Gandaka, Gaṇḍaka, Gaṇḍakā: 13 definitions

Introduction

Gandaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Gaṇḍaka (गण्डक) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “gecko”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Gaṇḍaka is part of the sub-group named Bhūmiśaya, refering to animals “who sleep in burrows in earth”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Gaṇḍaka (गण्डक) refers to the “rhinoceros” and is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., gaṇḍaka (rhinoceros)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., citrataila (castor-oil)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Gaṇḍaka (गण्डक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.26.4) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Gaṇḍaka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts

Gaṇḍaka (गण्डक) or Khaḍga refers to the animal “Rhinoceros” (Rhinoceros unicornis).—The Smṛtis mention several domestic as well as wild animals that are enumerated in context of specifying expiation for killing them, the flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the Manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites, the law of transmigration due to various sins committed as well as in the context of specifying gifts to be given on various occasions. These animals [viz., Gaṇḍaka] are chiefly mentioned in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [Chap.6], Gautamasmṛti [17.2 and 15.1], Śātātapasmṛti [II.45-54], Uśānasmṛti [IX.7-9; IX.12-13], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.170-171; I.175; I.258- 260], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.3;51.6;51.26;51.33;80.3-14], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.15-17], Prajāpatismṛti [Śrāddhatyājyavastuvarṇanam. 138-143], 9 Kāśyapasmṛti [Section on Prāyaścittavarṇanam], Vṛddha Hārītasmṛti [6.253-255] and Kātyāyanasmṛti [27.11].

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Gaṇḍaka (गण्डक) is the name of the servant of the Jetavana (jetavana-ārāmika).—According to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Kien ti (Gaṇḍaka) was the brother of king Po sseu ni (Prasenajit); he was handsome (abhirūpa), kind (bhadra) and endowed with an excellent heart (kalyāṇāśaya). A high court lady fell in love with him, called him secretly and asked him to follow her, but Gaṇḍaka refused. The lady became very angry and slandered him to the king, placing the blame on him. On hearing this, the king had him cut into pieces (gaṇḍa-gaṇḍa) and thrown into a cemetery (śmaśana). As he was not yet dead, a rākṣas tiger-wolf came during the night to feed him. Then the Buddha came to him and shone his rays on him; his limbs reunited at once and his heart felt great joy. (Also see Divyāvadāna, p. 153–155 )

The same Gaṇḍaka, called Gaṇḍa in the Pāli sources, appears also in another story. The gardener of king Prasenajit, he went one day to the palace to offer the king a ripe mango (ambapakka). But meeting the Buddha on the way who was on his begging round, he offered it to him instead. The Buddha ate it at once and gave the seed (aṭṭhi) to Ānanda to plant in the garden at the gate of the city. A tree grew out of it immediately to the height of one hundred cubits, laden with flowers and fruits. (also see Jātaka, IV, p. 264–265 and Dhammapadaṭṭha, III, p. 206–208)

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Gaṇḍaka.—(EI 21), name of a coin; cf. gaṇdā. (EI 27), an official designation. Note: gaṇḍaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Gaṇḍaka.—same as gaṇḍā. Cf. kākinī. Note: gaṇḍaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (G) next»] — Gandaka in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

gaṇḍaka : (m.) a rhinoceros.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Gaṇḍaka, (adj.) having boils Sdhp.103. (Page 241)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Gaṇḍaka (गण्डक).—[gaṇḍa svārthe ka]

1) A rhinoceros.

2) An impediment, obstacle.

3) A joint, knot.

4) A mark, spot.

5) A boil, tumour, pimple.

6) Disjunction, separation.

7) A coin of the value of four cowries.

8) A mode of reckoning by fours.

9) Astrological science.

Derivable forms: gaṇḍakaḥ (गण्डकः).

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Gaṇḍakā (गण्डका).—A lump, a ball.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Gaṇḍaka (गण्डक).—(m. ? = gaṇḍa, q.v.), (1) part, in pañca-gaṇḍaka, adj., five-partite, five-fold (also gaṇḍa, 2), epithet of the (saṃsāra-) cakra or wheel of rebirth (not the dharma- cakra as absurdly stated in Divyāvadāna, Index) referring, as is clear from Divyāvadāna 300.8—12, to the five states of being in which one may be reborn (see s.v. gati), hell-inhabitants, animals, ghosts (preta), gods, and men: Divyāvadāna 48.25; 180.22; 281.29; 300.8, 9; 301.18; 551.15; 567.10; Avadāna-śataka i.50.13—14; 96.5; 104.5 etc. (and in Gaṇḍavyūha 484.9 pañca- gaṇḍa-gati-cakra); Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.130.18; (2) rhinoceros (= gaṇḍa 3, q.v.; Sanskrit Lex. and Pali Lex. id., see Childers; Prakrit Lex. and Deśīnāmamālā 7.57 gaṇḍaya): Mahāvastu iii.303.10 (prose) gaṇḍaka-bhayaṃ vā (with other dangerous animals); (3) n. pr. (proper name), given to Kāla, brother of King Prasenajit: [Page208-b+ 71] Divyāvadāna 155.13 (yatrāsya) śarīraṃ gaṇḍa-gaṇḍaṃ (see s.v. gaṇḍa 2; compare Divyāvadāna 153.28 ff. for the point) kṛtaṃ, tasya Gaṇḍaka ārāmika iti saṃjñā saṃvṛttā; 157.25.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gaṇḍaka (गण्डक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A rhinoceros. 2. A mode of reckoning by fours. 3. An obstacle or impediment. 4. Separation, disjunction. 5. Astrological science or a part of it. f. (-kī) The name of a river in the north of India, the Gandaki. f.

(-kā) A lump, a ball. E. gaḍi to affect the cheek, &c ṇvul affix, fem. affix ṅīp.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gaṇḍaka (गण्डक).—I. m. A name of the inhabitants of Videha, derived from the river Gaṇḍakī, Mahābhārata 2, 1062. Ii. f. , The name of a river, Mahābhārata 2, 794.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Gaṇḍaka (गण्डक):—[from gaṇḍ] m. a rhinoceros, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] an obstacle, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] disjunction, separation, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] a mode of reckoning by fours, [Horace H. Wilson]

5) [v.s. ...] a coin of the value of four cowries, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] a kind of science (astrological science or part of it, [Horace H. Wilson]), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) a mark, spot (?), [Buddhist literature]

8) [v.s. ...] a metre of 4 x 20 syllables

9) [v.s. ...] Name of Kāla (brother of Prasenajit), [Buddhist literature]

10) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] Name of the Videhas living on the river Gaṇḍakī, [Mahābhārata ii, 1062]

11) Gaṇḍakā (गण्डका):—[from gaṇḍaka > gaṇḍ] f. a lump, ball, [Horace H. Wilson]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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