Vinaya Pitaka (3): Khandhaka

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 386,194 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It is a collection of various narratives. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (third part, khandhaka) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar to the I...

Concurrent probation with dependent duration

Kd.13.20.1 Now at that time a certain monk came to have fallen into several offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order: one offence was concealed for one day, one offence was concealed for two days … three … four … five … six … seven … eight … nine days, one offence was concealed for ten days. He announced to monks: “I, your reverences, fell into several offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order; one offence was concealed for one day … one offence was concealed for ten days. What line of conduct should be followed by me?” They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“Well then, monks, let the Order grant this monk concurrent probation, its duration depending[1] on whichever was the offence among these offences that was concealed for ten days.

Kd.13.20.2 “And thus, monks, should it be granted: That monk, having approached the Order … should speak thus to it: ‘I, revered sirs, have fallen into several offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order; ‘… one offence was concealed for ten days. So I, honoured sirs, ask the Order for concurrent probation, its duration depending on whichever was the offence among these offences that was concealed for ten days’. And a second time it should be asked for … And a third time it should be asked for … The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This monk So-and-so fell into several offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order; Vin.2.52 one was concealed for … ten days. He is asking the Order for concurrent probation, its duration depending on whichever was the offence among these offences that was concealed for ten days. If it seems right to the Order, the Order should grant the monk So-and-so concurrent probation … for ten days. BD.5.69 This is the motion … Concurrent probation is being granted by the Order to the monk So-and-so, its duration depending on whichever was the offence among these offences that was concealed for ten days. It is pleasing … Thus do I understand this.’”

All lengths concealed with dependent duration

Kd.13.21.1 Now at that time a certain monk had fallen into several offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order; one offence was concealed for one day, two offences were concealed for two days, three offences were concealed for three days, four … for four days, five … for five days … six for six days … seven for seven days, eight … for eight days, nine … for nine days, ten offences were concealed for ten days. He announced to monks, saying: “I, your reverences, have fallen into several offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order; one offence was concealed for one day … ten offences were concealed for ten days. Now, what line of conduct should be followed by me?” They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“Well then, monks, let the Order grant this monk concurrent probation, its duration depending on whichever were the offences among these offences that were each concealed the longest.[2] And thus, monks, should it be granted: That monk, having approached the Order … should speak thus to it: ‘I, honoured sirs, have fallen into several offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order; one offence was concealed for one day … ten offences were concealed for ten days. Therefore I, honoured sirs, ask the Order for concurrent probation, its duration depending on whichever were the offences among these offences that were each concealed the longest.’ And a second time it should be asked for … And a third time it should be asked for … The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: ‘… And a third time I speak forth this matter … Concurrent probation is granted by the Order to this monk, its duration depending on whichever were the offences among these offences that were each concealed the longest. It is pleasing … Thus do I understand this.’” Vin.2.53

Probation for two months

Kd.13.22.1 BD.5.70 Now at that time a certain monk fell into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order; they were concealed for two months. It occurred to him: “I have fallen into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order; they were concealed for two months. Suppose I were to ask the Order for probation for two months for one offence concealed for two months?” He asked the Order for probation for two months for one offence concealed for two months. The Order granted him probation for two months for one offence concealed for two months. While he was under probation a feeling of shame overcame him, and he thought: “I fell into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order; they were concealed for two months. It occurred to me: I have fallen into two offences … Suppose I were to ask the Order for probation for two months for one offence concealed for two months? I asked the Order … The Order granted me probation for two months for one offence concealed for two months. While I was under probation a feeling of shame overcame me. Suppose I were also to ask the Order for probation for two months for that other offence concealed for two months?”

Kd.13.22.2 He announced to monks: “I, your reverences, fell into two offences … ‘… Suppose I were also to ask the Order for probation for two months for that other offence concealed for two months?’ Now, what line of conduct should be followed by me?” They told this matter to the Lord. He said.

Kd.13.22.3 “Well then, monks, let the Order grant this monk probation for two months on account also of that other offence concealed for two months. And thus, monks, should it be granted: That monk, having approached the Order … should speak thus to it: ‘I, honoured sirs, have fallen into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order … = Kd.13.22.2 … Suppose I were also to ask the Order for probation for two months on account of that other offence concealed for two months? So I, honoured sirs, am also asking the Order for probation for two months on account of that other offence concealed for two months.Vin.2.54 And a second time it should be asked for … And a third time it should be asked for.

Kd.13.22.4 “The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to BD.5.71 me. This monk So-and-so has fallen into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order, concealed for two months. It occurred to him: … He is also asking the Order for probation for two months on account of that other offence concealed for two months. If it seems right to the Order, the Order may also grant the monk So-and-so probation for two months on account of that other offence concealed for two months. This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This monk So-and-so … And a third time I speak forth this matter. Probation is also being granted the monk So-and-so by the Order for two months on account of this other offence concealed for two months. It is pleasing … Thus do I understand this.’ Well then, monks, that monk should do probation for two months from that date.[3]

Kd.13.23.1 “This is a case, monks, where a monk has fallen into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order, concealed for two months … as above … The Order also granted him probation for two months on account of that other offence concealed for two months. Well then, monks, that monk should do probation for two months from that date.

Kd.13.23.2 “This is a case, monks, where a monk has fallen into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order, concealed for two months. He knows that one is an offence, he does not know that the other is an offence. He asks the Order for probation for two months on account of that offence, concealed for two months, which he knows to be an offence. The Order grants him probation for two months an account of that offence concealed for two months. While he is under probation, he finds that the other is also an offence. It occurs to him: ‘I have fallen into two offences … I knew that one was an offence, I did not know that the other was an offence. So I asked the Order for probation for two months on account of that offence which I knew to be an offence, concealed for two months. The Order granted me probation for two months on account of that offence, concealed for two months. But while I was under probation, I found that the other was also an offence. Suppose I Vin.2.55 were also to ask the Order for probation for two months on account of this other offence, concealed BD.5.72 for two months?’ He asks the Order for probation … The Order grants him probation for two months on account of this other offence also, concealed for two months. Well then, monks, this monk should do probation for two months from that date.

Kd.13.23.3 “This is a case, monks, where a monk has fallen into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order, concealed for two months. He remembers one offence, he does not remember the other offence. He asks the Order for probation for two months on account of that offence, concealed for two months, which he remembers … = Kd.13.23.2. Read remembers, remembered instead of finds, found … for two months from this date.

Kd.13.23.4 “This is a case, monks, where a monk has fallen into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order, concealed for two months. He is in no doubt that one is an offence, he is doubtful whether the other is an offence. He asks the Order for probation for two months on account of that offence about which he is in no doubt … = Kd.13.23.2. Read is doubtful for does not know … for two months from this date.

Kd.13.23.5 “This is a case, monks, where a monk has fallen into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order, concealed for two months. One offence is knowingly concealed, the other offence is unknowingly concealed. He asks the Order for probation for two months on account of those offences concealed for two months. The Order grants him probation for two months on account of those offences concealed for two months. While he is under probation, a certain monk arrives—one who has heard much, to whom the tradition had been handed down, expert in dhamma, expert in discipline, expert in the summaries, clever, experienced, wise, conscientious, scrupulous, desirous of training. He speaks thus: ‘What, your reverences, has this monk fallen into? Why is this monk doing probation?’ They speak thus: ‘This monk, your reverence, has fallen into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order, concealed for two months. One offence was knowingly concealed, the other offence was unknowingly concealed. He asked the Order for probation for two months on account of these offences concealed for two months. The Order granted him probation for two months on account of BD.5.73 these offences, concealed tor two months. This monk your reverence, has fallen into these, this monk is under probation on account of these.’ He speaks thus: ‘The granting of probation, your reverences, for that offence which he knowingly concealed is legally valid[4]; because it is legally valid[5] it is effective;[6] but the granting of probation, your reverences, for that offence which he unknowingly concealed is not legally valid; because it is not legally valid it is not effective. For this offence, your reverences, the monk deserves mānatta (discipline).’

Kd.13.23.6 “This is a case, monks, where a monk falls into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order, concealed for two months. One offence is concealed, he remembering it, the other offence is concealed, he not remembering it … One offence is concealed, he being not in doubt (about it), the other offence is concealed, he being in doubt (about it) … ‘… For this offence, your reverences, this monk deserves mānatta (discipline).’” Vin.2.56


Kd.13.24.1 Now at that time a certain monk had fallen into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order, concealed for two months. It occurred to him: “I have fallen into two offences … concealed for two months. Suppose that I were to ask the Order for probation for one month on account of the two offences, concealed for two months?” He asked the Order … The Order granted him probation for one month on account of the two offences, concealed for two months. As he was under probation shame overcame him, and he thought: “I have fallen into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order, concealed for two months. It occurred to me: … I asked the Order for probation for one month … The Order granted me probation for one month on account of the two offences concealed for two months. As I was under probation shame overcame me. What now, if I should also ask the Order for probation for a further month on account of the two offences concealed for two months?”

Kd.13.24.2 BD.5.74 He announced to monks: “I, your reverences, have fallen into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order, concealed for two months … It occurred to me: … What now if I should also ask the Order for probation for a further month on account of the two offences concealed for two months? Now, what line of conduct should be followed by me?” They told this matter to the Lord.

Kd.13.24.3 He said: “Well then, monks, let the Order also grant this monk probation for a further month on account of these two offences concealed for two months. And thus, monks, should it be asked for: That monk, having approached the Order … should speak thus to it: ‘I, honoured sirs, have fallen into two offences … What now if I should also ask the Order for probation for a further month on account of the two offences, concealed for two months? So I, honoured sirs, am also asking the Order for probation for a further month on account of the two offences concealed for two months.Vin.2.57 And a second time … And a third time it should be asked for. The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This monk So-and-so fell into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order, concealed for two months. It occurred to him: ‘… Suppose I were also to ask the Order for probation for a further month on account of the two offences, concealed for two months?’ He is asking … If it seems right to the Order, the Order … If the giving of probation to the monk So-and-so for a further month also on account of the two offences concealed for two months is pleasing to the venerable ones … And a third time I speak forth this matter … Probation is granted by the Order to the monk So-and-so for a further month also on account of the two offences, concealed for two months. It is pleasing … Thus do I understand this.’ Monks, that monk should do probation for two months from the earlier date.

Procedure for one to be given probation for two months

Kd.13.25.1 “This is a case, monks, where a monk falls into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order, concealed for two months. It occurs to him: ‘I have fallen into two offences … concealed for two months. Suppose I were to ask the Order for probation for one month on account of the two BD.5.75 offences concealed for two months?’ … = Kd.13.25.1 … The Order also grants him probation for a further month on account of the two offences, concealed for two months. Monks, that monk should do probation for two months from the earlier date.

Kd.13.25.2 “This is a case, monks, where a monk falls into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order, concealed for two months. He knows the one month, he does not know the other month … he remembers the one month, he does not remember the other month … he is not doubtful about the one month, he is doubtful about the other month. He asks the Order for probation for that month on account of the two offences, concealed for two months, about which he is not doubtful. The Order grants him probation … not doubtful. As he is doing probation he comes to be doubtful about the further month also. It occurs to him: ‘I have fallen into two offences … concealed for two months. I was not doubtful about the one month, Vin.2.58 I was doubtful about the other month … Suppose I were to ask the Order for probation for a further month also on account of the two offences concealed for two months?’ He asks the Order … The Order grants him probation for a further month also on account of the two offences, concealed for two months. Monks, that monk should do probation for two months from the earlier date.

Kd.13.25.3 This is a case, monks, where a monk falls into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order, concealed for two months. One month is knowingly concealed, the other month is unknowingly concealed … One month is concealed, he remembering it, the other month is concealed, he not remembering it … One month is concealed, he being not in doubt (about it), the other month is concealed, he being in doubt about it. He asks the Order for probation for two months on account of the two offences concealed for two months. The Order grants him probation for two months … concealed for two months. As he is under probation, another monk arrives[7]—one who has heard much … desirous of training. He speaks thus: ‘Into what, your reverences, has this monk fallen? Why is this monk under probation?’ They speak BD.5.76 thus: ‘This monk, your reverence, has fallen into two offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order, concealed for two months. He concealed one month (although) he was not doubtful (about it), he concealed the other month (because) he was doubtful (about it). He asked the Order for probation … The Order granted him probation for two months on account of the two offences, concealed for two months. This monk, your reverence, has fallen into these, this monk is doing probation on account of these.’ He speaks thus: ‘The granting of probation, your reverences, for that month which he concealed (although) he was not doubtful (about it) is legally valid; because it is legally valid, it is effective; but the granting of probation, your reverences, for that month which he concealed because he was doubtful (about it) is not legally valid; because it is not legally valid, it is not effective. For that month, your reverences, that monk deserves mānatta discipline.’”

Purifying probation

Kd.13.26.1 Now at that time a certain monk came to have fallen into several offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order; he did not know about the expiration of the offences, he did not know about the expiration of the nights[8] … He did not remember … He was doubtful about the expiration of the offences, he was doubtful about the expiration of the nights. He announced to monks: “I, your reverences, fell into several offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order. Vin.2.59 I do not know about the expiration of the offences, I do not know about BD.5.77 the expiration of the nights … I am doubtful about the expiration of the nights. Now, what line of conduct should be followed by me?” They told this matter to the Lord. He said:

“Well then, monks, let the Order grant the purifying probation[9] to this monk on account of those offences.

Kd.13.26.2 And thus, monks, should it be granted: That monk, having approached the Order … should speak thus to it: ‘I, honoured sirs, have fallen into several offences entailing a formal meeting of the Order. I do not know about the expiration of the offences … I am doubtful about the expiration of the nights. So I, honoured sirs, am asking the Order for the purifying probation on account of these offences’. And a second time … And a third time it should be asked for. The Order should be informed by an experienced, competent monk, saying: ‘Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This monk So-and-so has fallen into several offences … he is doubtful about the expiration of the nights. He is asking the Order for the purifying probation on account of those offences. If it seems right to the Order, the Order may grant the monk So-and-so the purifying probation on account of those offences. This is the motion. Honoured sirs, let the Order listen to me. This monk So-and-so … The Order is granting the monk So-and-so the purifying probation on account of those offences. If the granting to the monk So-and-so of the purifying probation on account of those offences is pleasing to the venerable ones, they should be silent; he to whom it is not pleasing should speak: And a second time … And a third time I speak forth this matter … The purifying probation is granted by the Order to the monk So-and-so on account of those offences. It is pleasing … Thus do I understand this.’

Kd.13.26.3 “Thus, monks, should the purifying probation be granted, thus should probation be granted. And how, monks, should the purifying probation be granted? If he does not know about the expiration of the offences, if he does not know about the expiration of the nights, if he does not remember about the expiration of the offences, if he does not remember about the BD.5.78 expiration of the nights, if he is doubtful about the expiration of the offences, if he is doubtful about the expiration of the nights, the purifying probation may be granted.

“If he knows about the expiration of the offences, if he does not know about the expiration of the nights, if he remembers about the expiration of the offences, if he does not remember about the expiration of nights, if he is not in doubt as to the expiration of the offences, if he is in doubt as to the expiration of the nights, the purifying probation may be granted.

“If he knows the expiration of the offences in some cases, if he does not know it in others, if he does not know the expiration of the nights, if he remembers the expiration of the offences in some cases, if he does not remember it in others, if he does not remember the expiration of the nights, if he is in doubt as to the expiration of the offences in some cases, if he is in no doubt as to it in others, if he is in doubt as to the expiration of the nights, the purifying probation may be granted.

“If he does not know the expiration of the offences, if he knows the expiration of the nights in some cases, if he does not know it in others, if he does not remember the expiration of the offences, if he remembers the expiration of the nights in some cases, if he does not remember it in others, if he is in doubt as to the expiration of the offences, if in some cases he is in doubt as to the expiration of the nights, if he is not in doubt in others, Vin.2.60 the purifying probation may be granted.

“If he knows the expiration of the offences, if he knows the expiration of the nights in some cases, if he does not know it in others, if he remembers the expiration of the offences, if he remembers the expiration of the nights in some cases, if he does not remember it in others, if he is not in doubt as to the expiration of the offences, if he is in doubt in some cases as to the expiration of the nights, if he is not in doubt in others, the purifying probation may be granted.

“If he knows the expiration of the offences in some cases, if he does not know it in others, if he knows the expiration of the nights in some cases, if he does not know it in others, if he remembers the expiration of the offences in some cases, if he does not remember it in others, if he remembers the expiration of the nights in some cases, if he does not remember it in others, BD.5.79 if he is in doubt as to some offences, if he is not in doubt as to others, if he is in doubt as to some nights, if he is not in doubt as to others, the purifying probation may be granted.

Kd.13.26.4 “And how, monks may probation be granted? If he knows the expiration of the offences, if he knows the expiration of the nights, if he remembers the expiration of the offences, if he remembers the expiration of the nights, if he is not in doubt as to the expiration of the offences, if he is not in doubt as to the expiration of the nights, probation may be granted.

“If he does not know the expiration of the offences, if he knows the expiration of the nights, if he does not remember the expiration of the offences, if he remembers the expiration of the nights, if he is in doubt as to the expiration of the offences, if he is not in doubt as to the expiration of the nights, probation may be granted.

“If he knows the expiration of the offences in some cases, if he does not know it in others, if he knows the expiration of the nights, if he remembers the expiration of the offences in some cases, if he does not remember it in others, if he remembers the expiration of the nights, if he is in doubt as to the expiration of the offences in some cases, if he is not in doubt in others, if he is not in doubt as to the expiration of the nights, probation may be granted. Thus, monks, may probation be granted.”

Told is Probation.

Footnotes and references:

1.

tassā agghena, literally according to the value or worth, i.e. of the probationary period necessitated by the number of days the offence was concealed. Here probation had to be undergone for ten days, since this was the greatest number of days for which one of the offences had been concealed. Vin-a.1182 says there are three kinds of concurrent probation: odhāna, aggha, and missaka, all of which it explains.

2.

sabbacirapaṭicchannāyo. This looks as if probation would have to last for ten times ten days.

3.

tadupādāya.

4.

dhammikaṃ.

5.

dhammattā.

6.

rūhati. As at Kd.3.25.3, Vin.5.327, etc. Cf. Vin.2.203 and Kd.6.14.5. Rūhati means something like “it counts”.

7.

As in Kd.13.23.5.

8.

āpattipariyanta … rattipariyanta. Pariyanta means literally limit, end, boundary, limitation. On the use of these words here Buddhaghosa leads us to suppose that a monk might be in a state of purification in regard to various offences that he had committed because he had undergone adequate probation. This might last for a day, a half-month, a month or a year. He should then consider for how many months he still has to do probation so as to secure his purification, that is, the removal of the offence. As offences are removed, the amount of time still to be spent on probation automatically becomes less. Moreover, whoever does not know or remember or is in doubt as to the expiration of the nights should, if he has undertaken to do probation, count the nights from that day back to the day of his ordination, and then do probation for this number of nights. In this way, it appears, he would be quite certain of doing probation for all the possible nights which might be necessary for the removal of the offence. See āpattipariyanta and kulapariyanta (“limited to families”) at Vin.4.31 (BD.2.220), where defined; and bhesajjapariyanta (“limited to medicines”) and rattipariyanta at Vin.4.103 (BD.2.371). See also above, Kd.12.1.2, where pariyanta seems used in a different sense.

9.

suddhantaparivāsa.