Parakrama, Parākrama, Para-krama: 19 definitions

Introduction:

Parakrama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Parakrama (परक्रम).—A term used in the Praatisaakhya works for'doubling' of a consonant; | cf. सान्तःस्थादौ धारयन्तः परक्रमम् (sāntaḥsthādau dhārayantaḥ parakramam) | R. Pr.XIV. 23.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

Discover the meaning of parakrama in the context of Vyakarana from relevant books on Exotic India

Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Parākrama (पराक्रम) is the name of a Vidyādhara who fought on Śrutaśarman’s side in the war against Sūryaprabha, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 48. Accordingly: “... when Śrutaśarman saw that, he quickly sent other ten lords of the Vidyādharas, chiefs of lords of hosts or lords of hosts of warriors,... and Parākrama [and seven others], the eight similar sons of the Vasus born in the house of Makaranda”.

The story of Parākrama was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Parākrama, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

Discover the meaning of parakrama in the context of Kavya from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Parakrama (परक्रम) refers to the “supreme transmission”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “[...] The Wick of Smoke (dhūmravarti) that is said to rise up into the End of the Twelve is above the Great Cavity (mahārandhra) and travels (upwards for the span of) of twelve fingers. The supreme Transmission (krama) [i.e., parakramaparaṃ kramam], realised by Being (bhāvagamya), stands perpetually present at its extremity. The Yogi should worship the divine Transmission there by moving (through these) stages (padacāreṇa)”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

Discover the meaning of parakrama in the context of Shaktism from relevant books on Exotic India

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Parākrama (पराक्रम) refers to “one endowed with prowess”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.5.—Accordingly, after Goddess Śivā (i.e., Umā/Durgā) granted a boon to Menā:—“[...] O celestial sage, when Indra, the slayer of Vṛtra, became angry and began to chop off the wings of mountains, [Maināka] retained his wings, nay, he did not even feel the pain of being wounded by the thunderbolt. He had good limbs. He had neat strength and prowess [i.e., mahābala-parākrama]. He was the most important of all the mountains born of him. He too became the lord of mountains. [...]”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of parakrama in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Mahayana glossary
Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Parākrama (पराक्रम) refers to “vitality”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja, having praised the Lord with these verses, addressed himself to the Lord: ‘[...] The Lord, having become the king of doctors (vaidyarāja), establishes the way into the state without disease (vyādhi) or death (maraṇa) for [living beings] who are involved with this world covered with desire, defilement, and obstruction (āvaraṇa) from beginningless until endless time (anavarāgra). The Lord, having had power and vitality (sthāma-parākrama), is skilled in the knowledge if what is proper and what is improper, and has obtained the three knowledges (trividya). [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

Discover the meaning of parakrama in the context of Mahayana from relevant books on Exotic India

India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Parākrama.—(CII 1), an effort; zealous activity. Note: parākrama is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Discover the meaning of parakrama in the context of India history from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

parākrama (पराक्रम).—m (S) Power, might, puissance. 2 Prowess, valor. pa0 karaṇēṃ or dākhaviṇēṃ To achieve mighty exploits; to perform prodigies of force and valor.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

parākrama (पराक्रम).—m Power. प?B karaṇēṃ or dākhaviṇēṃ To achieve mighty exploits; to perform prodigies of force and valour.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of parakrama in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parākrama (पराक्रम).—

1) Heroism, prowess, courage, valour; पराक्रमः परिभवे (parākramaḥ paribhave) Śiśupālavadha 2.44.

2) Marching against, attack.

3) Attempt, endeavour, enterprise.

4) Name of Viṣṇu.

Derivable forms: parākramaḥ (पराक्रमः).

--- OR ---

Parakrama (परक्रम).—doubling the second letter of a conjunction of consonants.

Derivable forms: parakramaḥ (परक्रमः).

Parakrama is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms para and krama (क्रम).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parākrama (पराक्रम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Power, strength. 2. Exertion. 3. Valour, prowess. 4. Going out or forth, exit or issue. 5. Attacking an enemy. 6. Attempt, enterprise. 7. A name of Vishnu. E. parā supremacy, opposition, &c. and krama going, karaṇe ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parākrama (पराक्रम).—[parā-kram + a], m. 1. Prowess, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 498. 2. Exertion, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 37, 49. 3. Strength, valour, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 11. 4. Power, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 75, 17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parākrama (पराक्रम).—[masculine] sgl. & [plural] bold advance, courage, strength.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parakrama (परक्रम):—[=para-krama] [from para] m. doubling the other (id est. second) letter of a conjunction of consonants, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

2) Parākrama (पराक्रम):—[=parā-krama] [from parā-kram] m. (sg. and [plural]; ifc. f(ā). ) bold advance, attack, heroism, courage, power, strength, energy, exertion, enterprise, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] going out or away, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of Viṣṇu, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] of a warrior on the side of the Kurus, [Mahābhārata]

6) [v.s. ...] of a chief of the Vidyā-dharas (associated with Ā-krama, Vi-krama and Saṃkrama), [Kathāsaritsāgara]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parākrama (पराक्रम):—[parā-krama] (maḥ) 1. m. Power; exertion; valour; going forth; attack.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Parākrama (पराक्रम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Parakkama.

[Sanskrit to German]

Parakrama in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of parakrama in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Parākrama (पराक्रम) [Also spelled parakram]:—(nm) heroism, gallantry, valiance, bravery.

context information

...

Discover the meaning of parakrama in the context of Hindi from relevant books on Exotic India

Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Parākrama (ಪರಾಕ್ರಮ):—

1) [noun] a marching with a military force, against another king or nation.

2) [noun] the quality of being brave; marked courage; bravery; valour.

3) [noun] an earnest attempt or effort; endeavour.

4) [noun] a brave, valorous man; a hero.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

Discover the meaning of parakrama in the context of Kannada from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

Relevant text

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: