Rig Veda (translation and commentary)

by H. H. Wilson | 1866 | 1,999,864 words | ISBN-10: 8171101380 | ISBN-13: 9788171101382

The Rig-Veda, English translation, including the commentary of Sayana and grammatical analysis. The hyms of the Rigveda Samhita represents some of the oldest and complex of Hindu Sanskrit literature. In ten books, these mantras form the core essence of rituals and ceremonies once widely performed throughout ancient India. This edition contains the...

Disclaimer: These are translations of Sanskrit texts and are not necessarily approved by everyone associated with the traditions connected to these texts. Consult the source and original scripture in case of doubt.

Rig Veda 1.138.2

Sanskrit text [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

प्र हि त्वा॑ पूषन्नजि॒रं न याम॑नि॒ स्तोमे॑भिः कृ॒ण्व ऋ॒णवो॒ यथा॒ मृध॒ उष्ट्रो॒ न पी॑परो॒ मृध॑: । हु॒वे यत्त्वा॑ मयो॒भुवं॑ दे॒वं स॒ख्याय॒ मर्त्य॑: । अ॒स्माक॑माङ्गू॒षान्द्यु॒म्निन॑स्कृधि॒ वाजे॑षु द्यु॒म्निन॑स्कृधि ॥
प्र हि त्वा पूषन्नजिरं न यामनि स्तोमेभिः कृण्व ऋणवो यथा मृध उष्ट्रो न पीपरो मृधः । हुवे यत्त्वा मयोभुवं देवं सख्याय मर्त्यः । अस्माकमाङ्गूषान्द्युम्निनस्कृधि वाजेषु द्युम्निनस्कृधि ॥
pra hi tvā pūṣann ajiraṃ na yāmani stomebhiḥ kṛṇva ṛṇavo yathā mṛdha uṣṭro na pīparo mṛdhaḥ | huve yat tvā mayobhuvaṃ devaṃ sakhyāya martyaḥ | asmākam āṅgūṣān dyumninas kṛdhi vājeṣu dyumninas kṛdhi ||

English translation:

“I exalt you, Pūṣan, with praises, that you may hasten (to the sacrifice), like a rapid (courser) to the battle; that you may bear us across the combat, like a camel; therefore do I, a mortal, invoke you, the divine bestower of happiness, for your friendship; and do you render our invocation productive (of benefit); render them productive (of success) in battle.”

Commentary by Sāyaṇa: Ṛgveda-bhāṣya

Uṣṭro na = like a camel; as a camel bears a burden; productive of benefit: dyumninaskṛdhi, make them possessed of wealth = dyumna = dyotanavataḥ, brilliant or having fame of food, yaśovataḥ or annavataḥ; in the reiteration, the latter is explained as the result of conquests.

Details:

Ṛṣi (sage/seer): parucchepo;
Devatā (deity/subject-matter): pūṣā ;
Chandas (meter): nicṛdatyaṣṭiḥ ;
Svara (tone/note): Swar;

Padapatha [Accents, Plain, Transliterated]:

प्र । हि । त्वा॒ । पू॒ष॒न् । अ॒जि॒रम् । न । याम॑नि । स्तोमे॑भिः । कृ॒ण्वे । ऋ॒णवः॑ । यथा॑ । मृधः॑ । उष्ट्रः॑ । न । पी॒प॒रः॒ । मृधः॑ । हु॒वे । यत् । त्वा॒ । म॒यः॒ऽभुव॑म् । दे॒वम् । स॒ख्याय॑ । मर्त्यः॑ । अ॒स्माक॑म् । आ॒ङ्गू॒षाम् । द्यु॒म्निनः॑ । कृ॒धि॒ । वाजे॑षु । द्यु॒म्निनः॑ । कृ॒धि॒ ॥
प्र । हि । त्वा । पूषन् । अजिरम् । न । यामनि । स्तोमेभिः । कृण्वे । ऋणवः । यथा । मृधः । उष्ट्रः । न । पीपरः । मृधः । हुवे । यत् । त्वा । मयःभुवम् । देवम् । सख्याय । मर्त्यः । अस्माकम् । आङ्गूषाम् । द्युम्निनः । कृधि । वाजेषु । द्युम्निनः । कृधि ॥
pra | hi | tvā | pūṣan | ajiram | na | yāmani | stomebhiḥ | kṛṇve | ṛṇavaḥ | yathā | mṛdhaḥ | uṣṭraḥ | na | pīparaḥ | mṛdhaḥ | huve | yat | tvā | mayaḥ-bhuvam | devam | sakhyāya | martyaḥ | asmākam | āṅgūṣām | dyumninaḥ | kṛdhi | vājeṣu | dyumninaḥ | kṛdhi

Multi-layer Annotation of the Ṛgveda

[Rigveda 1.138.2 English analysis of grammar]

pra

[adverb]

“towards; ahead.”

hi

[adverb]

“because; indeed; for; therefore; hi [word].”

tvā < tvad

[noun], instrumental, singular

“you.”

pūṣann < pūṣan

[noun], vocative, singular, masculine

“Pushan; pūṣan [word]; sun.”

ajiraṃ < ajiram < ajira

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“fast; agile; ajira [word].”

na

[adverb]

“not; like; no; na [word].”

yāmani < yāman

[noun], locative, singular, neuter

“expedition; path; expedition; arrival.”

stomebhiḥ < stoma

[noun], instrumental, plural, masculine

“hymn; Stoma; stoma [word].”

kṛṇva < kṛṇve < kṛ

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

ṛṇavo < ṛṇavaḥ < ṛch

[verb], singular, Present conjunctive (subjunctive)

“enter (a state); travel; shoot; send; hit; originate; get; raise; begin; harm.”

yathā

[adverb]

“equally; as; so that; like; how; yathā [word]; that; wherein.”

mṛdha < mṛdhaḥ < mṛdh

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“enemy; adversary.”

uṣṭro < uṣṭraḥ < uṣṭra

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“camel; uṣṭra [word].”

na

[adverb]

“not; like; no; na [word].”

pīparo < pīparaḥ < pṛ

[verb], singular, Aorist inj. (proh.)

“protect; promote; rescue; help.”

mṛdhaḥ < mṛdh

[noun], accusative, plural, feminine

“enemy; adversary.”

huve < hvā

[verb], singular, Present indikative

“raise; call on; call; summon.”

yat

[adverb]

“once [when]; because; that; if; how.”

tvā < tvad

[noun], accusative, singular

“you.”

mayobhuvaṃ < mayobhuvam < mayobhu

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

devaṃ < devam < deva

[noun], accusative, singular, masculine

“Deva; Hindu deity; king; deity; Indra; deva [word]; God; Jina; Viśvedevās; mercury; natural phenomenon; gambling.”

sakhyāya < sakhya

[noun], dative, singular, neuter

“friendship; aid; company.”

martyaḥ < martya

[noun], nominative, singular, masculine

“man; people; martya [word]; Earth.”

asmākam < mad

[noun], genitive, plural

“I; mine.”

āṅgūṣān < āṅgūṣa

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“hymn.”

dyumninas < dyumninaḥ < dyumnin

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“powerful; imperial.”

kṛdhi < kṛ

[verb], singular, Aorist imperative

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

vājeṣu < vāja

[noun], locative, plural, masculine

“prize; Vāja; reward; reward; Ribhus; vigor; strength; contest.”

dyumninas < dyumninaḥ < dyumnin

[noun], accusative, plural, masculine

“powerful; imperial.”

kṛdhi < kṛ

[verb], singular, Aorist imperative

“make; perform; cause; produce; shape; construct; do; put; fill into; use; fuel; transform; bore; act; write; create; prepare; administer; dig; prepare; treat; take effect; add; trace; put on; process; treat; heed; hire; act; produce; assume; eat; ignite; chop; treat; obey; manufacture; appoint; evacuate; choose; understand; insert; happen; envelop; weigh; observe; practice; lend; bring; duplicate; plant; kṛ; concentrate; mix; knot; join; take; provide; utter; compose.”

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