Parakrama, Parākrama, Para-krama: 21 definitions


Parakrama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Parakrama (परक्रम).—A term used in the Praatisaakhya works for'doubling' of a consonant; | cf. सान्तःस्थादौ धारयन्तः परक्रमम् (sāntaḥsthādau dhārayantaḥ parakramam) | R. Pr.XIV. 23.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Parākrama (पराक्रम) is the name of a Vidyādhara who fought on Śrutaśarman’s side in the war against Sūryaprabha, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 48. Accordingly: “... when Śrutaśarman saw that, he quickly sent other ten lords of the Vidyādharas, chiefs of lords of hosts or lords of hosts of warriors,... and Parākrama [and seven others], the eight similar sons of the Vasus born in the house of Makaranda”.

The story of Parākrama was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Parākrama, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Shaktism glossary
Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Parakrama (परक्रम) refers to the “supreme transmission”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “[...] The Wick of Smoke (dhūmravarti) that is said to rise up into the End of the Twelve is above the Great Cavity (mahārandhra) and travels (upwards for the span of) of twelve fingers. The supreme Transmission (krama) [i.e., parakramaparaṃ kramam], realised by Being (bhāvagamya), stands perpetually present at its extremity. The Yogi should worship the divine Transmission there by moving (through these) stages (padacāreṇa)”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Parākrama (पराक्रम) refers to “one endowed with prowess”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.5.—Accordingly, after Goddess Śivā (i.e., Umā/Durgā) granted a boon to Menā:—“[...] O celestial sage, when Indra, the slayer of Vṛtra, became angry and began to chop off the wings of mountains, [Maināka] retained his wings, nay, he did not even feel the pain of being wounded by the thunderbolt. He had good limbs. He had neat strength and prowess [i.e., mahābala-parākrama]. He was the most important of all the mountains born of him. He too became the lord of mountains. [...]”.

2) Parākrama (पराक्रम) is the name of a Gaṇa of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.4 (“Search for Kārttikeya and his conversation with Nandin”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “Urged by the gods, sages and mountains, the lord sent his Gaṇas as his emissaries to the place where his son was staying. O Nārada, he sent [e.g., Parākrama], [...], and innumerable others of the same exploit as that of Śiva and of hideous features. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Jyotisha glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Parākrama (पराक्रम) refers to “valour”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Ketu presides over mountains, fortified cities, the countries of Pahlava, Śveta, Hūṇa; Colā, Avagāṇa, Maru, Cīna (China) and the land of the Mlecchas; over rich men, men of note, men of industry and valour (parākrama-upeta); over men coveting the wives of others, men prying into the secrets of other men, haughty men, ignorant men, sinners and persons fond of victory. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Mahayana glossary
Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Parākrama (पराक्रम) refers to “vitality”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja, having praised the Lord with these verses, addressed himself to the Lord: ‘[...] The Lord, having become the king of doctors (vaidyarāja), establishes the way into the state without disease (vyādhi) or death (maraṇa) for [living beings] who are involved with this world covered with desire, defilement, and obstruction (āvaraṇa) from beginningless until endless time (anavarāgra). The Lord, having had power and vitality (sthāma-parākrama), is skilled in the knowledge if what is proper and what is improper, and has obtained the three knowledges (trividya). [...]”.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Parākrama (पराक्रम) refers to “great courage” (according to the Jvalitavajrāśanituṇḍā-dhāraṇī) [i.e., namaś caṇḍavajradharāya mahābalaparākramāya ], according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Parākrama.—(CII 1), an effort; zealous activity. Note: parākrama is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

parākrama (पराक्रम).—m (S) Power, might, puissance. 2 Prowess, valor. pa0 karaṇēṃ or dākhaviṇēṃ To achieve mighty exploits; to perform prodigies of force and valor.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

parākrama (पराक्रम).—m Power. प?B karaṇēṃ or dākhaviṇēṃ To achieve mighty exploits; to perform prodigies of force and valour.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Parākrama (पराक्रम).—

1) Heroism, prowess, courage, valour; पराक्रमः परिभवे (parākramaḥ paribhave) Śiśupālavadha 2.44.

2) Marching against, attack.

3) Attempt, endeavour, enterprise.

4) Name of Viṣṇu.

Derivable forms: parākramaḥ (पराक्रमः).

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Parakrama (परक्रम).—doubling the second letter of a conjunction of consonants.

Derivable forms: parakramaḥ (परक्रमः).

Parakrama is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms para and krama (क्रम).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parākrama (पराक्रम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Power, strength. 2. Exertion. 3. Valour, prowess. 4. Going out or forth, exit or issue. 5. Attacking an enemy. 6. Attempt, enterprise. 7. A name of Vishnu. E. parā supremacy, opposition, &c. and krama going, karaṇe ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parākrama (पराक्रम).—[parā-kram + a], m. 1. Prowess, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 498. 2. Exertion, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 37, 49. 3. Strength, valour, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 11. 4. Power, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 75, 17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parākrama (पराक्रम).—[masculine] sgl. & [plural] bold advance, courage, strength.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Parakrama (परक्रम):—[=para-krama] [from para] m. doubling the other (id est. second) letter of a conjunction of consonants, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya]

2) Parākrama (पराक्रम):—[=parā-krama] [from parā-kram] m. (sg. and [plural]; ifc. f(ā). ) bold advance, attack, heroism, courage, power, strength, energy, exertion, enterprise, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] going out or away, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of Viṣṇu, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] of a warrior on the side of the Kurus, [Mahābhārata]

6) [v.s. ...] of a chief of the Vidyā-dharas (associated with Ā-krama, Vi-krama and Saṃkrama), [Kathāsaritsāgara]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Parākrama (पराक्रम):—[parā-krama] (maḥ) 1. m. Power; exertion; valour; going forth; attack.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Parākrama (पराक्रम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Parakkama.

[Sanskrit to German]

Parakrama in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Parākrama (पराक्रम) [Also spelled parakram]:—(nm) heroism, gallantry, valiance, bravery.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Parakrama in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Parākrama (ಪರಾಕ್ರಮ):—

1) [noun] a marching with a military force, against another king or nation.

2) [noun] the quality of being brave; marked courage; bravery; valour.

3) [noun] an earnest attempt or effort; endeavour.

4) [noun] a brave, valorous man; a hero.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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