Padarthadharmasamgraha and Nyayakandali

by Ganganatha Jha | 1915 | 250,428 words

The English translation of the Padarthadharmasamgraha of Prashastapada including the commentary called the Nyayakandali of Shridhara. Although the Padartha-dharma-sangraha is officially a commentary (bhashya) on the Vaisheshika-Sutra by Kanada, it is presented as an independent work on Vaisesika philosophy: It reorders and combines the original Sut...

Sanskrit text, Unicode transliteration and English translation of Text 130:

द्रवत्वं स्यन्दनकर्मकारणम् । त्रिद्रव्यवृत्ति । तत् तु द्विविधं सांसिद्धकं नैमित्तिकं च । सांसिद्धिकम् अपां विशेषगुणः । नैमित्तिकं पृथिवीतेजसोः सामान्यगुणः । सांसिद्धिकस्य गुरुत्ववन् नित्यानित्यत्वनिष्पत्तयः । सङ्घातदर्शनात् सांसिद्धिकम् अयुक्तम् इति चेन् न । दिव्येन तेजसा सम्युक्तानाम् आप्यानां परमाणूनां परस्परं सम्योगो द्रव्यारम्भकः सङ्घाताख्यः तेन परमाणुद्रवत्वप्रतिबन्धात् कार्ये हिमकरकादौ द्रवत्वानुपत्तिः । नैमित्तिकं च पृथिवीतेजसोरग्निसम्योगजम् । कथं सर्पिर्जतुमधूच्छिष्टादीनां कारणेषु परमाणुष्वग्निसम्योगाद् वेगापेक्षात् कर्मोत्पत्तौ तज्जेभ्यो विभागेभ्यो द्रव्यारम्भकसम्योगविनाशात् कार्यद्रव्यनिवृत्तावग्निसम्योगादौष्ण्यापेक्षात् स्वतन्त्रेषु परमाणुषु द्रवत्वम् उत्पद्यते ततस्तेषु भोगिनाम् अदृष्टापेक्षाद् आत्माणुसम्योगात् कर्मोत्पत्तौ तज्जेभ्यः सम्योगेभ्यो द्यूणुकादिप्रक्रमेण कार्यद्रव्यम् उत्पद्यते तस्मिंश्च रूपाद्युत्पत्तिसमकालं कारणगुणप्रक्रमेण द्रवत्वम् उत्पद्यत इति ॥ १३० ॥

dravatvaṃ syandanakarmakāraṇam | tridravyavṛtti | tat tu dvividhaṃ sāṃsiddhakaṃ naimittikaṃ ca | sāṃsiddhikam apāṃ viśeṣaguṇaḥ | naimittikaṃ pṛthivītejasoḥ sāmānyaguṇaḥ | sāṃsiddhikasya gurutvavan nityānityatvaniṣpattayaḥ | saṅghātadarśanāt sāṃsiddhikam ayuktam iti cen na | divyena tejasā samyuktānām āpyānāṃ paramāṇūnāṃ parasparaṃ samyogo dravyārambhakaḥ saṅghātākhyaḥ tena paramāṇudravatvapratibandhāt kārye himakarakādau dravatvānupattiḥ | naimittikaṃ ca pṛthivītejasoragnisamyogajam | kathaṃ sarpirjatumadhūcchiṣṭādīnāṃ kāraṇeṣu paramāṇuṣvagnisamyogād vegāpekṣāt karmotpattau tajjebhyo vibhāgebhyo dravyārambhakasamyogavināśāt kāryadravyanivṛttāvagnisamyogādauṣṇyāpekṣāt svatantreṣu paramāṇuṣu dravatvam utpadyate tatasteṣu bhoginām adṛṣṭāpekṣād ātmāṇusamyogāt karmotpattau tajjebhyaḥ samyogebhyo dyūṇukādiprakrameṇa kāryadravyam utpadyate tasmiṃśca rūpādyutpattisamakālaṃ kāraṇaguṇaprakrameṇa dravatvam utpadyata iti || 130 ||

Text (130):—Fluidity is the cause of the action of ‘flowing.’—(V-i-4)

It resides in three substances. It is of two kinds: Natural or Intrinsic and Incidental or Extrinsic, Intrinsic Fluidity is the specific property of Water; and extrinsic fluidity belongs in common to Earth and Light. The eternality and evanesence of intrinsic fluidity would be like those of Gravity.—(II-i-2, 6, 7).

Objection: “In as much as rue find Wafer in the form of solids, we cannot regard fluidity to be its intrinsic property”

Reply:—Not so; because what happens in the case of solidified water in the form of snow and hail, is that fluidity is absent, On account of the fluidity of the aqueous atoms comp sing them having been counteracted by the mutual combination of these atoms which are in contact with the subtle supernatural fire—this combination being productive of the substance and thus being named ‘solid.’

The extrinsic fluidity of Earth and Light is produced by contact with fire. For instance, in the case of such things as butter, and the like, what happens is that their component atoms, coming in contact with fire, and acquiring a certain amount of speed favouring the operation of this contact, there arises in them a certain action, and this action bringing about the disjunction {or disruption) of the atoms, the cohesive conjunction of the substance is destroyed; and the gross object having thus disappeared, there appears, in the atoms thus disjoined, a fluidity, produced by heat generated by the contact of fire. Then again, through the force of the desti??es [destinies?] of persons concerned, the atoms combining again, this combination gives rise to a certain action, which produces certain combinations, bringing about such aggregate products as the Diad and the rest. In these products, simultaneously with the production of colour and other qualities, there appears the quality of fluidity, following from the fluidity of the component atoms.

Commentary: The Nyāyakandalī of Śrīdhara.

(English rendering of Śrīdhara’s commentary called Nyāyakandalī or Nyāyakaṇḍalī from the 10th century)

That property which gives rise to the action of flowing is Fluidity, it resides in three substances—Earth, Water and Fire. It is of two kinds, while Gravity is of one kind only, Fluidity is of two kinds—it is this difference that is indicated by the particle ‘tu.’ The two kinds of Fluidity are (1) the Natural or Intrinsice and (2) the Incidental or Extrinsic. The word ‘naimittika’ means that which ìs due to some nimitta or cause, which in the case in question, is contact with fire; where as the ‘sāṃsiddhika’ is that which belongs to the thing by its very nature, and is not produced by such extraneous agencies as contact with fire.

Intrinsic Fluidity is the specific property of Water; as it does not reside in any other substance; while extrinsic Fluid pity is a property common also to Earth and to Light.

The eternality and non-eternality of intrinsic Fluidity would be like the eteruality and non-eternality of Gravity. That is to say, just as Gravity inhering in eternal substances is eternal, and that inhering in evanescent substances evanescent, being as it is, due to a like property in the component cause of those substances, and being destroyed by the destruction of those substances,—so exactly is the case with intrinsic Fluidity.

Objection: “In as much as we find Water in such solid forms as the snow, hail and the rest, we can never believe that Fluidity is the intrinsic quality of Water.”

Reply: As a matter of fact, we find Water everywhere in the liquid state; and thence we become certain of the fact of Fluidity being the intrinsic quality of Water; then, as for such apparently solid aqueous substances as snow and hail, where Fluidity is found to be wanting,—the fact is that the Fluidity of the atoms composing these substances is counteracted by the cohesive conjunction of the aqueous atoms due to the contact of heat; this fact of the fluidity of atoms being counteracted by the contact of heat we infer from such well-recognised facts as the destruction of the liquid form of salt-water by heat; and the fact of salt being aqueous is inferred from the fact of its melting in due course of time into water, just like snow and hail; the melting of snow and hail must be regarded to be due to the heat of the Earth; as the melting of all solid substances is found to be due to the contact of heat; as we find in the case of gold for instance; and the liquifaction of snow and hail is also a kind of melting; hence as a cause of this also we accept the contact of heat, the melting power of which we have seen in more than one instance.

Having described intrinsic Fluidity, the author proceeds to describe extrinsic Fluidity. The extrinsic fluidity residing in Earth and Light is produced by contact with fire. The ignorant enquirer having put the question—‘how is it produced?’—the author says:—For instance, in the case of such substances as butter etc., etc. When the component atoms of such earthy substances as butter, lac and wax come into contact with fire, there appears in them a certain action; this action brings about a disjunction of the atoms, and thereby their cohesive combination being destroyed, the original substance of the butter etc., ceases to exist; and the atoms being let loose, their contact with fire produces in them the property of Fluidity; and then these atoms, now endowed with Fluidity, coming into contact with certain embodied souls, the peculiar destiny of these souls produces in the atoms a certain action; and this action bringing about a combination, of the fluid atoms, we have the products in the order of the Diad, the Triad and so forth; and simultaneously with the production, of the properties of colour etc., we have in them the quality of Fluidity also, proceeding from the Fluidity of the component atoms.

This same reasoning applies to the melting of such substances as snow, hail and the like.

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