Vinaya Pitaka (4): Parivara

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...

14. The Lesser Collection

[1]

Prv.14.1.1 BD.6.264 Vin.5.163 When a monk who is engaged in conflict[2] is approaching an Order he should approach the Order with a humble mind,[3] with a mind as though (it were) removing dust.[4] He should be skilled about seats and skilled about sitting down. He should sit down on a suitable seat without encroaching on (the space intended for) monks who are Elders and without keeping newly ordained monks from a seat.[5] He should not talk in a desultory fashion,[6] nor about inferior (worldly) matters.[7] Either he should speak Dhamma himself or should ask another to do so, or he should not disdain the ariyan silence. A preceptor should not be asked about[8] by an Order, by an approved individual, by an adjudicator, by one anxious to adjudicate; a teacher should not be asked about, one who shares a cell … a pupil … a fellow-preceptor[9] … a fellow-teacher[10] should not be asked about; birth should not be asked about, name … clan … the (scriptural) tradition[11] … the family’s standing[12] … the native district[13] should not be asked about. What is the reason for that? In case there were regard or hatred for it. If there were regard or hatred he might follow (a wrong course) from partiality … hatred … confusion, he might follow (a wrong course) from fear. There should be respect for an Order, for an approved individual, for an adjudicator, for one anxious to adjudicate, not respect for an individual. There should be BD.6.265 respect for True Dhamma, not respect for the material things of the world. There should be pursuit of the goal, not conformity to an assembly. One should adjudicate at a right time, not at a wrong time; one should adjudicate about what is fact, not about what is not fact; one should adjudicate gently, not harshly; one should adjudicate about what is connected with the goal, not about what is not connected with the goal; one should adjudicate with a mind of loving-kindness, not with inner hatred.

There should not be murmuring in his ear, he should not seek what is crooked, he should not cover his eye,[14] he should not raise his eye-brow,[15] he should not raise his head, he should not make a movement with his hand,[16] he should not give a gesture with the hand. He should be skilled about seats, he should be skilled about sitting down; looking a plough’s length ahead, pursuing the goal he should sit down on his own seat and should not rise from the seat, he should not pass beyond (the judgement),[17] he should not follow a wrong way; he should not speak waving his arms about, he should be unhastening, he should be considerate, he should not be quick tempered,[18] Vin.5.164 with a mind of loving-kindness he should be gentle in speech; merciful, he should be compassionate for welfare; seeking for welfare, he should not be frivolous in speech; limiting his speech, he should be one who masters hostility, and is without irascibility.

The self must be assessed,[19] the other[20] must be assessed, the reprover must be assessed,[21] the reproved must be assessed,[22] one who reproves not by rule … one who is reproved not by rule … one who reproves by rule … one who is reproved by rule must be assessed. Without omitting what was said,[23] not bringing forward what was not said, having properly learnt the words and sentences as given, questioning the other in BD.6.266 return, he should deal with him according to his acknowledgement.[24] An indolent person should be roused,[25] a fearful one given confidence, a violent one checked,[26] an impure one put right,[27] a straight one (treated) with mildness. He should not follow a wrong course from partiality … hatred … confusion … fear. He should be balanced[28] as to the rules and the individuals. Thus is an adjudicator when he adjudicates thus both a doer of the Teacher’s Dispensation, and is dear to learned men and to his fellow Brahma-farers and liked by them and he is esteemed and to be respected.

Prv.14.1.2 A clause is for the sake of reference,[29] a simile is for the sake of illustration,[30] a meaning is for the sake of instruction, a question (asked) in return is for the sake of setting aside,[31] giving leave is for the sake of reproving, reproving is for the sake of making remember, making remember is for the sake of commands,[32] a command is for the sake of impediments,[33] an impediment is for the sake of investigating, investigating is for the sake of a decision,[34] a decision is for the sake of referring to a possibility and what is not a possibility,[35] referring to a possibility and what is not a possibility is for the sake of restraint of evil-minded individuals[36] and for the sake of the support of well behaved monks; the Order is for the sake of agreement and acceptance[37]; individuals approved of by the Order are BD.6.267 persevering by themselves, are persevering in being trustworthy[38]; discipline is for the sake of restraint,[39] restraint is for the sake of not being remorseful, not being remorseful is for the sake of joy, joy is for the sake of delight, delight is for the sake of tranquillity, tranquillity is for the sake of happiness, happiness is for the sake of concentration, concentration is for the sake of knowledge and vision of what has come to be as it really-is, knowledge and vision of what has come to be as it really is is for the sake of turning away, turning away is for the sake of dispassion, dispassion is for the sake of freedom, freedom is for the sake of the knowledge and vision of freedom,[40] the knowledge and vision of freedom is for the sake of final nibbāna without clinging. According to this meaning is the talk.[41] According to this meaning is the counsel. According to this meaning is the causal relation. According to this meaning is the lending ear,[42] that is to say the deliverance of mind without clinging.

Prv.14.1.3 Be careful of the proper procedure being intent
on what was done with skill by him of discernment,
Of what was well spoken in conformity with the rules of training,
not destroying a bourn in a future state.[43]

Vin.5.165 Ignorant as to subject,[44] falling away,
offence,[45] provenance,[46] kind,[47]
He does not know the earlier and the later (speech)
nor likewise what was and was not done,

And he is ignorant too as to formal act
and legal question and decidings,
Impassioned, corrupted and astray,
he proceeds from fear, from confusion,[48]

BD.6.268 And he is not skilled as to layings down
and is not versed in pacifying,[49]
One who has obtained a faction,
conscienceless, (of) dark deed, disrespectful:
A monk such as this is called
one who should not be shown deference.[50]

Knowledgeable as to subject, falling away,
offence, provenance, kind,
He comprehends the earlier and the later (speech)
and likewise what was and was not done,

And he is knowledgeable as to formal act
and legal question and decidings,
Unimpassioned, uncorrupt, not astray,
he proceeds not from fear, from confusion,

And he is skilled as to layings down
and is knowledgeable as to pacifying,
One who has obtained a faction,
conscientious, (of) bright deed, respectful:
A monk such as this is called
one who should be shown deference.

Concluded is the Lesser Collection

Its Summary

With a humble mind, he may ask, respect, for the Order, not for an individual,
A clause is for the sake of reference and for furthering Discipline:
The summary of the Lesser Collection is made into this one recital.

Footnotes and references:

1.

saṃgāma is a battle, a conflict, as well as a collection.

2.

saṃgāmavacara. Vin-a.1363 says that the Order has been convened so as to investigate a legal question—that is called saṃgāma; and a saṃgāmāvacara is said to be like the Elder Yasa (who protested against the Vajjian monks and their Ten Points: see Kd.22).

3.

With the banner of arrogance lowered.

4.

Like a towel for wiping the feet, Vin-a.1363.

5.

See Kd.18.4.2.

6.

Such as is not connected with the goal.

7.

Detailed at e.g. Vin.4.164.

8.

Saying, “What is your preceptor’s name?”—so Vin-a.1364.

11.

āgama, explained at Vin-a.1364 as “Are you a Dīgha-repeater, a Majjhima-repeater?”

12.

kulapadesa does not appear to occur elsewhere in the Pali Canon. Vin-a.1364 simply explains by “beginning with khattiya-kula”.

13.

jātibhūmi, or place where one was born, as at MN.i.145. AN.iii.366.

14.

As at Vin.3.78.

15.

As at Vin.3.78.

16.

See Vin.1.352.

17.

See above Vin.5.161.

18.

acaṇḍikata; Cf. Nuns’ Bi-Pc.53.

19.

attā pariggahetabbo. Vin-a.1364 says: Am I able to judge (determine or decide), to settle (the legal question) or not? The measure of oneself must he known.

20.

Vin-a.1364: is this company able to appease (convince) or not?

21.

Is he a reprover by rule (dhammacodaka)?

22.

Has he been reproved by rule?

23.

By either the reprover or the reproved, Vin-a.1365.

25.

hāsetabbo, stimulated, encouraged.

26.

nisedhetabbo, disparaged, menaced.

27.

vibhāvetabbo. Vin-a.1365 says “having pointed out that he is unconscientious, he should be made to confess the offence”. By so doing he becomes “pure” again.

28.

majjhattena bhavitabbaṃ, he should be neutral, indifferent, not taking sides.

29.

saṃsandanā, application, conclusion—in regard to what are and are not offences.

30.

I.e. of the meaning.

31.

I.e. the question put by the individual (presumably the one who asked the original question)—such a question need not be answered. Cf. the 4 questions at Milinda’s Questions i.202f., where other references are given.

32.

savacanīya, see Vin.2.5, Vin.2.22, Vin.2.276.

33.

palibodha, see e.g. Kd.7.13.

34.

As to whether there is a defect or not.

35.

ṭhānāṭhānagamana. Vin-a.1365f. explains that this is for discovering whether there is an offence or not, and whether it is a slight or a serious one.

37.

Vin-a.1366: “Agreement on an investigation and knowing the state of what has been well and badly divided—the four”. Cf. Vin.1.65, Vin.4.51. Whether catu, “the four,” refers to suttaso (clause by clause, or rule by rule) anubyañjanaso (by sentence) of Vin.1.65, and to mātikāto (by summary) vibhaṅgato (by Suttavibhaṅga), I am not sure.

38.

Vin-a.1366 “for mastery and power (over themselves) and they are placed in a position of trust, in the place of the eldest. The meaning is that these are not to be despised (or sent away”; apasādetabbā).

39.

Cf. SN.ii.32, AN.v.2, etc.

40.

Cf. SN.ii.32, AN.v.2, etc.

41.

Vin-a.1366: this talk on Vinaya.

42.

When one has lent ear to this successive talk, knowledge arises, Vin-a.1366.

43.

Verse as at Vin.5.158.

44.

Of offences beginning with Monks’ Defeat.

45.

The sevenfold (classes of) offences.

46.

The town where a rule of training was laid down

47.

ākāra, defined on Vin.5.166.

48.

These are two of the four wrong courses.

49.

nijjhatti. Vin-a.1367 says inability (asammatthatā) to see cause or reason, karaṇa, and absence of cause or reason; thus, incapable of appreciating reasons, he is incapable of knowing how to pacify. Cf. nijjhan(t)tibala a Ps.ii.168 and nijjhāpeti on Vin.5.166.

50.

appatikkha as at AN.v.248.

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