, there is a serious offence. If he moves them from their base, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.4 MS.233 Being in the air means: the goods are in the air.[22] A peacock, a francolin partridge,[23] a partridge, a quail,[24] a robe,[25] a turban or different varieties of gold—[26][27] that falls to the ground when cut. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I will steal the goods in the air,” and he either searches for a companion or goes himself, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he cuts off their course of movement,[28] there is an offence of bad conduct. If he touches them, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he makes them quiver, there is a serious offence. If he moves them from their base, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.5 MS.234 Being above ground[29] means: the goods are found above ground.[30] On a bed, on a bench, on a BD.1.80 bamboo pole for hanging robes from,[31] on a cord for hanging robes from, on a peg in the wall,[32] on an elephant tusk peg,[33] in a tree, or even if just fastened to a bowl stand.[34] If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I will steal the goods that are found above ground,” and he either searches for a companion or goes himself, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he touches them, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he makes them quiver, there is a serious offence. If he moves them from their base, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.6 Vin.3.49 MS.235 Being in the water means: the goods are deposited in the water. If intending to steal, he thinks, “I will steal the goods in the water,” and he either searches for a companion or goes himself, there is an offence of bad conduct. He either dives into the water or emerges from it, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he touches the goods, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he makes them quiver, there is a serious offence. If he moves them from their base, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If intending to steal, he touches either a blue, red, or white lotus which is growing there,[35] or the sprout of a lotus, or a fish or a turtle to the value of five māsakas or more than five māsakas, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he makes them quiver, there is a serious offence. If he moves them from their base, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.7 MS.236 A boat means: that by which one crosses.[36] Being in a boat means: the goods are deposited in a boat. BD.1.81 If intending to steal, he thinks, “I will steal the goods which are deposited in the boat,” and he either searches for a companion or goes himself, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he touches them … there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If intending to steal, he thinks, “I will steal the boat” … or goes himself, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he touches it, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he makes it quiver, there is a serious offence. If he loosens the moorings, there is an offence of bad conduct. If, having loosened the moorings, he touches it, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he makes it quiver, there is a serious offence. If he makes it move up or down, or across the water even for as much as a hairʼs breadth, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.8 MS.237 A vehicle[37] means: a litter, a two-wheeled carriage, a cart, a chariot.[38] Being in a vehicle means: the goods are deposited in a vehicle. If intending to steal, he thinks, “I will steal the goods deposited in the vehicle” … or goes himself, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he touches them … there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If intending to steal, he thinks, “I will steal the vehicle” … or goes himself, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he touches it … there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.9 MS.238 A burden means: a burden carried on the head, a burden carried on the back, a burden carried on the hip, one hanging down. If intending to steal, he touches the burden on the head, there is an BD.1.82 offence of bad conduct. If he makes it quiver, there is a serious offence. If he lowers it to the back, there is an offence entailing expulsion. If intending to steal, he touches the burden on the back, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he makes it quiver, there is a serious offence. If he lowers it to the hip, there is an offence entailing expulsion. If intending to steal, he touches the burden on the hip, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he causes it to quiver, there is a serious offence. If he takes it with his hands, there is an offence entailing expulsion. If intending to steal a burden in the hand, he deposits it on the ground, there is an offence entailing expulsion. Intending to steal, he takes it from the ground, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.10 MS.239 A park means: a park with flowers, an orchard.[39] Being in a park means: the goods are deposited in the park in four places: in the earth, on the firm ground, in the air, above the ground. If intending to steal, he thinks, “I will steal the goods in the park Vin.3.50 ” … or goes himself, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he touches them … there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If intending to steal, he touches a root growing there,[40] or a piece of bark,[41] a leaf, a flower,[42] or a fruit to the value of five māsakas or more than five māsakas … there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If he claims the park,[43] there is an offence of bad conduct. If he evokes doubt in the owner as to his ownership[44], there is a serious offence. If the owner thinks, “I wonʼt get it back,” and he gives up the effort of reclaiming it,[45][46] there is an offence entailing expulsion. If he resorts to the law[47] and defeats the owner, there is an offence BD.1.83 entailing expulsion. If he resorts to the law[48] but is defeated,[49] there is a serious offence.

Bu-Pj.2.4.11 MS.240 Being in a monastic dwelling[50] means: the goods are deposited in a monastic dwelling in four places: in the earth, on the firm ground, in the air, above the ground. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I will steal the goods in the monastic dwelling” … or goes himself, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he touches them … there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If he claims the monastic dwelling … but is defeated, there is a serious offence.

Bu-Pj.2.4.12 MS.241 A field means: where grain or vegetables grow.[51] Being in a field means: the goods are deposited in a field in four places: in the earth, on the firm ground, in the air, above the ground. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I will steal the goods deposited in the field” … or goes himself, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he touches them … there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If, intending BD.1.84 to steal, he touches the grain or the vegetables which grow there to the value of five māsakas or more than five māsakas … there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If he claims the field … but is defeated, there is a serious offence.

If he shifts a post, a cord, a fence, or a boundary, there is an offence of bad conduct. When one action of the shifting remains, there is a serious offence. When the last action of the shifting is completed, there is an offence entailing expulsion.[52]

Bu-Pj.2.4.13 MS.242 A plot of land means: the plot of land of a park or a monastery, the plot of land of a monastic dwelling. Being on a plot of land means: the goods are deposited on a plot of land in four places: in the earth, on the firm ground, in the air, above the ground. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I will steal the goods on the plot of land” … or he goes himself, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he touches them … there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If he claims the plot of land … but is defeated, there is a serious offence.

If he shifts a post, a cord, a fence, or a boundary, there is an offence of bad conduct. When one action of the shifting remains, there is a serious offence. When the last action of the shifting is completed, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.14 MS.243 Being in a village means: the goods are deposited in a village in four places: in the earth, on the firm ground, in the air, above the ground. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I will steal the goods the village” … or he goes himself, there is an offence BD.1.85 of bad conduct. If he touches them … there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.15 Vin.3.51 MS.244 The wilderness means: any wilderness which is owned by people.[53] Being in the wilderness means: the goods are deposited in the wilderness in four places: in the earth, on the firm ground, in the air, above the ground. If, intending to steal, he thinks, “I will steal the goods in the wilderness” … or he goes himself, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he touches them … there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If, intending to steal, he touches a piece of wood belonging there, or a creeper or grass, to the value of five māsakas or more than five māsakas … there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.16 MS.245 Water means: in a vessel, in a pond, or in a reservoir. If, intending to steal, he touches it … there is an offence entailing expulsion. Putting his own vessel into (the container holding the water), if he touches water to the value of five māsakas or more than five māsakas, intending to steal it, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he makes it quiver, there is a serious offence. If he puts it into his own bowl,[54] there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If he breaks the embankment, there is an offence of bad conduct. Having broken the embankment, if he empties water to the value of five māsakas or more than five māsakas, there is an offence entailing expulsion. If he empties water to the value of more than one māsaka but less than five māsakas, there is a serious offence. If he empties water to the value of a māsaka or less than a māsaka, there is an offence of bad conduct.

Bu-Pj.2.4.17 MS.246 Tooth-wood means: either cut or uncut. If, intending to steal, he touches what has a value of five māsakas or more than five māsakas, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he makes it quiver, there is a serious offence. If he moves it from its base, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

BD.1.86 Bu-Pj.2.4.18 MS.247 Forest tree[55] means: Whatever tree is owned by people. If, intending to steal, he fells it, for each blow there is an offence of bad conduct. When one blow remains (before the tree is felled), there is a serious offence. When that last blow is completed, there is an offence entailing expulsion.[56]

Bu-Pj.2.4.19 MS.248 Goods being carried[57] means: the goods of another are being carried. If, intending to steal, he touches them … there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If he thinks, “together with the carrier I will carry off the goods,” and he makes the carrier move one foot, there is a serious offence. If he makes him move the second foot, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If he thinks, “I will seize the fallen goods,” and he makes them fall, there is an offence of bad conduct. If, intending to steal, he touches the fallen goods to the value of five māsakas or more than five māsakas … there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.20 MS.249 Deposit means: goods deposited with oneself. If one is told, “give me the goods,” and one says, “I am not getting them,” there is an offence of bad conduct. If he evokes doubt in the mind of the owner (as to whether he will get them back), there is a serious offence. Vin.3.52 If the owner thinks, “he wonʼt give them to me,” and he gives up the effort of getting them back, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If he resorts to the law and defeats the owner, there is an offence entailing expulsion. If he resorts to the law but is defeated, there is a serious offence.[58]

Bu-Pj.2.4.21 MS.250 Customs station means: it is established by a king in a mountain-pass, at a ford in a river or at the gate of a village, so that tax shall be received from a person entering there. If, intending to steal, and having entered there, he touches goods that have a (tax)[59] value to the king of five māsakas or more than five māsakas, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he makes them quiver, there is a serious offence. If he goes beyond the customs station with one foot, there is a serious offence. BD.1.87 If he goes beyond the customs station with his second foot, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If, standing within the customs station, he makes the goods fall outside the customs station, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

If he avoids the customs station, there is an offence of bad conduct.

Bu-Pj.2.4.22 MS.251 Creature means: a human being.[60] If, intending to steal, he touches him … there is an offence entailing expulsion. If he thinks, “I will take him away on foot,” and he makes him move the first foot, there is a serious offence. If he makes him move the second foot, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.23 MS.252 Footless means: snakes and fish. If, intending to steal, he touches what has the value of five māsakas or more than five māsakas … there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.24 MS.253 Two-footed[61] means: humans and birds. If, intending to steal, he touches them … there is an offence entailing expulsion. If he thinks, “I will take them away on foot,” and he makes them move the first foot, there is a serious offence. If he makes them move the second foot, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.25 MS.254 Four-footed means: elephants, horses, camels,[62] cattle, asses, domesticated animals.[63] If, intending to steal, he touches them … there is an offence entailing expulsion. If he thinks, “I will BD.1.88 take them away on foot,” and he makes them move the first foot, there is a serious offence. If he makes them move the second foot, there is a serious offence. If he makes them move the third foot, there is a serious offence. If he makes them move the fourth foot, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.26 MS.255 Many-footed means: scorpions, centipedes, caterpillars[64]. If, intending to steal, he touches what has the value of five māsakas or more than five māsakas … there is an offence entailing expulsion. If he thinks, “I will take them away on foot,” and he makes them move, there is a serious offence for each leg that moves. When the last leg moves, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.27 MS.256 A spy means: having spied out goods[65], if he describes them[66] and says, “steal such and such goods,” there is an offence of bad conduct. If he takes those goods, there is an offence entailing expulsion for both.[67]

Bu-Pj.2.4.28 Vin.3.53 MS.257 A keeper of entrusted property means: guarding goods that have been brought to him to the value of five māsakas or more than five māsakas, and intending to steal, he touches them[68] … there is an offence entailing expulsion.

Bu-Pj.2.4.29 MS.258 A mutually agreed theft means: if many have agreed together[69] but only one steals the goods, there is an offence entailing expulsion for all of them.

Bu-Pj.2.4.30 MS.259 An arranged action[70] means: if one makes an arrangement for before the meal or for after the meal, for the night or for the day, saying, “take those goods according to this agreement,” there is an offence of bad conduct. If he takes those goods according to that agreement, there BD.1.89 is an offence entailing expulsion for both. If he takes those goods before or after the time of the agreement, there is no offence for the instigator, but an offence entailing expulsion for the thief.

Bu-Pj.2.4.31 MS.260 The making of a sign means: he makes a sign. If he says, “when I wink, raise my eyebrow, or raise my head, at that sign steal the goods,” there is an offence of bad conduct. If, at that sign, he steals the goods, there is an offence entailing expulsion for both. If he steals the goods before or after the sign, there is no offence for the instigator, but an offence entailing expulsion for the thief.

Permutations part 2

Bu-Pj.2.5.1 MS.261 If a monk tells a monk, “steal such and such goods,” there is an offence of bad conduct. If he steals them, thinking they are the ones he has been asked to steal, there is an offence entailing expulsion for both. If a monk tells a monk, “steal such and such goods,” but he steals something else, thinking they are the ones he has been asked to steal, there is no offence for the instigator, but there is an offence entailing expulsion for the thief. If a monk tells a monk, “steal such and such goods,” and he steals them, thinking they are something else than what he has been asked to steal, there is an offence entailing expulsion for both. If a monk tells a monk, “steal such and such goods,” but he steals something else than what he has been asked to steal, thinking it is something else, there is no offence for the instigator, but there is an offence entailing expulsion for the thief.[71]

Bu-Pj.2.5.2 MS.265 If a monk tells a monk, “tell such and such to tell such and such to steal such and such goods,” there is an offence of bad conduct. In informing the next person, there is an offence of bad conduct. If the (potential) thief agrees, there is a serious offence for the instigator. If he steals these goods, there is an offence entailing expulsion for all of them.[72][73] MS.266 If a monk tells a monk, “tell BD.1.90 such and such to tell such and such to steal such and such goods,” there is an offence of bad conduct. If he tells someone else than the one he was told to tell, there is an offence of bad conduct. If the (potential) thief agrees, there is an offence of bad conduct. If he steals these goods, there is no offence for the instigator, but there is an offence entailing expulsion for the conveyor of the message and the thief.

Bu-Pj.2.5.3 MS.267 If a monk tells a monk, Vin.3.54 “steal such and such goods,” there is an offence of bad conduct. Having gone, he returns, saying, “I am not able to steal those goods,” and if he tells him again, “when you are able, then steal those goods,” there is an offence of bad conduct. If he steals the goods, there is an offence entailing expulsion for both.

Bu-Pj.2.5.4 MS.268 If a monk tells a monk, “steal such and such goods,” there is an offence of bad conduct. If, having told him, he regrets it, but does not say[74] to him, “do not steal,” and he then steals those goods, there is an offence entailing expulsion for both.

MS.269 If a monk tells a monk, “steal such and such goods,” there is an offence of bad conduct. If, having told him, he regrets it and says, “do not steal,” but the other says, “I have been told by you,” and he then steals those goods, then there is no offence for the instigator, but an offence entailing expulsion for the thief.

MS.270 If a monk tells a monk, “steal such and such goods,” there is an offence of bad conduct. If, having told him, he regrets it and says to him, “do not steal,” and he says, “very well,”[75] and desists, there is no offence for either.

Permutations part 3

Bu-Pj.2.6.1 MS.271 For one who steals there is an offence entailing expulsion when five factors are fulfilled: it is the possession of another; one perceives it as such; it is a valuable possession worth at least five māsakas; one has the intention to steal; if one touches it, there is an offence of bad conduct / if one makes it quiver, there is a serious offence / if one makes it move from its base, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

MS.272 For one who steals there is a serious offence when five factors are fulfilled: it is the possession of another; one perceives it as such; it is BD.1.91 an ordinary possession worth more than one māsaka but less than five māsakas; one has the intention to steal; if one touches it, there is an offence of bad conduct / if one makes it quiver, there is an offence of bad conduct / if one makes it move from its base, there is a serious offence.

MS.273 For one who steals there is an offence of bad conduct when five factors are fulfilled: it is the property of another; one perceives it as such; it is an ordinary possession worth one māsaka or less; one has the intention to steal; if one touches it, there is an offence of bad conduct / if one makes it quiver, there is an offence of bad conduct / if one makes it move from its base, there is an offence of bad conduct.

Bu-Pj.2.6.2 MS.274 For one who steals there is an offence entailing expulsion when six factors are fulfilled: one does not perceive it as oneʼs own; one does not take it on trust;[76] one does not borrow it; it is a valuable possession worth at least five māsakas; one has the intention to steal; if one touches it, there is an offence of bad conduct / if one makes it quiver, there is a serious offence / if one makes it move from its base, there is an offence entailing expulsion.

MS.275 For one who steals there is a serious offence when six factors are fulfilled: one does not perceive it as oneʼs own; one does not take it on trust; one does not borrow it; it is an ordinary possession Vin.3.55 worth more than one māsaka but less than five māsakas; one has the intention to steal; if one touches it, there is an offence of bad conduct / if one makes it quiver, there is an offence of bad conduct / if one makes it move from its base, there is a serious offence.

MS.276 For one who steals there is an offence of bad conduct when six factors are fulfilled: one does not perceive it as oneʼs own; one does not take it on trust; one does not borrow it; it is an ordinary possession worth one māsaka or less; one has the intention to steal; if one touches it, there is an offence of bad conduct / if one makes it quiver, there is an offence of bad conduct / if one makes it move from its base, there is an offence of bad conduct.

Bu-Pj.2.6.3 MS.277 For one who steals there is an offence of bad conduct when five factors are fulfilled: it is not the possession of another; but one perceives it as the possession of another; it is a valuable possession worth at least five māsakas; one has the intention to steal; if one touches it, there is an offence of bad conduct / if BD.1.92 one makes it quiver, there is an offence of bad conduct / if one makes it move from its base, there is an offence of bad conduct.

MS.278 For one who steals there is an offence of bad conduct when five factors are fulfilled: it is not the possession of another; but one perceives it as the possession of another; it is an ordinary possession worth more than one māsaka but less than five māsakas; one has the intention to steal; if one touches it, there is an offence of bad conduct / if one makes it quiver, there is an offence of bad conduct / if one makes it move from its base, there is an offence of bad conduct.

MS.279 For one who steals there is an offence of bad conduct when five factors are fulfilled: it is not the possession of another; but one perceives it as the possession of another; it is an ordinary possession worth one māsaka or less; one has the intention to steal; if one touches it, there is an offence of bad conduct / if one makes it quiver, there is an offence of bad conduct / if one makes it move from its base, there is an offence of bad conduct.

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

dutiya, a second one, a mate or helper, a friend, associate or accomplice.

[2]:

There are two curious points in this passage: (1) he seeks for a hoe or a basket, not for both; (2) the construction pariyesati gacchati, the use of two indicatives together being uncommon. It is more usual to find an indicative following a gerund. Does this sentence mean that having been unable to find a willing friend he goes and seeks for the implements himself? Or that seeking a hoe or a basket he goes himself to do the theft? In the following paragraphs the reading is simpler: dutiyaṃ vā pariyesati gacchati vā, he seeks for a friend or he goes away (or goes himself). Vin-a.310f. says that realising that the treasure is too heavy for one person alone, he goes and wakes a sleeping friend (sahāya), who may bring his own hoe. But if he has not one, the intending thief goes to another monk and says: “Give me a hoe, I want it for something,” and he gives some excuse—a pācittiya offence. If he finds that the hoe has no handle, he goes away for this purpose, and cuts down and shapes a piece of dry wood. There is a dukkaṭa offence in all these undertakings, except in lying, which is a pācittiya, and in cutting reeds for a basket—also a pācittiya. We thus get two possible interpretations for gacchati: (1) that the intending thief goes away to another monk; (2) that he goes away to make a handle for the hoe. But in commenting on gacchati vā, Vin-a.311 says, “he goes to the place where the treasure is, the friend sought, the hoe (sought), the basket (sought).” This seems to convey the idea that he goes himself. I have therefore translated it in this way. Vin-a.312 mentions the names of eight dukkaṭa offences which are interesting. There are pubbapayogadukkaṭa, sahapayogadukkaṭa, anāmāsadukkaṭa, durūpaciṇṇadukkaṭa, vinayadukkaṭa, ñātadukkaṭa, ñattidukkaṭa, paṭissavadukkaṭa, which seem to mean respectively: the offence of a previous action, of a present action, of touching something forbidden (so Critical Pali Dictionary), the offence of handling something wrongfully, an offence concerning discipline, an offence concerning relations, an offence concerning a resolution, concerning obedience.

[3]:

Dukkaṭa, explained at Vin-a.313 as duṭṭhu kata, badly, wrongly done; and transgressing being done is called dukkaṭa. This is not one of the worst transgressions.

[4]:

Latā, a slender creeper.

[5]:

Brahmali: Kumbhi, literally, “pot”, but here it functions as a container.

[6]:

Phandāpeti, cf. MN.i.404 phandato phandāpayato, translated at Further Dialogues of the Buddha i.291,“who sets folk quaking or causes another to do so.” The meaning probably is that he takes hold of the article so that it throbs, trembles or shakes—a worse offence than merely laying hold of it, but not so bad as removing it.

[7]:

Ṭhānā cāveti. Cf. Snp.442 mā maṃ ṭhānā acāvayi, translated H.O.S. Vol. 37, “May he never beat me back,” and Sacred Books of the East, Volume X., “that he may not drive me away from my place.”

[8]:

Brahmali: Vin-a.2.316,15.

[9]:

Thullaccaya, an offence whose nature is grave, Vin-a.314.

[10]:

Attano bhājanagataṃ vā karoti. Cf. below, BD.1.85. Bhājanagataṃ explained at Vin-a.316 to mean bhājane yeva hoti, as kumbhigataṃ is kumbhiyaṃ, feminine locative.

[11]:

Brahmali: So that contact is broken with the other goods in the container; Vin-a.2.316,28.

[12]:

Muṭṭhiṃ chindati, i.e., of kahāpanas. Vin-a.316; which also says, evam muṭṭhiṃ karonto muṭṭhiṃ chindati nāma, making a fist so is called detaching a handful so that no kahāpaṇas come out between the fingers.

[13]:

Suttārūḷhaṃ. Vin-a.316, “putting on chains means, tying on chains, made of chains.” Cf. Vin.2.106 where the group of six monks wore similar things.

[14]:

Pāmaṅga, at Vinaya Texts iii.69, “ear-drops.” Vin-a.316, “made of gold, made of silver, made of chains, strings of pearls and so on.” Otherwise Buddhaghosa of no help here. Cf. Vin-a.534.

[15]:

Brahmali: The next item occurring in I.B. Hornerʼs translation is “an ornamental string hanging from the ear,” but since this is not found in the Mahāsaṅgīti, I have left it out. Her note on this is: “Kaṇṇasuttaka at Vin.1.286 seems to mean a clothes-line; but cf. Vin.2.143.”

[16]:

Kaṭisuttaka. Not enumerated at Vin.2.136 where other special kinds of girdles are mentioned. The monks were forbidden to wear any of these things, Vin.2.107. The use of kaṭisuttaka, meaning a hip-string, is forbidden to the nuns at Vin.2.271.

[17]:

koṭiyam gahetvā = ākāsaṭṭham akaronto, Vin-a.317.

[18]:

ghaṃsanto nīharati, which according to Vin-a.317 means that when a big pot is brim-full, drawing it out and levelling a chain (pāmaṅga) across the mouth of the big pot, if he draws the chain further than the mouth, so that he drags off whatever goods rise higher than the level of the top of the pot, there is a pārājika offence. But if, in pulling the chain, he does not pull over any goods, as he does not pull the chain beyond the rim, there is a thullaccaya offence. See above, BD.1.77 n., on pāmaṅga.

[19]:

payoga, an elastic term, meaning action, business, undertaking; cf. Vin.3.50 below, where it seems to mean occasion, occurrence, happening.

[20]:

These, with fresh butter, navanīta, constitute the five kinds of medicine, cf. below, Vin.3.251.

[21]:

thalaṭṭhaṃ. Thala is solid ground, firm ground, as opposed to water; dry ground—i.e., high, raised or sloping as opposed to low ground; or a plateau as opposed to a low-lying place. Vin-a.322 explains by bhūmitale vā pāsādapabbatatalādīsu vā.

[22]:

ākāsagataṃ, gataṃ being an elastic termination of some fixed significance.

[23]:

kapiñjara, possibly with this meaning, cf. Kv.268 (kapiñjala) and Ja.vi.538.

[24]:

vaṭṭako. Pali-English Dictionary says a “cart,” vaṭṭakā being “quail.”

[25]:

Blown by the force of the wind and extended on the ground, Vin-a.324.

[26]:

Brahmali: This renders hiraññaṃ vā suvaṇṇaṃ vā. These are two different words for gold, the exact distinction between them being unclear.

[27]:

hiraññaṃ vā suvaṇṇaṃ vā. While people are putting on, e.g. a necklace or while a goldsmith is making a salākā, if it falls from the fastener, and the thief makes off with it, Vin-a.324. But for these two words, hirañña and suvaṇṇa, cf. above BD.1.28, n.

[28]:

Brahmali: Presumably this refers to something moving through the air, perhaps especially birds.

[29]:

Vehāsaṭṭhaṃ. There is usually little difference between vehāsa and ākāsa, which is part of the word explained in the preceding paragraph. Both usually mean “air” or “atmosphere.” But it is clear in this context that some greater difference is intended. In this paragraph, beginning “Being above ground,” the goods are shown to come into contact with something standing on or supported by the earth, and are not, as “in the air,” freed, like a bird, from the earth’s support. Vehāsaṭṭhaṃ, with bhūmigataṃ, occurs at DN.i.115, and is translated at Dialogues of the Buddha i.i47 “above the ground,” which I follow, and at Dialogues of the Buddha ii.94, “housed in treasury chambers.” DN-a.i.284 = MN-a.iii.420 says “completing terraces and turrets (pāsādaniyyūhādāyo) and putting (it there) is called ‘above the ground.’”

[30]:

vehāsagataṃ.

[31]:

cīvaravaṃsa. This and the next, cīvararajju, are often found together in Vinaya; cf. Vin.1.47 and Vin.1.286 where these things were prescribed for the monks.

[32]:

bhittikhīla. Vin-a.327, something knocked against the wall, driven straight in, or something that was there originally.

[33]:

nāgadanta. Vin-a.327 says that this is curved.

[34]:

Vin-a.328: this may be a support on a tree or on a fence or on a stick.

[35]:

tatthajātaka, literally born there.

[36]:

Vin-a.332, here meaning even a washerman’s tub or a sheaf of bamboos.

[37]:

yāna, a way, the act of going, so a vehicle. Earlier, in the Brāhmaṇas and Upaniṣads, it had meant a way, rather than the means of going, as devayāna, pitṛyāna, the way to the devas, the way to the ancestors. Dasgupta, History of Indian Philosophy i.125 sees the word as “career”. This rendering was adopted by E.J. Thomas, History of Buddhist Thought, p.178, in referring to later (Mahāyāna) teaching. The above definition clearly rules out “career” for this passage.

[38]:

Cf. Vin.4.339 where two more are added: sivikā pāṭaṅkī, palanquin and sedan-chair.

[39]:

Brahmali: The word ārāma, “park”, also includes monasteries.

[40]:

tatthajātaka, cf. BD.1.80, n.5; Vin-a.337f., applies this adjective only to mūla.

[41]:

Bark was used for medicine or dye; to harm a tree with valuable bark was a pārājika, Vin-a.338.

[42]:

Such as jasmine and lotus.

[43]:

Vin-a.338, i.e. belonging to someone else, saying, ‘It is mine’; in this attempt to take what is not given, there is a dukkaṭa.

[44]:

Brahmali: Vin-a.2.338,16.

[45]:

Brahmali: Vin-a.2.338,21.

[46]:

dhuraṃ nikkhipati, or “throws off his responsibility.”

[47]:

dhammaṃ caranto. Vin-a.ii.339: bhikkhusanghe vā rājakule vā vinicchayaṃ karonto; but the judges having descended to false witnesses pervert justice and conquer the keeper.

[48]:

Here Vin-a.339 says, “but if proceeding with the investigation by means of Vinaya and Dhamma and the master’s teaching, he accomplishes his own defeat … he falls into a thullaccaya.”

[49]:

parajjati.

[50]:

Note that this paragraph and Bu-Pj.2.4.14 below do not begin by saying: “a vihāra means:”, “a village means:”, as do the others here.

[51]:

There are seven sorts of grain (pubbaṇṇa) and seven kinds of pulses or cereals (aparaṇṇa). Cnd.314 distinguishes these two sorts of grain: pubbaṇṇa (natural) and aparaṇṇa (prepared). To the first, here called dhañña, belong sāli and vīhi (rice-sorts), yava (barley), godhūma (wheat), kaṅga (millet), varaka (beans), kudrūsaka. At Dialogues of the Buddha iii.70 n.1 translator says kudrūsaka is a “kind of rye.” At DN.iii.71 it is said that as now sāli and curry (maṃsodana) are the highest kinds of food, so when man’s life-span is reduced to ten years, kudrūsaka will become the highest food. At Vin.4.264 these kinds of grain are catalogued under āmaka-dhañña, “raw” grain, corn in its natural, unprepared state. At DN.i.5 = AN.ii.209 it is said that Gotama is one who abstains from accepting this āmakadhañña. Mnd.248, in defining khetta gives a rather different series of seven grains; sāli, vīhi, mugga (kidney-bean), māsa (a bean, Phaseolus indica or radiata), yava, godhūma, tila (sesame plant). Mil.106 again varies slightly: sāli, vīhi, yava, taṇḍula (rice-grain), tila, mugga, māsa. AN.iv.108 = AN.iv.112 includes tila, mugga, māsa under aparaṇṇa. A list of provisions for a journey at Vin.1.244 includes taṇḍula, mugga, māsa. Ja.v.106 says that hareṇukā ti aparaṇṇajā ti.

[52]:

Ekaṃ payogaṃ anāgate, āpatti thullaccayassa; tasmin payoge āgate, āpatti pārājikassa. Note the use of accusative and locative. Vin-a.341 says, “desiring to make a field for himself using the enclosure of another person’s field, he digs in the wood. Each time he uses a piece, there is a dukkaṭa offence (payoge payoge dukkaṭaṃ); when one piece is still to come, there is a thullaccaya offence (ekasmiṃ anāgate thullaccayaṃ); when that piece has come, there is a pārājika (tasmiṃ āgate pārājikaṃ).” Commentary goes on to say that if by these means one is able to enclose a field for himself, then there is a dukkaṭa with the first payoga, and finally (avasāne) there is one of two things: a thullaccaya according to one, a pārājika according to the other.

[53]:

Brahmali: See Vin-a.2.342,4.

[54]:

attano bhājanagataṃ karoti, cf. above, BD.1.77.

[55]:

Vin-a.347, “the oldest tree, but here (idha) all are taken for the use of people.”

[57]:

haraṇaka, from √hr, to bring, convey, carry, fetch.

[58]:

Cf. above, Bu-Pj.2.4.10.

[59]:

Brahmali: See Vin-a.2.358,29.

[60]:

Brahmali: According to the commentary, this refers to slaves; see Vin-a.2.361,11.

[61]:

Vin-a.363 says there are three kinds of creatures born with wings: those with wings of down (loma), such as peacocks and partridges; those with wings of skin, such as bats; those with wings of bone, such as bees.

[62]:

oṭṭha, “camel” in Classical Sanskrit. This word appears in another list of animals at Mil.32, there translated “camels.” Morris, Journal of the Pali Text Society 1887, p.150, for oṭṭhivyādhi suggests “female elephant,” a rendering followed by Francis and Neil in translating Ja.iii.385. Here the oṭṭhivyādhi is made to speak of feats done by her in battle with words which, however, ring equally true if they came from a camel. Oṭṭha can hardly mean “elephant” here, since the ordinary word hatthi is included in the list. Monier Williams, Sanskrit Dictionary, Oxford, 1872, has “uṣṭra … a buffalo; a bull with a hump; a camel; a cart, a waggon; … (ī), f. a she-camel; an earthen vessel in the shape of a camel.”

[63]:

Brahmali: Pasuka. According to the commentary, this last term includes all four-footed animals; see Vin-a.2.363,23.

[64]:

Brahmali: Uccāliṅgapāṇakā. The exact meaning is uncertain.

[65]:

“examining them and considering them.” Vin-a.365.

[66]:

I.e., to another as goods put carelessly or unguarded in other houses or vihāras.

[67]:

ubhinnaṃ pārājikassa, for he both incites others and assists in the theft himself.

[68]:

“He puts them into a sack or a well.” Vin-a.366.

[69]:

samvidahitvā, also below, Bu-Pj.2.7.34.

[70]:

saṃketakamma.

[71]:

Brahmali: The ellipses points found in I.B. Hornerʼs translation and in the P.T.S. original used by her have been filled in in accordance with the Mahāsaṅgīti.

[72]:

Brahmali: That is, altogether four people.

[73]:

Vin-a.369, sabbesaṃ catunnam pi janānaṃ pārājikaṃ.

[74]:

na sāveti, causative of suṇāti, to hear.

[75]:

suṭṭhu.

[76]:

Brahmali: This means he has a prior agreement with the owner whereby he has permission to take his possessions or certain of his possessions.

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