Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Rig Veda 1.56.6

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

त्वं दि॒वो ध॒रुणं॑ धिष॒ ओज॑सा पृथि॒व्या इ॑न्द्र॒ सद॑नेषु॒ माहि॑नः । त्वं सु॒तस्य॒ मदे॑ अरिणा अ॒पो वि वृ॒त्रस्य॑ स॒मया॑ पा॒ष्या॑रुजः ॥
त्वं दिवो धरुणं धिष ओजसा पृथिव्या इन्द्र सदनेषु माहिनः । त्वं सुतस्य मदे अरिणा अपो वि वृत्रस्य समया पाष्यारुजः ॥
tvaṃ divo dharuṇaṃ dhiṣa ojasā pṛthivyā indra sadaneṣu māhinaḥ | tvaṃ sutasya made ariṇā apo vi vṛtrasya samayā pāṣyārujaḥ ||

English translation:

“You, mighty Indra, send down from the heaven by your power, upon the realms of earth, the (world) sustaining rain; exhilarated (by Soma), you have expelled the waters (from the clouds), and have crushed Vṛtra by a solid rock.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Śamayā pāṣyā = sama, whole, entire; hence, pāṣya may mean a stone (or a spear?)


Ṛṣi (sage/seer): savya āṅgirasaḥ [savya āṅgirasa];
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): indra:;
Chandas (meter): bhuriktriṣṭup ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

त्वम् । दि॒वः । ध॒रुण॑म् । धि॒षे॒ । ओज॑सा । पृ॒थि॒व्याः । इ॒न्द्र॒ । सद॑नेषु । माहि॑नः । त्वम् । सु॒तस्य॑ । मदे॑ । अ॒रि॒णाः॒ । अ॒पः । वि । वृ॒त्रस्य॑ । स॒मया॑ । पा॒ष्या॑ । अ॒रु॒जः॒ ॥
त्वम् । दिवः । धरुणम् । धिषे । ओजसा । पृथिव्याः । इन्द्र । सदनेषु । माहिनः । त्वम् । सुतस्य । मदे । अरिणाः । अपः । वि । वृत्रस्य । समया । पाष्या । अरुजः ॥
tvam | divaḥ | dharuṇam | dhiṣe | ojasā | pṛthivyāḥ | indra | sadaneṣu | māhinaḥ | tvam | sutasya | made | ariṇāḥ | apaḥ | vi | vṛtrasya | samayā | pāṣyā | arujaḥ

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.56.6 English analysis of grammar]

tvaṃ < tvam < tvad

[noun], nominative, singular


divo < divaḥ < div

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“sky; Svarga; day; div [word]; heaven and earth; day; dawn.”

dharuṇaṃ < dharuṇam < dharuṇa

[noun], accusative, singular, neuter

“prop; foundation.”

dhiṣa < dhiṣe < dhā

[verb], singular, Root aorist (Ind.)

“put; give; cause; get; hold; make; provide; lend; wear; install; have; enter (a state); supply; hold; take; show.”

ojasā < ojas

[noun], instrumental, singular, neuter

“strength; power; ojas; ojas [word]; potency; might.”

pṛthivyā < pṛthivyāḥ < pṛthivī

[noun], genitive, singular, feminine

“Earth; pṛthivī; floor; Earth; earth; pṛthivī [word]; land.”


[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Indra; leader; best; king; first; head; self; indra [word]; Indra; sapphire; fourteen; guru.”

sadaneṣu < sadana

[noun], locative, plural, neuter

“seat; weakness; inertness; dwelling; exhaustion; numbness; home; residence; seat; inanition; location.”

māhinaḥ < māhina

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“mighty; large.”

tvaṃ < tvam < tva

[noun], nominative, singular, neuter

“state; quality; cause; reason.”

sutasya < suta

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine


made < mada

[noun], locative, singular, masculine

“drunkenness; mada; estrus; excitement; sexual arousal; alcohol; musth; mad; mada; ecstasy; pride; drink; joy; arrogance; vivification.”

ariṇā < ariṇāḥ < ri

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“free; liberate; run; let go of.”

apo < apaḥ < ap

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“water; body of water; water; ap [word]; juice; jala.”



“apart; away; away.”

vṛtrasya < vṛtra

[noun], genitive, singular, masculine

“Vṛtra; vṛtra [word].”




pāṣyārujaḥ < pāṣyā < pāṣya

[noun], accusative, plural, neuter

pāṣyārujaḥ < arujaḥ < ruj

[verb], singular, Imperfect

“break; bend.”

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