by Vijay K. Jain | 2018 | 130,587 words | ISBN-10: 8193272625 | ISBN-13: 9788193272626
This page describes different categories of saints (nirgrantha) which is verse 9.46 of the English translation of the Tattvartha Sutra which represents the essentials of Jainism and Jain dharma and deals with the basics on Karma, Cosmology, Ethics, Celestial beings and Liberation. The Tattvarthasutra is authorative among both Digambara and Shvetambara. This is verse 46 of the chapter Stoppage and Shedding of Karmas and includes an extensive commentary.
Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Tattvartha sūtra 9.46:
पुलाकबकुशकुशीलनिर्ग्रन्थस्नातका निर्ग्रन्थाः ॥ ९.४६ ॥
pulākabakuśakuśīlanirgranthasnātakā nirgranthāḥ || 9.46 ||
अन्वयार्थ: [पुलाकबकुशकुशीलनिर्ग्रन्थस्नातका] पुलाक, बकुश, कुशील, निर्ग्रन्थ और स्नातक-ये पाँच प्रकार के [निर्ग्रन्थाः] निर्ग्रन्थ हैं।
Anvayartha: [pulakabakushakushilanirgranthasnataka] pulaka, bakusha, kushila, nirgrantha aura snataka-ye pamca prakara ke [nirgranthah] nirgrantha haim |
Explanation in English from Ācārya Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi:
It has been said that even in the presence of right faith, all are not equal on account of differences among them with regard to efficacy of dissociation. If so, all ascetics cannot be called saints–nirgrantha. But it is not so. Though they are different from one another on account of different attributes or virtues, yet they are all saints–nirgrantha–from the intentional standpoint. Different categories of saints are mentioned next.
The saint, whose mind is slothful regarding the practice of the secondary vows (tapa and parīṣahajaya), and who sometimes is lapse in perfect observance of even the primary vows, is called ‘pulāka’, on account of his resemblance to the blighted or shrivelled grain.
The saint who is without possessions and observes the vows perfectly but cares for the adornment of the body and the implements, surrounded by attendants, and whose mind is spotted by infatuation is called ‘bakuśa’, the spotted saint. The word ‘bakuśa’ means spotted or variegated.
The ‘kuśīla’ saints are of two kinds: 1) pratisevanākuśīla and 2) kaṣāyakuśīla. The saint who is not free from attachments, who observes both primary and secondary vows to perfection but lapses occasionally with regard to the latter is called pratisevanākuśīla. The saint who has controlled all passions except the gleaming (saṃjvalana) ones is called kaṣāyakuśīla.
The saint in whom the rise of karmas is indistinct like the mark of the line made in the water by a stick and who will attain perfect knowledge and faith in antarmuhūrta (within forty-eight minutes) is called the ‘nirgrantha’, meaning without any possessions–internal and external.
The Omniscient, of the thirteenth and the fourteenth stages, whose destructive karmas have been destroyed, is called the ‘snātaka’–the perfect saint.
Though they are different from one another on account of the purity of their disposition, yet they are all called ‘nirgrantha’–saint–from the figurative (naigama) and the synthetic (saṃgraha) viewpoints.