Vinaya Pitaka (4): Parivara

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...

19. Second Collection Of Stanzas

Prv.19.1.1 BD.6.336 Vin.5.210 “How many bodily offences?
How many verbal are done?
How many offences of concealing?[1]
How many due to contact?”

“Six bodily offences,
six verbal are done,
Three offences of concealing,[2]
five due to contact.[3]

“How many offences at sunrise?
How many on up to the third time?
How many here are the eight things?
through how many is the whole collection?”

“Three offences at sunrise,[4]
two up to the third time,[5]
One here are eight things,[6]
through one is the whole collection.[7]

“How many are the sources of Discipline
that have been laid down by the Buddha?
How many are called serious in the Discipline?
How many called concealing a very bad (offence)?”

“Two are the sources of Discipline
that have been laid down by the Buddha,[8]
Two are called serious in the Discipline,[9]
two concealings of a very bad (offence).[10]

“How many offences among villages?
How many due to the other side of a river?
BD.6.337 In (eating) how many meats is there a grave offence?
In how many meats an offence of wrong-doing?”

“Four offences among villages,[11]
four due to the other side of a river,[12]
In (eating) one meat there is a grave offence,[13]
in nine meats an offence of wrong-doing.[14]

“How many verbal offences at night?
How many verbal offences by day?
How many offences for one who is giving?
How many for one who is receiving?”

“Two verbal offences at night,[15]
two verbal offences by day,[16]
Three offences for one who is giving,[17]
and four for a recipient.[18]

“How many lead on to confession?
How many for which amends are made?
How many here for which amends are not made
are spoken of by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun?”

“Five leading on to confession,[19]
six for which amends are made,[20]
One here for which amends are not made[21]
are spoken of by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun.”

“How many serious (offences against)
Discipline are spoken of?
And bodily-verbal (offences)?
How many flavours of grain at a wrong time?
How many agreements for a motion
followed by a resolution made three times?”

BD.6.338 “Two serious (offences against)
Discipline[22] are spoken of
and bodily-verbal (offences),[23]
One flavour of grain at a wrong time,[24]
one agreement for a motion
followed by a resolution made three times.[25]

“How many bodily Defeats?
How many grounds for communion?
Vin.5.211 And how many interruptions?
How many two finger-breadths are laid down?”

“Two bodily Defeats,[26]
two grounds for communion,[27]
And interruption for two (individuals),[28]
two finger-breadths twice are laid down.[29]

“How many ‘having struck oneself’?
By how many is an Order split?
How many here are first offenders?
How many carryings out of a motion?”

“Two ‘having struck oneself’,[30]
by two is an Order split,[31]
Two here are the first offenders,[32]
two carryings out of a motion.[33]

“How many offences in onslaught on creatures?
How many Defeats from speech?
How many are called offensive (words)?
Or how many because of a go-between?”

BD.6.339 “Three offences in onslaught on creatures,[34]
three Defeats from speech,[35]
Three are called offensive (words),[36]
three because of a go-between.[37]

“How many individuals should not be ordained?
How many things included in formal acts?
How many are called ones who are expelled?
For how many is a one fold formula?”

“Three individuals should not be ordained,[38]
three things included in formal acts,[39]
Three are called ones who are expelled,[40]
for three is a one fold formula.[41]

“How many offences in taking what has not been given?
How many because of unchastity?
How many offences for cutting off?
How many because of throwing down?”

“Three offences in taking what has not been given,[42]
four because of unchastity,[43]
Three offences for cutting off,[44]
five because of throwing down.[45]

BD.6.340 “Offences of wrong-doing with Expiation
for an exhorter in an incomplete (Order of) nuns,
How many here are spoken of as nonads?
And of how many in regard to robe-material?”

“Offences of wrong-doing with Expiation are done
by an exhorter in an incomplete (Order of) nuns,[46]
Four here are spoken of as nonads,[47]
and of two in regard to robe-material.[48]

“And how many Confessions
are pointed out for nuns?
How many wrong-doings with Expiation
when they partake of raw grain?”

“And eight Confessions made
for nuns are pointed out,[49]
Wrong-doings with Expiation are done
when they partake of raw grain.[50]

“How many offences for one who is walking?
And how many for one who is standing?
How many offences for one who is sitting?
And how many for one who is lying down?”

“Four offences for one who is walking,[51]
and as many too for one who is standing,[52]
Four offences for one who is sitting,[53]
and as many too for one who is lying down.[54]

“How many offences of Expiation
all about different subjects
could one simultaneously fall into together?”

“Five are the offences of Expiation
all about different subjects
that one could simultaneously fall into together.[55]

BD.6.341 “How many offences of Expiation
all about different subjects
could one simultaneously fall into together?”

Vin.5.212 “Nine are the offences of Expiation
all about different subjects
that one could simultaneously fall into together.[56]

“How many offences of Expiation
all about different subjects
Should be confessed by how many formulae
spoken of by the Kinsman of the Sun?”

“Five are the offences of Expiation[57]
all about different subjects
That should be confessed by one formula
are spoken of by the Kinsman of the Sun.”

“How many offences of Expiation
all about different subjects
Should be confessed by how many formulae
are spoken of by the Kinsman of the Sun?”

“Nine are the offences of Expiation[58]
all about different subjects
That should be confessed by one formula
are spoken of by the Kinsman of the Sun.”

“How many offences of Expiation
all about different subjects
Should be confessed after one has announced something,
are spoken of by the Kinsman of the Sun?”

Five offences of Expiation[59]
all about different subjects
Should be confessed after one has announced the matter,
are spoken of by the Kinsman of the Sun.”

“How many offences of Expiation
all about different subjects
Should be confessed after one has announced something
are spoken of by the Kinsman of the Sun?”

“Nine offences of Expiation[60]
all about different subjects
Should be confessed after one has announced the matter
are spoken of by the Kinsman of the Sun.”

“How many offences up to the third time?
How many because of speech?
How many for one who is eating?
How many for partaking of?”

BD.6.342 “Three offences up to the third time,[61]
six because of speech,[62]
Three offences for one who is eating,[63]
five because of partaking of.[64]

“How many occasions do all the
‘up to the third times’ reach?
And for how many are offences?
For how many by a legal question?”

“Five occasions do all the
‘up to the third times’ reach,[65]
And there is an offence for five,[66]
and for five by a legal question.[67]

“For how many is there an investigation?
And for how many by a settlement?
And for how many simply no offence?
For how many reasons does one shine?”

“For five is there an investigation,[68]
and for five by a settlement,[69]
For five simply no offence,[70]
for three reasons does one shine.[71]

“How many bodily (offences) by night?
How many bodily by day?
How many offences for looking at with longing?
How many because of alms?”

BD.6.343 “Two bodily (offences) by night,[72]
two bodily by day,[73]
One offence for looking at with longing,[74]
one because of alms.[75]

“Beholding how many advantages
should one confess out of faith in others?
How many are spoken of as being suspended?
How many ‘proper conducts’?”

“Beholding eight advantages
should one confess out of faith in others,[76]
Three are spoken of as being suspended,[77]
forty-three ‘proper conducts’.[78]

“On how many occasions is there lying speech?
How many are called ‘at most’?
Vin.5.213 How many are to be Confessed?
And of how many were there confessions?”

“On five occasions is there lying speech,[79]
fourteen are called ‘at most”,[80]
Twelve are to be Confessed,[81]
and of four were there confessions.[82]

“How many factored is lying speech?
How many factors of Observance?
How many are the factors for (going on) a message?
How many the customs of other sects?”

BD.6.344 “Lying speech is eight-factored,[83]
eight factors of Observance,[84]
Eight factors for (going on) a message,[85]
eight customs of other sects.[86]

“How many formulas for ordination?
For how many should there be rising from?
To how many should a seat be given?
Of how many is an exhorter of nuns?”

“Eight formulas for ordination,[87]
for eight should there be rising from,[88]
To eight should a seat be given,[89]
of eight is an exhorter of nuns.[90]

“Of how many is there ‘could be destroyed’?
Of how many a grave offence?
And of how many simply no offence?
Are they one subject for all?”

“Of one is there ‘could be destroyed’,[91]
of four a grave offence,[92]
And of four simply no offence,[93]
they are one subject for all.[94]

“How many occasions for ill-will?
By how many is an Order split?
How many here are offences at once?
How many carryings out by a motion?”

“Nine occasions for ill-will,[95]
an Order is split by nine,[96]
Nine here are offences at once,[97]
nine carryings out by a motion.[98]

BD.6.345 “How many individuals should not be greeted
nor (receive) joined palms or proper homage?
For how many is there an offence of wrong-doing?
How many for wearing the three robes?”

“Ten individuals should not be greeted
nor (receive) joined palms or proper homage,[99]
For ten is there an offence of wrong-doing,[100]
ten for wearing three robes.[101]

“To how many who have kept the rains
should a robe be given here?
For how many should purity be declared?
and for how many likewise not declared?”

“To five who have kept the rains
should a robe be given here,[102]
For seven should purity[103]
be declared, for sixteen not declared.[104]

“Concealing how many hundred offences
for a hundred nights?
Having spent how many nights
could he who is under probation be freed?”

“Concealing ten hundred offences
for one hundred nights,
Having spent ten nights
he who is under probation could be freed.[105]

BD.6.346

“How many defects in formal acts were spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
In the Vinaya-matter at Campā?
And how many—were all—not legally valid?”

“Twelve defects in formal acts[106] were spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
In the Vinaya-matter at Campā,
all were made not legally valid.”

“How many excellences in formal acts were spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
In the Vinaya-matter at Campā?
And how many—were all—legally valid?”

“Four excellences[107] in formal acts were spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
Vin.5.214 In the Vinaya-matter at Campā,
all were made legally valid.”

“How many formal acts were spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
In the Vinaya-matter at Campā?
How many were legally valid, not legally Valid?”

“Six formal acts[108] were spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
In the Vinaya-matter at Campā;
here one was made legally valid,
Five were spoken of as not legally valid[109]
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun.”

“How many formal acts were spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
In the Vinaya-matter at Campā?
How many were legally valid, not legally Valid?”

“Four formal acts were spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
In the Vinaya-matter at Campā;
here one was made legally valid,
Three were spoken of as not legally valid[110]
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun.”

BD.6.347 “Those classes of offences taught by Such a One,
the Conqueror of the Unending,[111]
by the One who sees aloofness[112]
How many here are stopped without the deciding?
I ask you, (you who are) proficient in analysis.”

“Those classes of offences taught by Such a One,
the Conqueror of the Unending,
by the One who sees aloofness,—
One here[113] is stopped without the decidings:
this I point out to you, (you who are) proficient in analysis.”

“How many doomed to the Downfall are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun?
On the attributes[114] of one claiming Vinaya
we listen to you.”

“One hundred and forty-four[115] are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun?
Schismatics of the Order, doomed to the Downfall,
to Niraya for an aeon,[116]
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
listen to me.”

“How many not doomed to the Downfall are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun?
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
we listen to you.”

“Eighteen not doomed to the Downfall[117] are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
listen to me.”

“How many octads are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun?
BD.6.348 On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
we listen to you.”

“Eighteen octads[118] are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
listen to me.”

“How many formal acts are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun?
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
we listen to you.”

“Sixteen formal acts[119] are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
listen to me.”

“How many defects in formal acts are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun?
Vin.5.215 On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
we listen to you.”

“Twelve defects in formal acts[120] are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
listen to me.”

“How many excellences in formal acts are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun?
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
we listen to you.”

“Four excellences in formal acts[121] are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
listen to me.”

“How many formal acts are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun?
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
we listen to you.”

“Six formal acts[122] are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
listen to me.”

“How many formal acts are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun?
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
we listen to you.”

“Four formal acts[123] are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
listen to me.”

“How many offences involving Defeat are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun?
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
we listen to you.”

“Eight offences involving Defeat are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
listen to me.”

“How many offences requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order?
…”

[124]BD.6.349 Twenty-three offences requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order
…”

“How many Undetermined offences? …”

“Two Undetermined offences …”

“How many offences of Forfeiture? …”

“Forty-two offences of Forfeiture …”

“How many offences of Expiation? …”

“One hundred and eighty-eight offences of Expiation …”

“How many offences to be Confessed? …”

“Twelve offences to be Confessed …”

“How many Trainings are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun?
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
we listen to you.”

“Seventy-five Trainings are spoken of
by the Buddha, the Kinsman of the Sun,
On the attributes of one claiming Vinaya
listen to me.”

“What has been well asked by you
that has been well answered by me.
By means of question and answer
there is nothing at all that is not threaded.[125]

Concluded is the Second Collection of Stanzas

Footnotes and references:

1.

chādenta, see Vin.5.120, towards end.

2.

Nuns’ Bi-Pj.6, Monks’ Bu-Pc.64, wrong-doing at Kd.13.34. N.B. in this Section offence means class of offence and not individual offences.

4.

Bu-NP.2 (one night), Bu-NP.23 (seven days), Bu-NP.1 (ten days), Bu-NP.29 (six nights), Bu-NP.3 (more than a month); being away for a night alone, Nuns’ Bi-NP.3; if an offence has been concealed for the first, second and third watches of the night, and is still concealed after the sun has risen, he who conceals it should be made to confess an offence of wrong-doing—as at Kd.13.34.2. The three offences are thus Nissaggiya, Formal Meeting, and wrong-doing.

5.

There are eleven admonitions “up to the third time”. Here those both for monks and for nuns are intended.

6.

One here in this Dispensation (sāsana) for nuns. See Nuns’ Bi-Pj.8.

7.

Through the recitation of the provenance of all the rules of training and of the recitations of the whole Pātimokkha, Vin-a.1381.

8.

Body and speech.

9.

Defeat and Formal Meeting

10.

For concealing an offence of Defeat or of Formal Meeting there is an offence for the concealer.

11.

Wrong-doing (Bu-Pc.67.2.2), Pācittiya (Bu-Pc.27), grave, and Saṅghādisesa (Nuns’ Bi-Ss.3.5.1).

12.

Wrong-doing (Kd.2.7.2), Pācittiya (Bu-Pc.28), grave, and Formal Meeting (Nuns’ Bi-Ss.3.5.1).

13.

In eating human flesh, Vin.1.218.

14.

Eating nine other kinds of meat, Vin.1.219f.

15.

Pācittiya and wrong-doing (Nuns’ Bi-Pc.11.2.1).

16.

Pācittiya and wrong-doing (Nuns’ Bi-Pc.12.2.1).

17.

Defeat (Bu-Pj.3.4.7), grave, and Pācittiya (Bu-Pj.3.4.5).

18.

Bi-Ss.2, Bi-Pj.5, Bi-NP.5, grave (Nuns’ Bi-Ss.5.2.2).

19.

Vin-a.1382: five that are slight.

20.

Vin-a.1382: setting aside Defeat, the remainder mean “one here for which amends are not made” is the one offence (in the class of Defeat)—i.e. Defeat is the only offence for which amends cannot be made.

21.

Vin-a.1382: setting aside Defeat, the remainder mean “one here for which amends are not made” is the one offence (in the class of Defeat)—i.e. Defeat is the only offence for which amends cannot be made.

22.

Defeat and Formal Meeting.

23.

Referring to absolutely all the rules of training; not one is laid down in respect of the mind-door, Vin-a.1382.

24.

Only salted sour gruel for an invalid, Vin.1.210.

25.

This one agreement is allowed for exhorting nuns (Bu-Pc.21).

27.

“ground” is bhūmi. Vin-a.1382: “either he makes a ‘same communion for himself’, or a complete Order restores a suspended monk. But in the Kurundiya the two grounds for communion that are spoken of are a ground for a similar communion and a ground for a different communion.” Cf. above Prv.7.2 (end of text, pp.116.)

28.

Cf. above Prv.7.2 (Vin.5.118): one under probation and one undergoing mānatta.

29.

Nuns’ Bi-Pc.5 is one, and “two finger-breadths or two for a month” is the other, Vin-a.1382.

30.

Vin-a.1382: “A nun who has struck herself falls into two offences: if she strikes and weeps there is an offence of Pācittiya; if she strikes but does not weep there is an offence of wrong-doing.” See Nuns’ Bi-Pc.20.

31.

By a formal act and by a voting ticket.

32.

Vin-a.1383: there are two in the whole of the Vinaya according to the layings down for both (Orders). But, on the other hand (? itarathā) there are nine for monks and nine for nuns, making eighteen.

33.

Vin-a.1383: the formal act and the basis of the formal act.

34.

Defeat, grave, Pācittiya, as at Bu-Pj.3.4.5.

35.

For one who conceals a fault, for an imitator of one who is suspended, and for a doer of eight (things)—Nuns’ Bi-Pj.6, Bi-Pj.7, Bi-Pj.8. “But the Kurundiya says that the three are: at a command taking what has not been given, killing a man, and claiming a state of further-men.”

36.

Formal Meeting, grave, wrong-doing, as at Bu-Ss.3.3.2, Bu-Ss.3.3.3.

37.

Formal Meeting, grave, wrong-doing, as at Bu-Ss.5.4.12.

38.

One who is under the right age (Bu-Pc.65), one lacking the accessories (bowl and robe) (Kd.1.70), and one who has fallen away from the matter (a matricide, eunuch, hermaphrodite and animal) (Kd.1.63–69)—the (last two) interpretations being given by the Kurundiya.

39.

The preparation of a formal act (it should be carried out), the individually unfinished (he is carrying out), and a past carrying out (it was carried out). A further threefold classification is by subject-matter, motion and proclamation: Vin-a.1383.

40.

“Expel the nun Mettiyā” (Bu-Ss.8.1.9), a seducer of nuns should be expelled (Kd.1.67), and a novice who is possessed of ten qualities should be expelled (Kd.1.60). Cf. above Section Prv.7.1.

41.

“I allow, monks, two or three to make proclamations together,” so Vin-a.1384 apparently quoting Vin.1.93. For ekavācika see Vin.1.169ff.

42.

Defeat, grave, wrong-doing (see Bu-Pj.2.1.3, Bu-Pj.2.1.6 and Bu-Pj.2.6.1).

43.

Defeat, grave, wrong-doing, Pācittiya (all in Bu-Pj.1).

45.

Defeat (Bu-Pj.3.4.5, Bu-Pj.3.4.6), grave and Pācittiya (Bu-Pj.3.4.5; Bu-Pj.3.5.25), Formal Meeting (Bu-Ss.1), wrong-doing (Bu-Sk.74).

47.

navakā; Vin-a.1384 says that in the first rule of training (i.e. in the division on nuns, Bu-Pc.21–30) there are precisely two formal acts that are not legally valid, and two that are. The reference seems to be Bu-Pc.21. See Vin.5.137–138.

48.

Vin-a.1384 says that in giving robe-material in the presence of monks to one who is ordained there is Pācittiya; in the presence of nuns there is wrong-doing. Thus there is an offence in giving robe-material to two nuns.

49.

As handed down in the Pali, i.e. the text.

50.

Nuns’ Bi-Pc.7.

51.

Wrong-doing (Bu-Pc.27, Bu-Pc.67), Pācittiya (Nuns’ Bi-Pc.96), grave and Formal Meeting (Nuns’ Bi-Ss.3.5.1).

52.

Pācittiya (Nuns’ Bi-Pc.11, Bu-Pc.12), wrong-doing (Nuns’ Bi-Pc.6.2.2), grave and Formal Meeting (Nuns’ Bi-Ss.3.5.1); see also Nuns’ Bi-Pj.8.2.1.

53.

Commentary merely remarks that if one sits or lies down one falls into four offences; perhaps the same as for standing.

54.

“I allow, monks, two or three to make proclamations together,” so Vin-a.1384 apparently quoting Vin.1.93. For ekavācika see Vin.1.169ff.

55.

Vin-a.1385: a monk accepts five medicines, mixes them in one or more vessels, but if he sets them aside for more than seven days there are five offences of Pācittiya. Perhaps this refers to Bu-NP.23.

56.

This refers to a monk who asks for, crushes up together and eats the nine sumptuous foods; see Bu-Pc.39.

57.

Confessing in one formula (sentence) to storing the five medicines for more than seven days; Bu-NP.23.

58.

Referring to sumptuous foods (?).

59.

Referring to medicines.

60.

Referring to sumptuous foods.

61.

Defeat for imitating one who is suspended (Nuns’ Bi-Pj.5), Formal Meeting for imitating a schismatic (Bu-Ss.10.1), and Pācittiya for the nun Caṇḍakālī for not giving up a pernicious view (this may refer to Nuns’ Bi-Ss.10 which, however, does not mention an offence of Pācittiya).

62.

See Vin.5.99 on “for the sake of livelihood … ”.

63.

Grave offence to eat human flesh (Vin.1.218), one of wrong-doing to eat the other unallowable meats (Vin.1.219ff.), offence of Pācittiya for a nun who eats garlic (Nuns’ Bi-Pc.1).

64.

Formal Meeting (Nuns’ Bi-Ss.5), grave (Vin.1.218), Pācittiya (Nuns’ Bi-Pc.1), Confession (Nuns’ Bi-Pd.1–8), and wrong-doing (Vin.1.219f.).

65.

Wrong-doing, grave, Defeat (Nuns’ Bi-Pj.7.2.1). Formal Meeting (Bu-Ss.10), Pācittiya (Bu-Pc.68).

66.

Vin-a.1386: the five co-religionists (monks and nuns, Vin.2.262), probationers, female and male novices (Vin.1.84, specifically of male novices). Though their offences did not have to be confessed, a punishment, daṇḍakamma, had to be imposed on them.

67.

For these same five classes all ordinary investigations (? vinicchayavohāra) about bowl and robe is called a legal question, Vin-a.1386.

68.

The same five as in the immediately preceding notes.

69.

The same five as in the immediately preceding notes.

70.

The same five as in the immediately preceding notes.

71.

Vin-a.1387: if an individual makes amends (for an offence) in the midst of an Order, in the midst of a group, or in the presence of an individual (monk).

72.

Pācittiya and wrong-doing (Nuns’ Bi-Pc.11.2.1).

73.

Pācittiya and wrong-doing (Nuns’ Bi-Pc.12).

74.

Wrong-doing (Bu-Ss.1.5.12).

75.

Vin-a.1387: “‘Monks, a monk must not look at a donor’s face’—here is an offence of wrong-doing. But the Kurundiya speaks of this phrase as meaning ‘if a nun is partaking of prepared (ripened, paripācita) alms there is an offence of Pācittiya’.’

76.

Vin-a.1387: “called advantages in the Kosambakakkhandhaka”—apparently referring to Kd.10.1.7, though the word ānisaṃsa does not occur there in Oldenberg’s edition.

77.

For not seeing an offence, not making amends for one, not giving up a pernicious view, e.g. Kd.1.79.

78.

Vin-a.1387: some are for those monks who have been suspended.

79.

Vin-a.1387: Defeat, Formal Meeting, grave, Pācittiya, and wrong-doing. See Vin.5.128, BD.6.193.

80.

Vin-a.1387 “ten days at most” and so on is spoken of below (i.e. above here).

81.

Four offences to be Confessed for monks, eight for nuns.

82.

desanā. Vin-a.1387: this means confession of a transgression, accaya, and refers in particular to the assassins hired by Devadatta (Vin.2.192); to the woman who tried to seduce the elder Anuruddha (Vin.4.18); to Vaḍḍha the Licchavi (Vin.2.126); and to incoming monks who carried out a formal act of suspension against an Elder who was a resident in Vāsabha village (Vin.1.314f.).

83.

See Vin.5.136.

84.

See Vin.5.137.

85.

See Vin.5.137.

86.

See Vin.5.137.

87.

Commentary here says this refers to the ordination, upasampadā, of nuns.

88.

See Vin.5.137.

89.

See Vin.5.137.

90.

See Vin.5.137.

91.

Now the verses begin to be concerned with schism; “could be destroyed” is chejja. Vin-a.1388 says “In the verses whoever of nine people offers a voting ticket, he splits the Order; only for him is there chejja”, and it rather strangely adds “as Devadatta fell into an offence involving Defeat”. The above clause apparently refers to Vin.2.204 (Kd.17.5.1).

92.

Vin-a.1388: “the followers or imitators of schismatics, such as Kokālika and so on”—i.e. Kokālika and three other followers of Devadatta are mentioned at Bu-Ss.10.1.1, Kd.17.3.14. At Kd.17.4.4 they were to be made to confess a grave offence. Four other sets of circumstances for falling into a grave offence for aiming at a schism occur at Kd.2.34.6–9.

93.

No offence for four speakers of Dhamma—this is obscure.

94.

Vin-a.1388: “But these offences, founded on one for all, are founded on a schism in the Order”.

95.

See Vin.5.137.

96.

See Vin.5.137.

97.

See Vin.5.137.

98.

Vin-a.1388 says nine formal acts should be carried out by a motion.

100.

Vin-a.1388: for greeting these same ten.

101.

An extra robe may be worn for most at ten days, Bu-NP.1.2.

102.

The five fellow Dhamma-people: monks, nuns, probationers, women and men novices.

103.

The word sante is unusual in Vinaya. It looks like an accusative plural and as if it is being used for parisuddhi, complete purity; and dātabbaṃ is probably here to declare, see BD.4.158, n.1. The above clause possibly refers to Kd.2.22, Kd.13.26: suddhanta. For Vin-a.1388 the seven are: those gone to distant parts, disāpakkantā for disaṃgamika of Kd.2.21; those who are mad, unhinged, in pain, and the three who have been suspended (i.e. for not seeing, not making amends for and not giving up).

104.

Vin-a.1388 says that these sixteen, beginning with eunuch, are spoken of in the Cīvarakkhandhaka, and seem to refer to the first six and the last ten in Kd.8.30.1.

105.

This is the answer to the one question asked in the preceding verse. Vin-a.1389: “Whoever on every ten days having fallen into 100 offences requiring a Formal Meeting of the Order conceals them for each of the ten days is therefore a concealer of 1,000 offences for 100 nights. If he asks for probation, saying all these offences have been concealed for ten days, and having spent ten nights (then the words may be spoken) “The probationer may be freed’.” On probation see Kd.12, Kd.13. This verse is quoted at Vin-a.1183.

106.

The Campeyyakakkhandhaka is Kd.9. Three defects refer to four formal acts, see above Prv.7.2, towards end of Vin.5.116.

107.

See again towards end of Vin.5.116, and Kd.9.

108.

See Kd.9.3.5. The legally valid one is that which is carried out by rule in a complete assembly. See also Vin.5.115 (near beginning, and the note in the translation).

109.

See Kd.9.3.5. The legally valid one is that which is carried out by rule in a complete assembly. See also Vin.5.115 (near beginning, and the note in the translation).

110.

See Kd.9.2.4. The one that is legally valid is the same as in the preceding stanza.

111.

Vin-a.1389: nibbāna.

112.

Vin-a.1389 speaks of the same five kinds of “aloofness” or seclusion as does MN-a.i.85. Cf. Vin.5.97.

113.

Only one class of offence, that of Defeat, is stopped without the decidings. Here one verdict in the presence of is stopped without the decidings, but yet attains the status of a deciding.

114.

visayāni.

115.

Vin-a.1390 referring to the Sanghabhedakkhandhaka, classifies the eighteen speakers of non-dhamma into eight groups each, thus arriving at the total of cha ūnadiyaḍḍhasata. See Kd.17.5.2 (for the eighteen points giving rise to schism) and Kd.17.5.5 (for the views and the doubts, which Commentary classifies as eight).

116.

Lines at Kd.17.5.5, there in the singular.

117.

Vin-a.1390 here copies Kd.17.5.6. These are schismatics in fact, but act in good faith.

118.

This refers to the answer last but two above, where the 144 are reduced to 18 × 8.

119.

See above Prv.15.1.3, BD.6.167.

125.

asuttaka, not woven, not threaded on the Thread (sutta) of the Teaching. On sutta as Thread see The Guide, P.T.S. Translation Series, No. 33, Introduction, p.xxxiii, and p.3, note 1/2.