Vinaya Pitaka (4): Parivara

by I. B. Horner | 2014 | 150,781 words | ISBN-13: 9781921842160

The English translation of the Khandhaka: the second book of the Pali Vinaya Pitaka, one of the three major ‘baskets’ of Therevada canonical literature. It analyses the rules from various points of view. The English translation of the Vinaya-pitaka (fourth part, parivara) contains many Pali original words, but transliterated using a system similar...

13. Portion On Reproving

Prv.13.1.1 BD.6.259 Vin.5.160 The one who is reproving should be asked by an adjudicator: “That monk whom you are reproving, reverend sir, for what are you reproving him? Are you reproving him for falling away from moral habit, are you reproving him for falling away from right behaviour, are you reproving him for falling away from right view?” If he should speak thus: “I am reproving him for falling away from moral habit, or I am reproving him for falling away from right behaviour, or I am reproving him for falling away from right view,” he should be spoken to thus: “But does your reverence know … see Kd.16.11–15. Instead of if you suspend this monk’s Invitation read I reprove, you reprove … Did you suspect, having heard from disciples of (other) sects?”

Prv.13.1.2 If the seen corresponds with the seen,
the seen being in agreement with the seen,[1]
If concerning the seen he[2] does not consent,[3]
he[4] is one suspecting impurity:
That man, on his acknowledgement,[5]
may carry out Observance with him.

If the heard corresponds with the heard,
the heard being in agreement with the heard,
If concerning the heard …
Observance with him.

If the sensed corresponds with the sensed,
the sensed being in agreement with the sensed,
If concerning the sensed …
Observance with him.

Prv.13.1.3 BD.6.260 What is the beginning of reproving, what is in the middle what is the ending? Giving leave is the beginning of reproving,[6] carrying out is in the middle, a decision is the ending.[7]

How many roots of reproving, how many matters, how many (mental) planes?[8] In how many ways does one reprove? Two roots of reproving, three matters, five (mental) planes He reproves in two ways.

What are the two roots of reproving? With root, or rootless.[9] These are the two roots of reproving.

What are the three matters for reproving? About the seen the heard, the suspected.[10] These are the three matters for reproving.

Vin.5.161 What are the five (mental) planes[11] for reproving? “I will speak at a right time, not at a wrong time; I will speak about fact, not about what is not fact; I will speak gently, not harshly; I will speak about what is connected with the goal, not about what is not connected with the goal; I will speak with a mind of loving-kindness, not with inner hatred.”[12] These are the five (mental) planes for reproving.

What are the two ways by which he reproves? He reproves by body and he reproves by speech. These are the two ways by which he reproves.

Prv.13.1.4 What should be practised by one who is reproving … by one who is being reproved … by an Order … by an adjudicator?

What should be practised by one who is reproving? Another may be reproved by a reprover who is firm in five things: “I will speak at a right time, not at a wrong time … I will speak with a mind of loving-kindness, not with inner hatred.” Thus should it be practised by one who is reproving.

What should be practised by one who is being reproved? In two things should one who is being reproved practice: in the truth and in being without anger.[13] Thus should it be practised by one who is being reproved.

BD.6.261 What should be practised by an Order? What has been said already and what has not been said[14] should be known by an Order. Thus should it be practised by an Order.

What should be practised by an adjudicator? As that legal question is settled by an adjudicator according to rule, according to Discipline, according to the Teacher’s Dispensation, so should he settle this legal question. Thus should it be practised by an adjudicator.

Prv.13.1.5 For what purpose is Observance,
by reason of what is there Invitation,
For what purpose is probation,
by reason of what is there sending back to the beginning,
For what purpose is mānatta,
by reason of what is there rehabilitation?

Observance is for “being all together”,
for purity there is Invitation,
Probation is for mānatta,
sending back to the beginning is for restraint,
Mānatta is for rehabilitation,
for purity there is rehabilitation.

If he abuses Elders for (having)
partiality, hatred, fear, confusion:
At the breaking up of the body, weak in wisdom,
done for, faculties destroyed,
He goes to Niraya, the stupid fool
who has no reverence for the trainings.[15]

Not depending on things of the world
nor depending on an individual,[16]
Abandoning both of these,
he should be dealt with according to the rule.

BD.6.262 Angry and bearing ill-will,[17]
harsh and abusive,
Saying, “It is an offence”
he accuses[18] him of what is not an offence:
a reprover such as this burns up himself.[19]

He murmurs in his ear, seeks what is crooked,[20],
seeks only for a defect or blemish.
passes beyond (the judgement),[21]
follows a wrong way—
Vin.5.162 Saying, “It is an offence”
he accuses him of what is not an offence:
a reprover such as this burns up himself.

He reproves at a wrong time, about what is not fact,
harshly, about what is not connected with the goal
he reproves with inner hatred,
not with a mind of loving-kindness—

Saying … what is not an offence …
burns up himself.

He does not know what is a rule
and what not a rule,
he is unskilled in what is a rule
and what not a rule—

Saying … what is not an offence …
burns up himself.

He does not know what is Discipline
and what not Discipline,
he is unskilled in Discipline
and what is not Discipline—

Saying … what is not an offence …
burns up himself.

He does not know what has been said
and what not said …

He does not know what is the usage[22]
and what not the usage …

He does not know what has been laid down
and what not laid down …

He does not know what is an offence
and what not an offence,
he is unskilled in what is an offence
and what not an offence …

He does not know a slight offence
and a serious offence …

BD.6.263 He does not know an offence that can be done away with
and one that cannot be done away with …

He does not know what is a very bad
and what is not a very bad offence …

He does not know what is the earlier
and what the later (talk) …

He does not know the sequence of the connecting words,
he is not skilled in the sequence of the connecting words—

Saying, “It is an offence” he accuses him of what is not an offence:
a reprover such as this burns up himself.

Concluded is the Portion[23] on Reproving

Its Summary

Reproving, and adjudicator, beginning,
by root, Observance, wrong course[24]:
The Teaching is put into the Portion on Reproving.

Footnotes and references:

1.

Vin-a.1361 says that if a monk sees another leaving a place or entering it with a woman, he reproves him for an offence involving Defeat. This other (monk) allows that the first one saw this, but he does not acknowledge Defeat. Thus, “what was seen by him was seen by me”—and so these words about the seen tally. But as the other (monk) does not acknowledge any defect (in himself) because of what was seen, he (the first one) is one who suspects impurity (in the other). Once that individual says “I am pure”, however, Observance may be carried out with him.

2.

Referring to two different monks, see preceding note.

3.

upeti, glossed by paṭijānāti at Vin-a.1361.

4.

Referring to two different monks, see preceding note.

5.

That “I am pure”.

7.

Cf. Vin-a.592 for this paragraph.

8.

Cf. Vin-a.592.

9.

Cf. Vin-a.592 for this paragraph.

10.

Cf. Vin-a.592 for this paragraph.

11.

Five other bhūmi at AN.iii.39f. See also Ps.i.83.

12.

Cf. Vin-a.592 for this paragraph.

13.

As at Kd.19.5.7. He should say exactly what has and what has been done and not be angry with the adjudicator or the Order, Vin-a.1362.

14.

otiṇṇānotiṇṇo. Vin-a.1362 says “So much was the earlier talk, so much the later of the reprover, so much the earlier, so much the later of the reproved. The Order should also assess the ‘measure’ of the reprover, the reproved and the adjudicator”. Otiṇṇa appears to be a word of several meanings: see SN.i.79 (or, ociṇṇa, convinced?) and text below, BD.6.170 anotiṇṇa (not put down?). Otiṇṇa must also mean something like “gone into” both physically and by word of mouth.

15.

See the six reverences above, Vin.5.92.

16.

He should not depend on either of these for his support.

17.

As at Vin.2.89, kodhano upanāhī.

18.

ropeti, to accuse, bring a charge, see Vin.2.2, Vin.2.26, Vin.2.85, Vin.4.36. At Vin.2.261 it appears to mean to cancel.

19.

jhāpeti attānaṃ. Cf. Vin.2.26 attānaṃ khaṇesi, and Dhp.247 mūḷaṃ khaṇati attano. No doubt both jhāpeti and khaṇati in such contexts mean to destroy. Khata, past participle of khaṇati is translated “done for” five lines above.

20.

jimhaṃ pekkhati, explained at Vin-a.1363 as dosam eva gavesati

21.

This is a very tentative rendering of vītiharati. It is glossed at Vin-a.1363 as vinicchayaṃ hāpeti, the “judgement” probably referring to the a taken in the course of a legal question.

22.

āciṇṇa, what is customary.

23.

kaṇḍa is portion, section, paragraph or part.

24.

gati here must refer to chandā dosā bhayā mohā (from partiality, hatred, etc.) in the seventh line of the second set of verses. Oldenberg’s colon should therefore come here and not after Observance.