Ghatika, Ghaṭikā, Ghātikā, Ghaṭika: 27 definitions


Ghatika means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Ghaṭikā (घटिका) refers to the “chronometer”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.47 (“The ceremonious entry of Śiva”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] Waiting for the auspicious Lagna befitting marriage, Bṛhaspati and others became jubilant. Garga was seated in the place where the chronometer had been kept (ghaṭikā-ālaya). The Oṃkāra Mantra was repeated during the interval before the Lagna. Repeating the Puṇyāha mantras, Garga lifted the handful of rice-grains and handing them over to Pārvatī he made her shower it on Śiva. [...]”.

Note: Ghaṭikā or a water clock was not only useful for carrying the nuptial programme at proper times but was also symbolical of time that ruled over the entire universe.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Ghaṭikā (घटिका).—A measure of time equal to 24 minutes. Sixty vināḍikās make one Ghaṭikā. (See Kālamāna).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Ghaṭikā (घटिका).—A measurement of time.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 21. 4.
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa

Ghaṭikā (घटिका) is a Sanskrit technical term referring a division of time (24 minutes). There are 60 ghaṭikās in a single lunar day (tithi; comprises 24 hours). The term is used throughout Jyotiṣa literature.

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Ghaṭikā (घटिका) or Ghaṭikāyantra refers to a “water clock” used for telling the time, according to Āryabhaṭa’s Āryabhaṭasiddhānta.—(Cf. Astronomical instruments in Bhāskarācārya’s Siddhāntaśiromaṇi).—Accordingly, “One should get a hemispherical bowl made of copper, 10 palas in weight, six aṅgulas in height, and twelve aṅgulas in diameter at the top. At the bottom thereof, let a hole be made by a needle eight aṅgulas in length and 1 pala in weight. This is the ghaṭikā-yantra, (so named) because it is filled by water in a period of 60 palas (i.e. one ghaṭī). Any copper vessel made according to one's liking with a hole in the bottom, which sinks into water 60 times in a day and night, is the water instrument called Kapāla”—(Kripa Shankar Shukla’s translation).

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Ghaṭikā (घटिका).—(also known as ghaṭī) 1. A time unit equal to one-sixtieth of a day, 24 minutes. Note: Ghaṭikā is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Temple management in the Āgamas

Ghaṭikā (घटिका) or Nāḍikā or the Tamil Nāḻikai is equal to 24 minutes (and corresponds to 60 prāṇas). The Arcanāṅgavidhi of Pūrvakāmikāgama first details the time measurement used before explaining the pūjā schedule. The Āgama divides a day into eight major time periods, further divided into smaller units. The smallest and most basic unit of time is one svāsa. Sixty svāsa constitute one prāṇa. Sixty prāṇa constitute one ghaṭikā. Calculation is made from sunrise. Seven and a half ghaṭikā is equal to one yāma. A day consists of eight yāma, or sixty ghaṭikā.

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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Ghatika in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Ghaṭikā (घटिका) refers to Unit of Time (corresponding to twenty-four minutes), according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—A nāḍī appears to be a synonym for ghaṭikā (i.e., twenty-four minutes) which fits between a pala (i.e., twenty-four seconds) and a prahara (i.e., three hours). A ghaṭikā is defined in Amanaska 1.35. As a unit of time, the term nāḍī is not found elsewhere in the Amanaska, and in the following verses ghaṭikā is used instead. The use of nāḍī and ghaṭikā as synonyms is attested elsewhere; e.g., Bhāskara's Siddhāntaśiromaṇi, verse 17a-b in the Kālamānādhyāya of the Madhyamādhikāra.

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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Hindupedia: Pañcāṅga

Ghaṭikā (घटिका).—Though the exact duration of a lunar day (tithi) is of 60 ghaṭikās (equal to 24 hours), the motion of the moon being irregular, the traversing of twelve degrees varies from 54 to 65 ghaṭikās. Consequently there may be two tithis on the same unit day or the same tithi can extend over two unit days.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Ghaṭika (घटिक) refers to “jars” (suitable for an offering ritual), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [As the Bhagavān said]: “Now I shall teach the offering manual which is auspicious and can bring about any effect. [...] Seven coiling figures should be made and rice spirals. Twenty-one figures should be prepared one after the other. Boiled rice, milk rice, a dish of rice and peas, yoghurt and thickened milk should be placed. Fruits and flowers should be placed. Four jars (ghaṭika) should be placed. Preceded by a great offering barley-meal should be placed as foremost. [...]”.

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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Ghaṭikā (घटिका) refers to a “time-piece”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Those who are wise speak about momentariness with the striking of the clock of kings [com.—ghaṭikāghaṭikāgataśabdenaghaṭikāgataśabdena—‘with the sound coming from a time-piece’]. The betterment of oneself must be accomplished. That [time] which is past will not return”.

Synonyms: Ghaṭī.

Note: The Hindi explanation (JA[S] 3rd ed. p. 27-8) differs slightly from the commentary in its reading of this verse. It says that the sages have explained the transitoriness of animate and inanimate objects with the striking of the clock of kings. This means that just as a clock (ghaṭikā) indicates minutes and hours by striking on time so it also indicates the destruction of things according to the passage of time. The reason Śubhacandra refers to the striking of the clock of kings is due to the fact that, as laid down in the Arthaśāstra (attributed to Kauṭilya), from ancient times in India it was one of the responsibilities of a king to keep the time (Pargiter 1915: 699).

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (history)

Ghaṭikā (घटिका) refers to a “water clock” used for telling the time.—From about the fourth century A.D. up to recent times the water clock of the sinking bowl type (Ghaṭikā or Ghaṭīyantra) has been the chief device in India for measuring time. The instrument consists of a hemispherical bowl (ghaṭikā or ghaṭī) with a minute perforation at the bottom. When this bowl is placed on the surface of water in a larger vessel or basin (kuṇḍa, kuṇḍikā, kuṇḍī), water slowly percolates into the bowl through the perforation. When the bowl is full, it sinks to the bottom of the vessel with a clearly audible thud. The weight of the vessel and the size of the perforation are so regulated that the bowl sinks sixty times in a nychthemeron (ahorātra). Thus the time taken for filling the bowl once is one-sixtieth part of a nychthemeron, or twenty-four minutes. This was the standard unit of time measurement in India and is called ghaṭikā or ghaṭī after the name of the bowl. The ghaṭikā is subdivided into sixty vighaṭikās, which are also called palas.

When the bowl sinks to the bottom of the vessel, indicating the completion of one ghaṭikā, this fact is broadcast with blasts on a conch-shell or strokes on a drum. In the early medieval period, the conch and drum were replaced by the gong, which was designated in the Middle Indic as ghaḍiyāla (from ghaṭikālaya, ‘water clock house’).

Note: This sinking bowl type replaced the outflow type which too measured the standard unit of twenty-four minutes. Here the instrument and also the time unit were styled nālikā, nālī or nāḍikā, nāḍī. Even after the outflow clock was discarded, the old names continued to be used along with ghaṭikā and ghaṭī.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Ghaṭika.—(CII 2-1), used in the sense of ghaṭikā, an hour equal to twentyfour English minutes. Note: ghaṭika is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Ghaṭikā.—(CII 3; ML), an hour; time equal to twentyfour English minutes; same as ghaṭi, ghaṭī. (Ep. Ind., Vol. VIII, p. 34, note 6), an establishment of holy and learned men. Cf. Tamil ghaṭikai (SII 12). Cf. ghaṭige (SII 3), an assembly. (SITI), an educational institution for advanced studies; a university; probably the same as śālā and mahāśālā. Cf. Prakrit ghaḍia-ghaḍā (EI 8), same as goṣṭhī. Note: ghaṭikā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Ghatika in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

ghaṭikā : (f.) a small bowl; knot; an hour; a ball; a game of sticks.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Ghaṭikā, 2 (f.) (to ghaṭa2, orig. meaning “knot, ” cp. gantha & gaṇṭhi, also gaṇḍa) 1. a small stick, a piece of a branch, a twig J.I, 331; IV, 87 (khadira°); VI, 331; Th.2, 499 (=khaṇḍa ThA.290). upadhānaghaṭikā J.III, 179 (belonging to the outfit of an executioner); pāsa° J.II, 253 is a sort of magic stick or die (=pāsaka) ‹-› 2. a game of sticks (“tip-cat” sticks Miln.trsl. II.32). D.I, 6≈(DA.I, 85: ghaṭikā ti vuccati dīgha-daṇḍakena rassa daṇḍaka-paharaṇa kīḷā, tip-cat); Vin.II, 10; III, 181; M.I, 266; A.V, 203; Miln.229.—3. a stack of twigs S.II, 178, 4; (a stick used as) a bolt Vin.II, 120, 208; III, 119; usually as sūci° a needle-shaped stick Vin.II, 237 (cp. Vin. Texts III, 106); S.IV, 290; Ud.52; J.I, 346. Cp. gaṇḍikādhāna. (Page 256)

2) Ghaṭikā, 1 (f.) (to ghaṭa1) a small bowl, used for begging alms Th.2, 422 (=ThA.269: bhikkhā-kapāla). (Page 256)

— or —

Ghātikā, (f. abstr. to ghātaka) murder J.I, 176 sq. (Page 257)

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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

ghaṭikā (घटिका).—f (S) A period of sixty pala or twenty-four minutes. 2 The metal vessel by the sinking of which in water the ghaṭikā is measured. 3 A muhūrtta or 30th part of a day and night. 4 The ancle. Note. ghaṭikā will sometimes be met with in the phrases given under its derivative ghaṭakā.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

ghaṭikā (घटिका).—See ghaṭakā.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ghaṭika (घटिक).—[ghaṭena tarati ṭhan] A water-man.

-kam The hip, the posteriors.

Derivable forms: ghaṭikaḥ (घटिकः).

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Ghaṭikā (घटिका).—

1) A small water-jar, bucket, a small earthen vessel; नार्यः श्मशानघटिका इव वर्जनीयाः (nāryaḥ śmaśānaghaṭikā iva varjanīyāḥ) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 1.192; एष क्रीडति कूपयन्त्रघटिकान्यायप्रसक्तो विधिः (eṣa krīḍati kūpayantraghaṭikānyāyaprasakto vidhiḥ) Mṛcchakaṭika 1.59.

2) A measure of time equal to 24 minutes.

3) A water-pot used in calculating the Ghaṭikās of the day;

4) The ankle.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Ghaṭikā (घटिका).—(Pali id., small stick; compare prec.), stick; in vaṃśa-gh°, q.v.

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Ghātikā (घातिका).—(compare Pali dubbala-ghātikā Jātaka (Pali) i.176.27; 177.4, killing of the weak), destruction, violation, in visram- bha-gh°,…of confidence: bodhisattvo…na °tikayā na dhūrtatayā lābham upārjayati Śikṣāsamuccaya 269.2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ghaṭika (घटिक).—n.

(-kaṃ) The posteriors. f.

(-kā) 1. The ankle; also ghaṭikā. 2. A Muhurta or thirtieth part of a day and night. 3. A Danda or period of twenty-four minutes. m.

(-kaḥ) A waterman. E. ghaṭī a clock. &c. affixes kan and ṭāp for the feminine; otherwise ghaṭa a jar and ṭhan aff.

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Ghāṭikā (घाटिका).—f.

(-kā) The nape of the neck. E. svātha ka added to the preceding. ghāṭāyām .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ghaṭikā (घटिका).—i. e. ghaṭī + ka, f. 1. A jar, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 206; a bucket, [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 178, 7. 2. A muhūrta, or thirtieth part of a day and night, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 21, 4.

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Ghāṭikā (घाटिका).—[Pañcatantra] 209, 24; 211, 24; 212, 4 = ghaṭikā, which is probably to be read.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ghaṭikā (घटिका):—[from ghaṭaka > ghaṭ] a f. a water-jar, [Mṛcchakaṭikā x, 55 (59); Sāhitya-darpaṇa iii, 146/147]

2) [v.s. ...] (ghāṭ), [Pañcatantra]

3) [v.s. ...] a period of time (= 24 [or 48 [Horace H. Wilson]] minutes), [Sūryasiddhānta; Bhāgavata-purāṇa v, 21, 4 and 10; Hemacandra’s Yoga-śāstra iii, 63 [Scholiast or Commentator] on Jyotiṣa (Yv) 25 and 40 f.; Tantr.]

4) [v.s. ...] (= kalā, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra ii, 1, 1 and 17 [Scholiast or Commentator]])

5) [v.s. ...] the Ghārī or Indian clock (See ṭī), [Golādhyāya xi, 8]

6) [v.s. ...] (= ghuṭ) the ancle, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) Ghaṭika (घटिक):—[from ghaṭ] mfn. = ghaṭena tarat, [Pāṇini 4-4, 7; Kāśikā-vṛtti]

8) [v.s. ...] m. a waterman, [Horace H. Wilson]

9) [v.s. ...] n. the hip, posteriors, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) Ghaṭikā (घटिका):—[from ghaṭika > ghaṭ] b f. See ṭaka.

11) [from ghaṭ] c f. of ṭaka q.v.

12) Ghaṭīkā (घटीका):—[from ghaṭ] f. = ṭikā (24 minutes), [Kālanirṇaya]

13) Ghāṭikā (घाटिका):—[from ghāṭaka > ghāṭa] a (ikā), f. for ghaṭ q.v.

14) Ghāṭika (घाटिक):—[from ghāṭa] m. = ghāṇṭ q.v.

15) Ghāṭikā (घाटिका):—[from ghāṭika > ghāṭa] b f. See ṭaka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ghaṭika (घटिक):—(kaṃ) 1. n. The posteriors. f. kā The ancle; a portion of time; almost an hour. m. A waterman.

2) Ghāṭikā (घाटिका):—(kā) 1. f. Idem.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Ghaṭikā (घटिका) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Ghaḍiā, Ghāiā, Ghāḍiya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Ghatika in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Ghatika in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Ghaṭikā (घटिका):—(nf) a time-interval of 24 minutes; also called [ghaḍī].

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