Puranic encyclopaedia

by Vettam Mani | 1975 | 609,556 words | ISBN-10: 0842608222

This page describes the Story of Manvantara included the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani that was translated into English in 1975. The Puranas have for centuries profoundly influenced Indian life and Culture and are defined by their characteristic features (panca-lakshana, literally, ‘the five characteristics of a Purana’).

Story of Manvantara

Kalpa, Manvantara and Caturyuga.

The Prapañca (universe) is perishable. At one time, it takes its origin, at another time it perishes. Brahmā, the creator of the universe has birth and death. The period between the birth and death of a Brahmā is known as a "Mahākalpa". The flood that comes at the death of a Brahmā is called "Mahāpralaya". One day of Brahmā is called Kalpakāla. In the Purāṇas one Kalpa or one day of Brahmā is divided into fourteen parts. The master or ruler of each of these divisions is a Manu. There are fourteen Manus. The life span of each Manu is called a "Manvantaram".

There are seventy one Caturyugas in each Manvantara. The four yugas namely Kṛtayuga, Tretāyuga, Dvāparayuga and Kaliyuga make np one Caturyuga. At the end of seventyone such Caturyugas, that is, at the end of every two hundred and eightyfour (71 x 4) yugas, a Manu completes his life-span. Along with that, the Devas who were born at the time of the birth of that Manu, also come to the end of their lives. Fourteen such Manvantaras make one day of Brahmā. It is at the end of that day that the original universe perishes. Brahmā’s life-span is 120 years. At the end of that period, that Brahmā perishes. That is to say, at the end of every 42,200 divine days (120 x 360) which is the life-span of a Brahmā, a deluge takes place. Thus in one Brahmā’s time 42,200 Kalpas take place. A Brahmā’s life span is known as "Mahākalpa" and the close of a Brahmā’s period is called "Mahāpralaya".

Human year (Manuṣya varṣa) and Divine year (Deva varṣa).

When two leaves are placed one over the other and they are pierced by a needle, the time required for the needle to pass from the first leaf to the second is called "Alpakāla". Thirty such alpakālas make one "Truṭi". Thirty truṭis make one "Kalā". Thirty Kalās make one "Kāṣṭhā", which is also known as "Nimiṣa" "Noṭi" or "Mātrā". Four "Nimiṣas" make one "Gaṇita". Ten Gaṇitas, one "Neṭuvīrppu". Six neṭuvīrppus, one "Vināzhikā". Sixty vināzhikās one "Ghaṭikā". Sixty ghaṭikās one day (day and night together). Fifteen days, one "Pakṣa". Two Pakṣas, one "Cāndra māsa" (lunar month). One Cāndramāsa for human beings is one "ahorātra" (one day and night making up one full day) for the pitṛs. Twelve Cāndra māsas make one year for human beings. One year for human beings is one ahorātra for the gods. Three hundred ahorātras of gods make one "Deva Vatsara" or "Divya vatsara". 4,800 divyavatsaras make one Kṛtayuga. 3,600 divyavatsaras make one Tretāyuga, 2,400 divyavatsaras make one Dvāparayuga. 1,200 divyavatsaras make one Kaliyuga. 12,000 divyavatsaras comprising a set of Kṛta, Tretā. Dvāpara and Kaliyugas make one Caturyuga. A Manu’s period is completed at the end of 71 Caturyugas. With that, the first group of gods also comes to an end. At the end of fourteen such Manus, one "Kalpa" is over and a deluge takes place. The whole of this period comprises one night for Brahmā. Night is the time of complete inactivity. With the end of the night, creation is started again. When 360 such ahorātras of Brahmā are completed, he completes one year. After completing 120 such years, a Brahmā perishes. Again a period of absolute inactivity follows for the length of a Brahmā’s life-span. After a period of 120 Brahma varṣas (the lifespan of a Brahmā) another Brahmā comes into being.

The life-span of Brahmā is shown in the following tabular form: 360 days for gods—One Deva vatsara. 12,000 Deva vatsaras—1 caturyuga (36 lakhs years for human beings). 71 caturyugas—1 Manvantaram (One Manu’s life-span). 14 Manvantaras—1 Kalpa (one day time for Brahmā) 2 Kalpas—One day (and night) for Brahmā. (Ahorātra) 360 days of Brahmā—1 Brahma Varṣa 120 Brahma Varṣas—One Brahmā’s life-span.

This life-span of one Brahmā is therefore 30 crores 9 lakhs 17 thousands 376 hundreds of years of human beings.

It is said that a Manu’s period of reign is 4,32,000 Manuṣyarvarṣas. (Bhāgavata, 3rd Skandha).

The caturyuga scheme.

A caturyuga consists of the four yugas, namely Kṛta, Tretā, Dvāpara and Kali yugas. At the end of each Caturyuga, the Vedas perish Then the "Saptarṣis" (seven sages) come down from heaven to the earth and restore them again. Manu who is the propounder of Dharma śāstra, is also born in every Kṛtayuga. The Devas of each Manvantaram feed upon the share of Havis (offerings at sacrifices) of the yāga till the end of that Manvantara. During the whole period of the Manvantara, the earth is protected and preserved by the sons of Manu and their descendants. Thus Manu, the Saptarṣis, Devas, Indra and the Kings who are the sons of Manu are the authorities of the Manvantara. After 14 Manvantaras a Kalpa of about 1,000 yugas, comes to an end. After that there is a night extending over the same period in duration. At that time Mahāviṣṇu sleeps on his bed Ananta in the ocean of deluge. After that, he wakes up again and performs creation. Manus, Kings, Indra, Devas and Saptarṣis are the Sāttvika aspects of Mahāviṣṇu, who performs the work of protecting the world. In Kṛta yuga, Mahāviṣṇu assumes the form of Kapila and others and preaches "Paramajñāna". In Tretā yuga he assumes the form of an emperor and destroys the wicked people. In Dvāpara yuga, he assumes the form of Vyāsa and after dividing the Veda into 4 sections, classifies each of the sections into the various branches. At the end of Kaliyuga, Mahāviṣṇu assumes the form of Kalki and restores the vicious to the path of righteousness. This is the "Caturyuga scheme" of Mahāviṣṇu. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa. Part III, Chapter 2).

The fourteen Manus.

The names of the fourteen Manus of one Kalpa are given below:

(1) Svāyambhuva (2) Svārociṣa (3) Uttama (Auttami) (4) Tāmasa (5) Raivata (6) Cākṣuṣa (7) Vaivasvata (8) Sāvarṇi (9) Dakṣasāvarṇi (10) Brahmasāvarṇi (11) Dharmasāvarṇi (12) Rudrasāvarṇi (13) Raucyadevasāvarṇi (14) Indrasāvarṇi.

Each of the above Manus is described below:—


(a) General. Svāyambhuva was born as the spiritual son of Brahmā. This Manu got his name because he was "Svāyambhuva" or born from Brahmā. He married the goddess Śatarūpā, the spiritual daughter of Brahmā. After that, he went to the shore of the ocean of milk, made an image of Mahādevī there and worshipped her by chanting Vāgbhava mantra and performed an austere penance. After a hundred years of such worship the goddess was pleased. She appeared before Svāyambhuva and granted him boons. She blessed him to attain the highest place in Heaven (Paramapada) after begetting vast progeny. Then the goddess went to Vindhya mountain and became the deity of Vindhya. Svāyambhuva returned and started his reign by worshipping the goddess.

This Svāyambhuva is regarded as the author of the famous work "Manusmṛti". Kālidāsa says that the Kings of the Raghu dynasty lived in strict obedience to the laws laid down by this Manu. (Devī Bhāgavata, Daśama Skandha).

(b) Other details.

(i) The Saptarṣis of first Manvantara were—Marīci, Aṅgiras, Atri, Pulaha, Kratu, Pulastya and Vasiṣtha. Devas are known as Yamas. The first Manu had ten sons namelv Agnīdhra, Agnibāhu, Medhā, Medhātithi, Vasu, Jyotiṣmān, Dyutimān, Havya, Savana and Putra and they ruled over the country. (Harivaṃśa, Chapter 7).

(ii) Emperor Pṛthu turned Svāyambhuva Manu into a calf and obtained medicine from Bhūmi by milking her as a cow. (Bhāgavata, 4th Skandha).

(iii) Born from Virāṭ aṇḍa. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva Chapter 1, Verse 32).

(iv) Sage Cyavana married this Manu’s daughter. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 46).

(v) This Manu taught Soma, the art of Cākṣuṣī. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 169, Verse 43).

(vi) Since this Manu had blessed the clouds of the Magadha country they sent periodical rains to that region. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 21, Verse 10).

(vii) Manu came to the world, riding in the chariot of the gods to see Arjuna’s fight. (Mahābhārata Virāṭa Parva, Chapter 56, Verse 10).

(viii) This Manu had a wife named Sarasvatī (Śatarūpā). (Mahābhārata Udyoga Parva, Chapter 117, Verse 14).

(ix) This Manu lives in Bindusaras. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 7, Verse 46).

(x) He came at the time of Subrahmaṇya’s birth. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 10).

(xi) Manu held discussions with Siddhas. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 36).

(xii) He was the King of men. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 67, Verse 21).

(xiii) This Manu is called "Prajāpati Manu". Once he had a talk with Bṛhaspati on the subject of Dharma. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 201).

(xiv) Upamanyu saw Svāyambhuva Manu sitting by the side of Śiva. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 280).

(xv) He talked with the sage Suparṇa about the greatness of flowers, fumes, lights, offerings and gifts. (Ādi-Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 45).


(a) General.

Svāyambhuva had two great sons Priyavrata and Uttānapāda. The second Manu was the son of Priyavrata and his name was Svārociṣa. He was a glorious and adventurous man. He went to the banks of the river Kālindī, made a hermitage there, installed an idol of Devī made of earth and offered worship most fervently. At the end of 12 years of tapas when he ate only dried leaves, Devī appeared before him in her dazzling brilliance and blessed him. The name of this Devī was "Dhāriṇīdevī". After a reign of many years this King went to Heaven. (Devī Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha).

(b) Other Details.

(i) Pārāvatas and Tuṣitas were the Devas in this Manvantara. The mighty Vipaścit was Devendra. The Saptarṣis were Ūrjja, Stambha, Prāṇa, Rāma, Ṛṣabha, Niraya, and Parīvān. Caitra, Kimpuruṣa and others were the sons of Svārociṣa Manu. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 3, Chapter 1).

(ii) In Harivaṃśa, Chapter 7 we read that the Saptarṣis of this Manvantaram were Aurva, Stambha, Kaśyapa, Prāṇa, Bṛhaspati, Datta and Niścyavana.

(iii) Brahmā taught this Manu, Sātvatadharma. Svārociṣa taught this dharma to his son Śaṅkhavadana. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 348, Verse 36).

Auttami (Uttama).

(a) General.

Uttama was also the son of Priyavrata. He went to Gaṅgā tīrtha and offered worship to Devī for three years with Vāgbīja mantra. At the end of it, Devī was pleased and blessed him with worthy sons and a kingdom without the threat of enemies After a happy reign of many years, at the close of the Manvantara, he reached the highest place in Heaven. Devi Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha).

(b) Other details. Suśānti was the name of the Devendra of this Manvantara. There were five groups of Devas, namely Sudhāmans, Satyas, Japas, Pratardanas and Śivas, each group consisting of twelve Devas. The seven sons of the sage Vasiṣṭha were the saptarṣis of this Manvantara. These seven sons of Vasiṣṭha by his wife Ūrjjā were Rajas, Gotra, Ūrdhvabāhu, Savana, Anagha, Sutapas and Śukra. Aja, Paraśudīpta and others were the sons of the Manu Uttama. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part I. Chapter 1).


(a) General.

The fourth Manu Tāmasa was the son of Priyavrata. That King performed penance to Devī on the northern bank of the river Narmadā with Kāmarāja mantra. As a result of Devī’s blessing, he obtained a prosperous Kingdom and worthy sons. After a long reign he attained heaven. (Devī Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha).

(b) Other details.

At the time of this Manu, there were four groups of Devas, namely—Supāras, Haris, Satyas, and Sudhīs. Each of these groups contained 27 Devas. Śibi who had performed a hundred yāgas was the Indra. The Saptarṣis of this Manvantara were Jyotirmān, Pṛthu, Kāvya, Caitra, Agnivanaka, and Pīvara and Nara. Khyāti, Keturūpa, Jānujaṅgha and others were the sons of Tāmasa Manu. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part I, Chapter 1).


(a) General. The fifth Manu Raivata was the younger brother of Tāmasa. He worshipped Devī with Kāmabīja mantra on the banks of the river Kālindī. With the blessing of Devī he ruled for many years and then attained Heaven. (Devī Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha).

(b) Other details. The name of the Indra of this Manvantara was Vibhu. There were four groups of Devas—Amitābhas, Bhūtarayas, Vaikuṇṭhas and Sumedhas. Each of these groups contained fourteen Devas. The Saptarṣis of Raivata Manvantara were-Hiraṇyaromā, Vedasrī, Ūrdhvabāhu, Vedabāhu, Sudāmā, Parjanya and Mahāmuni. The sons of Raivata Manu, Balabandhu, Sambhāvya, Satyaka and others were mighty Kings. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 3, Chapter 1).


(a) General.

This Manu was the son of Aṅga. Once he went to the Rājarṣi (royal saint) Pulaha and prayed for prosperity, mastery of the whole world, invincible power and profound scholarship. Pulaha sent him to Devī. The Rājarṣi taught him the worship of Devī. After acquiring the mantra Cākṣuṣa went to the banks of the river Virajā and offered worship to Devī. At the end of twelve years, Devī appeared before him and blessed him with "Manuhood", mastery of the Manu kingdom and brilliant sons After many years he distributed his kingdoms among his sons and at last attained "Devīpada". (Devī Bhāgavata, Daśama Skandha).

(b) Other details.

(i) The following account is given in Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part I, Chapter 13, about the birth of Cākṣuṣa Manu. Dhruva and his wife Śambhu had two sons, namely Śiṣṭi and Bhavya. Succhāyā, the wife of Śiṣṭi gave birth to five sons, Ripu, Ripuñjaya, Vipra, Vṛkala and Vṛkatejas, who were all sinless. Cākṣuṣa was born to Bṛhatī, the wife of Ripu. Cākṣuṣa begot Manu by Puṣkariṇī, daughter of Vīraṇa Prajāpati. This was the sixth Manu. By his wife Naḍvalā, the daughter of Vairāja Prajāpati, he had 10 sons, namely, Kuru, Puru, Śatadyumna, Tapasvī, Satyavān, Śuci, Agniṣṭoma, Atirātra, Sudyumna and Abhimanyu. Āgneyī, wife of Kuru, gave birth to six sons who were Aṅga, Sumanas, Khyāti, Kratu, Aṅgiras and Śibi. Sunīthā, wife of Aṃga, gave birth to Vena. Pṛthu was the son of Vena. He is also known as "Vainya".

(ii) The Indra of that period was Manojava. There were five groups of Devas—Ākhyas, Prasūtas, Bhavyas, Pṛthukas and Lekhas, each group consisting of eight Devas. The Saptarṣis of this Manvantara were-Sumedhas, Virajas, Haviṣmān, Uttama, Madhu, Atināman and Sahiṣṇu. Śatadyumna and other mighty Kings were the sons of Cākṣuṣa Manu. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part I, Chapter 3).

(iii) The sons of this Manu became famous under the name "Variṣṭhas" (Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 18, Verse 20).


(a) General.

He was born from Sūrya. It is this Manu who rules the world today. All living beings that we see today were born from him. Vaivasvata Manu is Satyavrata Manu who escaped from the last deluge. To save him Viṣṇu took up the incarnation of Matsya (fish). Vaivasvata Manu was also the first of the Kings of the Sūrya vaṃśa (Solar Dynasty) who ruled over Ayodhyā.

(b) Other details.

(i) In Devī Bhāgavata, Saptama Skandha, we see that the sons of Vaivasvata namely Ikṣvāku, Nābhāga, Dhṛṣṭa, Śaryāti, Nariṣyanta, Prāṃśu, Nṛga, Diṣṭa, Karūṣa and Pṛṣadhra were also called Manus.

(ii) This Manu worshipped Devī and received her blessing and attained Heaven after a long reign. (Devī Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha).

(iii) Vaivasvata Manu had another name, "Śrāddhadeva." The Devas of this Manvantaram are Ādityas, Vasus and Rudras. The name of the Indra of this period is Purandara. The Saptarṣis are, Vasiṣṭha, Kaśyapa, Atri, Jamadagni, Gautama, Viśvāmitra and Bharadvāja. The nine Dhārmikas (virtuous ones), Ikṣvāku, Nṛga, Dhṛṣṭa, Śaryāti, Nariṣyanta, Nābhāga, Ariṣṭa, Karūṣa and Prṣadhra are the sons of Vaivasvata Manu. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 8, Chapter 1).

(iv) Ten sons were born to this Manu who were Vena, Dhṛṣṇu, Nariṣyanta, Nābhāga, Ikṣvāku, Kārūṣa, Śaryāti, lla, Pṛṣadhra, and Nābhāgāriṣṭa. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 75, Verse 15).

(v) Mahāviṣṇu incarnated as Matsya for the sake of Vaivasvata Manu. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 187).

(vi) He received Yogavidyā from Sūrya and Ikṣvāku received it later from him. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 122, Verse 38).

(vii) At the beginning of Tretāyuga, Sūrya taught "Sātvata Dharma" to Manu and Manu taught it to Ikṣvāku for the protection of all creatures. (Mahābhārata Śānti Parva, Chapter 348, Verse 51).

(viii) The sage Gautama taught Śivasahasranāma to Vaivasvata Manu. (Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 17, Verse 177).


(a) General.

Even in his previous birth he was a devotee of Devī. In his former birth (during the period of Svārociṣa Manvantara) Sāvarṇi was born as a King of Caitravaṃśa under the name Suratha. The origin of the dynasty known as Caitravaṃśa was as follows:—Atri, son of Brahmā had a son named Niśākara. This Niśākara became an emperor by performing Rājasūya. Emperor Niśākara had a son Budha and Budha had a son named Caitra, both of whom were greatly renowned. It was Caitra’s family which later on became the reputed Caitra dynasty. The son of that Caitra was Viratha. Suratha was the son of Viratha. This was the previous birth of Sāvarṇi Manu. Suratha was a great hero and poet. Once another King besieged his city and defeated him. Suratha left his kingdom and went alone on horseback and took shelter in a dense forest. While wandering in the forest like a mad man with a broken heart, he happened to reach the āśrama of the sage Sumedhas. The sage advised him to worship Devī in order to retrieve his lost kingdom and prosperity. Accordingly the King worshipped Devī who was pleased and restored to him his kingdom and prosperity. Besides, she blessed him that in his next birth he would become Sāvarṇi, the King of the Solar dynasty and would be revered as the eighth Manu. Thus the eighth Manu Sāvarṇi will be the second birth of Suratha. (Devī Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha).

(b) Other details.

Sāvarṇi is also the son of Sūrya. How he came to be called Sāvarṇi is explained below:—Sūrya had three children Manu, Yama and Yamī by Saṃjñā, the daughter of Viśvakarmā. This Manu was Vaivasvata Manu, the seventh Manu. Unable to bear the intense heat of Sūrya, Saṃjñā once sent her maid Chāyā to Sūrya in her own disguise and went to the forest for tapas. Sūrya had three children by Chāyā, Śanaiścara, another Manu and Tapatī. This Manu is known as Sāvarṇi who will become the eighth Manu. In his time there will be three groups of Devas—Sutapas, Amitābhas and Mukhyas. Each of these groups will consist of twelve persons. The Saptarṣis of the eighth Manvantara are Dīptimān, Gālava, Rāma, Kṛpa, Aśvatthāmā son of Droṇa, Vyāsa son of Parāśara and Ṛṣyaśṛṅga. Mahābali, son of Virocana will be the Indra. Virajas, Urvarīyān, Nirmoka and others are the Kings who are the sons of Sāvarṇi Manu. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part III, Chapter 2).

Dakṣa Sāvarṇi.


At the time of this Manu there are three groups of Devas namely, Pāras, Marīcigarbhas and Sudharmans. Each of the groups contains 12 Devas. The Indra who is the king of those Devas, is the mighty Adbhuta. The Saptarṣis of this Manvantara are:—Savana, Dyutimān, Bhavya, Vasu, Medhātithi, Jyotiṣmān and Satya, Dhṛtaketu. Dīptiketu, Pañcahasta, Nirāmaya, Pṛthuśravas are the sons of Dakṣasāvarṇi Manu. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part III, Chapter 2).

(10). Brahma Sāvarṇi.


In this Manvantara, the Devas are Sudhāmans and Viśuddhas. Each of these groups will contain 100 Devas. Their Indra will be the heroic Śānti. The Saptarṣis will be Haviṣmān, Sukṛta, Satya, Tapomūrti, Nabhāga, Apratimaujas and Satyaketu. Brahma Sāvarṇi will have ten sons, three of whom are, Sukṣetra, Uttamaujas and Bhūtisena who will become Kings. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part III, Chapter 2).

(11). Dharma Sāvarṇi.


In this Manvantara there will be three groups of Devas namely, Vihaṅgamas, Kāmagas and Nirvāṇaratis, each of the groups consisting of 30 Devas. Vṛṣa, Agnitejas, Vapuṣmān, Ghṛṇī, Āruṇi, Haviṣmān, and Anagha will be the Saptarṣis. The sons of Dharma Sāvarṇi viz., Sarvatraga, Sudharmā, Devānīka and others will be the kings of that time.

(12). Rudra Sāvarṇi.


This Manu is the son of Rudra. The Indra of this Manvantara will be Ṛtudhāman. There will be five groups of Devas namely, Haritas, Rohitas, Sumanases, Sukarmans and Supāras. Each group will contain 10 Devas. Saptarṣis are Tapasvī, Sutapas, Tapomūrti, Taporati, Tapodhṛti, Tapodyuti and Tapodhana. The sons of this Manu, Devavān, Upadeva and Devaśreṣṭha will be mighty kings. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part III, Chapter 2).

(13). Raucyadeva Sāvarṇi. (Ruci).


There will be three groups of Devas during this period called Sutrāmans, Sukarmans and Sudharmans. Each of these groups will contain 33 Devas. The mighty Divaspati will be their Indra. Nirmoha, Tattvadarśī, Niṣprakampya, Nirutsuka, Dhṛtimān, Avyaya and Sutapas are the Saptarṣis of that period. Citrasena, Vicitra and other sons of this Manu will be kings. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part III, Chapter 2).

(14). Indra Sāvarṇi (Bhaumi).


The Indra of this Manvantara will be Śuci. Under his control there will be five groups of Devas. They are Cākṣuṣas, Pavitras, Kaniṣṭhas, Bhrājakas and Vācāvṛddhas. The Saptarṣis of this period are Agnibāhu, Śuci, Śukra, Māgadha, Agnīdhra, Yukta and Jita. At that time the sons of the Manu who would rule the earth will be Uru, Gambhīrabuddhi and others. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part III, Chapter 2).

Some more details.

Fourteen Manus have been mentioned above. Of them, the seventh Manu, Vaivasvata Manu is the Head of the present Manvantrara. Some general facts about the Manus are given below:—

1) The six Manus after the eighth one namely, Dakṣasāvarṇi, Merusāvarṇi, Sūryasāvarṇi, Candrasāvarṇī, Rudrasāvarṇi and Viṣṇusāvarṇi are respectively the re-births of Karūṣa, Pṛṣadhra, Nābhāga, Diṣṭa, Śaryāti and Triśaṅku who were the sons of Vaivasvsata Manu. There is a story about their taking re-births. All the six persons mentioned above were once offering worship to the idol of Devī on the banks of the river Kālindī. After twelve years, Devī appeared, under the name of Bhramarāmbikā and blessed them that in their next births they would become rulers of Manvantaras. (Devī Bhāgavata, 10th Skandha).

2) It is said that the four Manus, Svārociṣa, Uttama, Tāmasa and Raivata belonged to Priyavrata’s family. It was because Priyavrata who was a Rājarṣi offered tapas to Viṣṇu that four Manus were born in his family. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa. Part III, Chapter 1).

3) It is the power of Viṣṇu that dominates all the Manvantaras as the basic divinity. In the first Svāyambhuva Manvantara it was a part of that power of Viṣṇu itself that originated as Yajñapuruṣa in Ābhūti. After that when Svārociṣa Manvantara came it was again that divinity that took its origin in Tuṣitā as Ajita among the Tuṣitas. In Uttama Manvantara that divinity Tuṣita him self was born again under the name of Satya as the son of Satyā in the group of Devas called Satyas. When Tāmasa Manvantara began, that divinity was born again as the son of Haryā as a Hari in the group of Devas called Haris. It was that divinity Hari himself who was born in Sambhūti under the name of Mānasa among the Devas called Raivatas in Raivata Manvantara. In Cākṣuṣa Manvantara that Viṣṇu Bhagavān took birth in Vikuṇṭhī as one of the Vaikuṇṭhas. In the present Vaivasvata Manvantara, Viṣṇu has incarnated in Aditi as Vāmana, the son of Kaśyapa. That great Vāmana conquered all the three worlds and presented them to Devendra. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part III, Chapter 2).

Besides the fourteen Manus mentioned above, certain other Manus are also referred to in the Purāṇas. Some details about them are given below:—

(1) It is seen from Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, 14th Sarga, verse 11, that Kaśyapa had a wife named Manu.

(2) There is a reference to a Rājarṣi (Saintly king) named Manu in Ṛgveda, first Maṇḍala, 16th Anuvāka, 112th Sūkta.

(3) A son named Manu was born to the Agni Tapa or Pāñcajanya. This Manu has another name Bhānu. He had three wives named Suprajā, Bṛhadbhāsā and Niśā. Six sons were born to him by the first two wives. By his third wife he had one daughter and seven sons. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 221, Verse 4).

(4) In Mahābhārata, Śānti Parva, Chapter 57, verse 43, we find a reference to another Manu named Pracetas.

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