Jivika, Jīvikā: 9 definitions

Introduction

Jivika means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Google Books: Studies in Hindu Law and Dharmaśāstra

The stanza (Manu-smṛti 10.76) draws an interesting distinction; it singles out three activities (karman) of the Brāhmaṇa. and labels them his “means of livelihood” (jīvikā):

“Three of these six activities are his means of livelihood: performing sacrifices for others, teaching, and receiving gifts from the pure.”

Neither Āpastamba nor Baudhāyana make this distinction, nor does Manu in his first chapter.

Vasiṣṭha does not make it for the Brāhmaṇa (2.14), but he does for the Kṣatriya and Vaiśya.

Gautama adopts a different procedure: he first (10.1) lists—without using a generic term—the three activities of the twice-born: studying, sacrificing, giving gifts, and then adds “additional” (adhika) ones for the Brāhmaṇa (10.2), the Kṣatriya (10.7), and the Vaiśya (10.49).

The separation is complete in the Viṣṇusmṛti, which first (2.4–9) gives the dharmas of the four castes (varṇa), and then (2.10–15) their vṛttis, an often used synonum for jīvikā.

Manu then states (10.77–78) that the three activities which constitute the jīvikā of the Brāhmaṇa do not apply in the case of a Kṣatriya or Vaiśya: “Three obligations (dharma) are not transferable from the Brāhmaṇa to the Kṣatriya: teaching, performing sacrifices for others, and, thirdly, receiving gifts. Similarly, they shall not be transferred to the Vaiśya; such is the rule. For Manu, the creator, does not prescribe these obligations for either one of these.”

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

jīvikā : (f.) livelihood.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Jīvikā, (f.) (abstr. fr. jīvaka) living, livelihood S. III, 93; A. V, 87, 210; J. IV, 459; Miln. 122; SnA 466. frequent in combination °ṃ kappeti to find or get one’s living: J. II, 209; PvA. 40, etc.; °kappaka finding one’s livelihood (c. ger. by) J. II, 167. Cp. next. (Page 285)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

jīvikā (जीविका).—f (S) Means of subsistence; property, profession, or occupation by which life is maintained.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

jīvikā (जीविका).—f Means of subsistence.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jīvikā (जीविका).—[jīv-akan ata itvam]

1) Means of living, livelihood; कुदेशे नास्ति जीविका (kudeśe nāsti jīvikā) Mb.12.139.94.

2) The life-giving element, i. e. water.

3) life; कृपणा वर्तयिष्यामि कथं कृपणजीविका (kṛpaṇā vartayiṣyāmi kathaṃ kṛpaṇajīvikā) Rām.2.2.47.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Jīvika (जीविक) or Jīvaka.—(1) , the physician: Avadāna-śataka ii.134.6 ff.; [(2) in Lalitavistara 430.20 text jīvika-pariskāra, but most mss. jīvita- or javika-; read jīvita-, equipment or utensils for living.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jīvikā (जीविका).—f.

(-kā) 1. Livelihood, profession or occupation by which a subsistence is obtained. 2. A tree: see jīvantī. E. jīv to live, ṇvul and ṭāp affixes: see jīvaka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Jīvikā (जीविका):—[from jīvaka > jīv] a f. living, manner of living, [Kaṭha-upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti iv, 11; x, 82] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] livelihood, [x, 76; Mahābhārata] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Rājataraṅgiṇī vi, 22])

3) [v.s. ...] the plant Jīvantī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] [plural] ‘life-giving element’, water, [Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra vi, 9].

5) [from jīv] b f. See vaka.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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