Parayana, Parāyaṇa, Pārāyana, Parāyana, Para-ayana: 23 definitions


Parayana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Parayan.

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In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Pārāyaṇa (पारायण).—Oral recital of a sacred work. See पारण (pāraṇa).

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Parayana in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Parāyaṇa (परायण) refers to the “great goal”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.3.—Accordingly, as the Gods eulogized Umā with devotion:—“[...] we worship you, Śiva the cause of welfare, the pure, the gross, the subtle, the great goal (i.e., parāyaṇa) and the one delighted with the inner and good learning. You are faith, fortitude and prosperity. You alone have control over everything; you are the splendour and energy of the sun illuminating your own universe”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Parayana in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Parāyaṇa (परायण) refers to “being devoted”, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “The point of focus is internal, [yet] the gaze is outward and free from closing and opening the eyes. Indeed, this is Śāmbhavī Mudrā, which is hidden in all the Tantras [...]. From seeing and venerating that [person who knows this Mudrā], people along with twenty-one generations [of their families], proceed to the state of liberation. How much more will those who are devoted to that (tat-parāyaṇa) [Mudrā]? [...]”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Parāyaṇa (परायण) refers to a “last resort” [?], according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly: “[...] Having bowed to the feet of the Tathāgata, Siṃha and Siṃhavikrāntagāmin, the noble ones who are skilled in the meaning of the dharma, uttered these verses: ‘(174) Since you are the refuge, the protector, and the last resort (śaraṇa-parāyaṇa-trāṇa-karaṇa), you has become the light for the blind in the world and are expert in knowing the thoughts and actions of living beings. May you make them live in accordance with their faith. (175) This king longs for riches and happiness, is captivated by form, sound, and smell, never makes any offering, and does not even come to the nearness [of the Tathāgata.] How could he hear the dharma?. [...]’”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Parāyaṇa (परायण) refers to a “last resort”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [After Viṣṇudatta attempted to enchant a Nāga]: “[...] The Nāga in great pain threw a great fire rain shower upon the Brahmin’s body enveloping it. The Brahmin discontinued the fire oblation, became defenceless, deprived of a refuge and last resort (aparāyaṇa) and there was nobody to save him. He started to cry out seeking refuge (śaraṇa), defence (trāṇa) and a last resort (parāyaṇa) at the Bhagavān. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parayana in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

parāyaṇa : (nt.) support; rest; relief; the final end (in cpds.) aiming at; ending in; destined to; finding one's support in.

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pārāyana : (nt.) final aim; chief object.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Parāyana, (Parāyaṇa) (nt.) (fr. parā+i, cp. Vedic parāyaṇa highest instance, also BSk. parāyaṇa e.g. Divy 57, 327) 1. (n.) final end, i.e. support, rest, relief S. I, 38; A. I, 155, 156 (tāṇa lena dīpa etc.); J. V, 501=VI, 375 (dīpañ ca p.).—2. (adj.—°) (a) going through to, ending in, aiming at, given to, attached to, having one’s end or goal in; also: finding one’s support in (as daṇḍa° leaning on a stick M. I, 88; A. I, 138), in foll. phrases prevalent: Amata° S. V, 217 sq.; tama° Pug. 51; Nibbāna° S. IV, 373; V, 218; brahmacariya° S. I, 234; Maccu° S. V, 217; sambodhi° D. I, 156; II, 155; Pug. 16. Cp. also Sn. 1114 (tap°=tad°, see Nd2 411); Miln. 148 (ekantasoka°); DhA. I, 28 (rodana, i.e. constantly weeping). ‹-› (b) destined to, having one’s next birth in. , e.g. Avīci° J. III, 454; IV, 159; duggati° PvA. 32; devaloka° J. I, 218; brahmaloka° J. III, 396; Miln. 234; sagga° J. VI, 329; PvA. 42, 160; sugati° PvA. 89 similarly nīlamañca° Pv. II, 25. See also pārāyana. (Page 421)

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Pārāyana, (nt.) (late Sk. pārāyaṇa, the metric form of parāyana) the highest (farthest) point, final aim, chief object, ideal; title of the last Vagga of the Sutta Nipāta A. III, 401; Sn. 1130; Nd2 438; SnA 163, 370, 604. (Page 454)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

parāyaṇa (परायण).—a (S) Following after, adhering, attached, devoted to: also appertaining or subject to: also bearing respect, reference, relation to. Ex. hyā manōvṛtti īśvaraparāyaṇa jhālyā; hī vihīra brāhmaṇa- parāyaṇa āhē; jñānaparāyaṇaśāstra, puṇyaparāyaṇa, dharmaparā- yaṇa, nindāparāyaṇa &c.

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pārāyaṇa (पारायण).—n (S) Perusal, reading through (esp. of a purāṇa). 2 S Going through or across.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

parāyaṇa (परायण).—a Attached to. Appertaining to or bearing respect to.

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pārāyaṇa (पारायण).—n Perusal, reading through.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parāyaṇa (परायण).—See under पर (para) (para-ayana).

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Pārāyaṇa (पारायण).—

1) going across.

2) reading through, perusal, thorough study.

3) the whole, completeness, or totality of anything; as in ब्रह्मपारायणम्, मन्त्रपारायणम् (brahmapārāyaṇam, mantrapārāyaṇam) &c. याज्ञवल्क्यो मुनिर्यस्मै ब्रह्मपारायणं जगौ (yājñavalkyo muniryasmai brahmapārāyaṇaṃ jagau) Mv.1. 14.

Derivable forms: pārāyaṇam (पारायणम्).

Pārāyaṇa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms pāra and ayaṇa (अयण).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pārāyaṇa (पारायण).—name of a Buddhist work, presumably = the P°-vagga of Pali Sn (976—1149): Divyāvadāna 20.23; 34.29.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parāyaṇa (परायण).—mfn. subst.

(-ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) 1. Adherence to any pursuit, attachment to any object. 2. Dependance upon. 3. Best refuge. adj. 1. Adhering or attched to. 2. Connected with, depending upon. 3. Wished, desired. n.

(-ṇaṃ) A religious order or division. E. para only, (one object,) ayana going.

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Pārāyaṇa (पारायण).—n.

(-ṇaṃ) 1. Totality, entireness, completeness. 2. Going over, reading or doing any thing completely. 3. Going across. 4. Reading a Purana, or causing it to be read. f. (-ṇī) 1. The goddess Sara- Swati. 2. Action, act. 3. Considering, meditating. 4. Light. E. pāra the boundary or limit, and ayana going to, extending: when used attributively it remains always neuter.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parāyaṇa (परायण).—i. e. para-ayana, I. n. 1. Chief, principal, Mahābhārata 1, 1624. 2. with kṛ, To do one’s utmost, 6, 3929. Ii. adj. 1. Principal, 4, 2269. 2. Adhering (with accus.), [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 7, 9. 3. Connected with (gen.), Mahābhārata 7, 8252 (leading to victory). Iii. When latter part of a comp. adj. it implies, 1. Wholly occupied with, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 10, 2. Intent on, Mahābhārata 3, 2482. 3. Affected by, [Nala] 23, 1.

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Pārāyaṇa (पारायण).—i. e. pāra-ayana, n. 1. Study, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 34, 10. 2. Totality, Mahābhārata 13, 2701; [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 98, 4.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parāyaṇa (परायण).—[neuter] going away, departure, last way or exit; final end or aim, last resort or refuge; essence, sum, chief matter; [Name] of a work. —° having a thing as highest object or occupation, i.e. quite filled with, devoted to, or intent upon (cf. para). — Adj. violent, strong, being the last refuge or essential matter of, conducive to, dependent on ([genetive]).

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Pārāyaṇa (पारायण).—[neuter] going through, perusal, study.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Pārāyaṇa (पारायण) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—abridged from Dhātupārāyaṇa. Quoted by Kṣīrasvāmin, Puruṣottamadeva Oxf. 161^a, etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parāyaṇa (परायण):—[from para] 1. parāyaṇa n. (for 2. See p. 590, col. 3) final end or aim, last resort or refuge, principal object, chief matter, essence, summary (ṇaṃ-√kṛ, to do one’s utmost), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] (in [medicine]) a universal medicine, panacea, [Caraka]

3) [v.s. ...] a religious order or division, [Horace H. Wilson]

4) [v.s. ...] (ifc.; f(ā). ) making anything one’s chief object, wholly devoted or destined to, engaged in, intent upon, filled or occupied with, affected or possessed by (-tā f., [Daśakumāra-carita]), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] mf(ā)n. violent, strong (as pain), [Mahābhārata i, 8367] ([Nīlakaṇṭha])

6) [v.s. ...] principal, being the chief object or final aim, [ib.]

7) [v.s. ...] dependent on ([genitive case]), [Rāmāyaṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] leading or conducive to ([genitive case]), [Mahābhārata]

9) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a pupil of Yājñavalkya, [Vāyu-purāṇa]

10) 2. parāyaṇa n. (parā +√i) going away, departure or way of departure, final end, last resort, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] (cf. 1. parāyaṇa, p.587.)

11) Pārāyaṇa (पारायण):—[from pāra] n. going over, reading through, perusing, studying, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya; Āpastamba]

12) [v.s. ...] ([especially]) reading a Purāṇa or causing it to be read, [Horace H. Wilson]

13) [v.s. ...] the whole, totality, [Mahābhārata xiii, 2701; Pāṇini 3-2, 130 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

14) [v.s. ...] ([especially]) complete text, c° collection of (cf. dhātu-p, nāma-p)

15) [v.s. ...] Name of a gram. [work] (abridged [from] dhātu-p)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parāyaṇa (परायण):—[parā+yaṇa] (ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) a. Adhering to; dependent on; desired. n. A religious order or division.

2) Pārāyaṇa (पारायण):—[pārā+yaṇa] (ṇaṃ) 1. n. Totality; going over or across. f. Saraswatī; action; meditation; light.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Parāyaṇa (परायण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Parāyaṇa, Pārāyaṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Parayana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parayana in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Parāyaṇa (परायण) [Also spelled parayan]:—(a) attached to; devoted to; used as a suffix meaning attached/devoted/dedicated to (e.g. [dharmaparāyaṇa, nītiparāyaṇa], etc.); hence ~[] (nf).

2) Pārāyaṇa (पारायण) [Also spelled parayan]:—(nm) thorough reading, reading a book from beginning to end.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Parāyaṇa (परायण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Parāyaṇa.

2) Pārāyaṇa (पारायण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Pārāyaṇa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Parāyaṇa (ಪರಾಯಣ):—[adjective] ardently dedicated to; engaged deeply in.

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Parāyaṇa (ಪರಾಯಣ):—

1) [noun] the main goal or ideal to be achieved.

2) [noun] a going away from; departure.

3) [noun] the basic element that constitute another thing.

4) [noun] that which is complete in all respects.

5) [noun] a man ardently dedicated to or sincerely engaged in.

6) [noun] a man who loves; a lover.

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Pārāyaṇa (ಪಾರಾಯಣ):—

1) [noun] a crossing (a river or other water body) from one side to the other.

2) [noun] a reading of a book, esp. a religious one, from the beginning to the end, observing prescribed formalities.

3) [noun] he who has read (a religious) book and understood thoroughly.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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