Vinaya Pitaka (4): Parivara

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...

12. An Additional Collection Of Stanzas

Prv.12.1.1 BD.6.255 Vin.5.158

“For what purpose is reproving,[1]
by reason of what is there making remember,
For what purpose is the Order,
but by reason of what is there an act of Understanding?[2]

“Reproving is for making remember,
for restraint[3] is making remember,
The Order is for discerning,[4]
but an act of understanding is individual.

“Do not speak quickly,
do not speak angrily,[5]
Do not arouse resentment
if you would be an adjudicator.[6]

“Do not in haste speak challenging[7] talk
unconnected with the meaning[8]
In Sutta,[9] in Discipline, in Parivāra,[10]
in what is laid down,[11] in the principal authorities.[12]

BD.6.256 “Be careful of the proper procedure[13]
that was done with skill by him of discernment,[14]
Of what was well spoken
in conformity with the rules of training,
not destroying a bourn in a future state.

“Seeking for welfare, be intent during (that) time
on what is connected with the goal.
Consider not in haste the mode of speech
of the reproved or the reprover.

“If the reprover says he has fallen,[15]
if he who is being reproved says he has not fallen—
Both,[16] proceeding, should be dealt with
according to (their) acknowledgement.

“Acknowledgement is carried out among the conscientious,
it exists not among the unconscientious;
Though many unconscientious (monks) may say,
‘It should be carried out according to what has been said’.[17]

“Of what kind is an unconscientious one
for whom acknowledgement is not Effective?[18]
Thus I ask you this:
What is the kind called an unconscientious individual?”

“He falls into an offence intentionally,
he hides the offence,
And goes following a wrong course:
this is the kind called an unconscientious individual.”

“‘I too know the truth’[19]
this is the kind called unconscientious individual.
And I am asking you another:
what is the kind called a conscientious individual?”

“He does not fall into an offence intentionally,
he does not hide an offence,
He does not go following a wrong course:
this is the kind called a conscientious individual.”

BD.6.257 “‘I too know the truth’—
this is the kind called a conscientious individual.
And I am asking you another:
what is the kind called one who reproves
according to what is not the rule?[20]

Vin.5.159 “He reproves at a wrong time,
about what is not fact, with harshness,
and with what is unconnected with the goal;
He reproves with inner hatred,
not with a mind of loving-kindness[21]:
this is the kind called one who reproves
according to what is not the rule.”

“‘I too know the truth’—
this is the kind called one who reproves
according to what is not the rule.
And I am asking you another:
what is the kind called one who reproves
according to the rule?”

“He reproves at a right time,
about fact, with gentleness,
with what is connected with the goal,
He reproves with a mind of loving-kindness,
not with inner hatred[22]:
this is the kind called one who reproves
according to the rule.”

“‘I too know the truth’—
this is the kind called one who reproves
according to the rule.
And I am asking you another:
what is the kind called one who reproves Ignorantly?”

“He does not know the earlier and the later,[23]
he is unskilled in the earlier and the later,
He does not know the sequence of the connecting words,
he is unskilled in the sequence of the connecting words:
this is the kind called one who reproves ignorantly.”

“‘I too know the truth’—
this is the kind called one who reproves ignorantly.
And I am asking you another:
what is the kind called one who reproves wisely?”

“He knows the earlier and the later,
he is skilled in the earlier and the later,
He knows the sequence of the connecting words,
is skilled BD.6.258 in the sequence of the connecting words:
this is kind called one who reproves wisely.”

“‘I too know the truth’—
this is the kind called one who reproves wisely.
And I am asking you another:
what is reproving called?”

“He reproves for falling away from moral habit,
then from right behaviour and view,
And he reproves for a (wrong) mode of livelihood:
therefore it is called reproving.”

Concluded is an Additional[24] Collection of Stanzas

Footnotes and references:

1.

On reproving, codanā, etc., see Kd.18.

2.

matikamma, mental act; not otherwise found in the Pali Canon. Vin-a.1359 explains it as mantaggahaṇa (grasp or learning of the mantras—in a Buddhist sense) which; it says, is a matter of individual investigation and reasoning for Elders who are Suttantikas and for those who are experts in Discipline.

3.

niggaha, a difficult word, meaning restraint, control, censure, rebuke; also refutation. The usual method, as found in Kd.11, is that a monk should be reproved for not seeing, etc., his offence, then be made to remember it, then accused of it, in order that a (formal) act of the Order might be carried out against him. Vin-a.1359 says that making one remember a defect is for the restraint, niggaha, of that individual.

4.

pariggaha. Vin-a, reading pariggahaṇa, says: gathered together there, the Order is for the purpose of exploring (searching, finding out, pariggahaṇa) and of vinicchaya (discrimination, investigation, judgement, etc.). It is for weighing what is Dhamma and what is not, for finding out what has been well and what badly investigated, vinicchita.

5.

caṇḍikata, angrily, harshly, with “quick temper”; Cf. Nuns’ Bi-Pc.53.

6.

anuvijjaka, as below Vin.5.160f.; a scrutinizer of a legal question, an arbitrator, adjudicator; one who knows about (the matter). He has to be an expert on Vinaya.

7.

viggāhika. Vin-a.1360, “You do not know this Dhamma and Discipline,” and so on.

8.

Or goal, attha.

9.

Here, according to Vin-a.1360, the two Vibhaṅgas are Sutta, the Khandhakas are Vinaya.

10.

anuloma, which Vin-a.1360 says is the Parivāra.

11.

This is the whole of the Vinaya-piṭaka, according to Vin-a.1360.

12.

anulomika, explained as cattāro mahāpadesa at Vin-a.1360.

13.

anuyogavattaṃ nisāmaya. Commentary of no help here.

14.

Vin-a.1360 seems to say: established by a clever, wise (man) who, after being driven out by the Lord, has attained the perfection of knowledge. Same verse Vin.5.164 below.

15.

If he says that the monk who is being reproved has fallen into an offence.

16.

ubho anukkhipanto.

17.

Text reads vuttānusandhitena; Vin-a.1361 vattānu-.

18.

See references to rūhati at BD.5.73, n.3.

19.

As well as you.

20.

adhammacodaka as at Vin.2.249.

21.

These five ways of reproving not by rule are given at Vin.2.250.

22.

As at Vin.2.250.

23.

What was said earlier and what was said later, Vin-a.1361.

24.

Additional, or further, apara, no doubt in relation to Prv.10. The title of Prv.19 is Dutiyagāthāsaṃgaṇika and cannot be easily explained. The Commentary, Vin-a.1361, Vin-a.1390 calls both Prv.12 and Prv.19 Dutiyagāthāsaṃgaṇikā but attempts no explanation.

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