Ushtra, Uṣṭra: 23 definitions

Introduction:

Ushtra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Uṣṭra can be transliterated into English as Ustra or Ushtra, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र) refers to the “camel”, whose meat (māṃsa) is classified as “terrestrial” (bhūcara) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The text [māṃsa-prakaraṇa] says the three fold division of meat [such as terrestrial (bhūcara)...]. Here different types of meat and their properties are discussed in detail. The terrestrial animals are [viz., uṣṭra (camel)].

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र) refers to the Camel (Camelus dromedaries), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “camel”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Uṣṭra is part of the sub-group named prasaha, refering to animals “who take their food by snatching”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र)—Sanskrit word for the animal “camel”. This animal is from the group called Grāmya (‘domestic animals’). Grāmya itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Jāṅghala (living in high ground and in a jungle).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र).—Description of a women of camel (uṣṭra) type;—A woman who has protruding lips, too much sweat, a slightly awkward gait, slender abdomen, is fond of opening flowers, fruits, salt, sour and pungent tastes, has her waist and sides loosely bound, speaks harsh and and cruel words, has a very high and rough neck, is said to have the nature of a camel (uṣṭra).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र) refers to the animal “Camel” (Camelus dromedarius).—The Smṛtis mention several domestic as well as wild animals that are enumerated in context of specifying expiation for killing them, the flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the Manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites, the law of transmigration due to various sins committed as well as in the context of specifying gifts to be given on various occasions. These animals [viz., Uṣṭra] are chiefly mentioned in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [Chap.6], Gautamasmṛti [17.2 and 15.1], Śātātapasmṛti [II.45-54], Uśānasmṛti [IX.7-9; IX.12-13], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.170-171; I.175; I.258- 260], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.3;51.6;51.26;51.33;80.3-14], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.15-17], Prajāpatismṛti [Śrāddhatyājyavastuvarṇanam. 138-143], 9 Kāśyapasmṛti [Section on Prāyaścittavarṇanam], Vṛddha Hārītasmṛti [6.253-255] and Kātyāyanasmṛti [27.11].

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र) refers to a “camel”, according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “[...] If an elephant steps over [a cord], [there is the bone of] a camel (uṣṭrāsthi) [beneath the site]. If an camel (uṣṭra) steps over [a cord], there is †aṅgārasa† [beneath the site]. [...]”.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र) refers to a “camel” (i.e., ‘being amongst camels in dreams’), according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 4.21-27, while describing inauspicious dreams]—“[...] [He dreams of] the destruction of houses, palaces, beds, clothes, and seats; defeat of oneself  in battle and theft of ones things. [He] ascends or is amongst donkeys, camels (uṣṭra), dogs, jackals, and herons, vultures, and cranes. [He rides on] buffalos, owls, and crows, eats cooked meat, [wears a] red garland, and ointment for the body. [...]”

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र, “camel”) represents an incarnation destination of the tiryaggati (animal realm) according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—The Bodhisattva sees the animals (tiryak) undergoing all the torments: they are made to gallop by blows of the whip or stick; they are made to make long journeys carrying burdens; their harness is damaged; they are branded with hot iron. As a result of stupid conceit (mithyāmāna), they re reborn as [for example], an camel (uṣṭra).

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र) refers to the “camels”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [when the Bhagavān reached the vicinity of the residence of Vaiśravaṇa], “[...] All people, women, men, boys and girls, cattle, horses, mares, buffaloes, elephants, camels (uṣṭra), donkeys and so on became delighted by comfort. That lotus lake had an expansion of two yojanas and [a depth of] a fathom all around in the four directions. [...]”

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र) or Uṣṭrāsana is the name of a posture (āsana), according to chapter 2.1 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, “the elephant of kings (i.e., Vimalavāhana) dismounted from the elephant’s shoulder and entered the garden, like a lion a mountain-cave. [...] He saw monks there, too, some in the [viz., uṣṭra-posture, ...] some engaged in kāyotsarga, and some in ukṣa-posture, indifferent to the body, who had carried out their vows in the midst of numerous attacks, like soldiers in battles, victorious over internal enemies, enduring trials, powerful from penance and meditation [...] The King, with devotion sprouted in the guise of horripilation, as it were, approached Ācārya Arindama and paid homage to him”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

uṣṭra (उष्ट्र).—m A camel.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र).—[uṣ-ṭran-kicca Uṇādi-sūtra 4.161.]

1) Camel; अथोष्ट्रवामीशतवाहितार्थम् (athoṣṭravāmīśatavāhitārtham) R.5.32; Manusmṛti 3.162,4.12,11.22.

2) A buffalo.

3) A bull with a hump.

4) A cart or carriage.

-ṣṭrī 1 A she-camel.

2) An earthen vessel in the shape of a camel.

3) Bignonia Spathacea (Mar. meḍaśiṃgī). [cf. Pers. ushtar; Zend ustra.]

Derivable forms: uṣṭraḥ (उष्ट्रः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र).—m.

(-ṣṭraḥ) 1. A camel. 2. A cart, a vehicle of burthen. f.

(-ṣṭrī or -ṣṭrikā) An earthen vessel. 2. A she camel. E. uṣ to burn, and ṣṭran Unadi affix, fem. affix ṅīṣ or ṭāp with ik inserted.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र).—I. m. A camel, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 162. Ii. f. uṣṭrī, A she-camel, [Pañcatantra] 87, 6.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र).—[masculine] buffalo; camel ([feminine] uṣṭrī).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र):—[from uṣṭṛ] m. (√uṣ, [Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 161]; but probably connected with the above), a buffalo, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda xx, 127, 2; 132, 13; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] a camel, [Mahābhārata; Manu-smṛti; Pañcatantra] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] a cart, waggon, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of an Asura, [Harivaṃśa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र):—(ṣṭraḥ) 1. m. A camel; a cart. uṣṭrī uṣṭrīkā f. A she-camel; earthen pot.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Uṣṭra (उष्ट्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Uṭṭa, Uṭṭha, Ussā, Ūsa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Ushtra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Ustra in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) a razor (blade)..—ustra (उस्तरा) is alternatively transliterated as Ustarā.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Uṣṭra (ಉಷ್ಟ್ರ):—

1) [noun] a ruminant with humped back, long neck and large, cushioned feet, capable of storing water in its body tissues; camel, a common beast of burden in deserts.

2) [noun] an earthen vessel ( in the shape of a camel).

3) [noun] the potter’s wheel.

4) [noun] the largest and most powerful and swift-running bird, Struthio camelus, belonging to the order Struthioniformes, with a long neck, very long legs with two toes on each foot, and useless wings; the ostrich.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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